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Box 12, Folder 6, Document 11

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_011.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 11
  • Text: 0 . C a ,-..., - - --...,·• ,-r ~ -- --- .._, CITY HALL ATLANTA, GA. 30303 Tel. 522-4463 Area Code 404 IVAN ALLEN, JR., MAYOR R. EARL LANDERS, Administrative Assistant MRS. ANN M. MOSES, Executive Secretary DAN E. SWEAT, JR., Director of Governmental Liaison December 19, 1967 Mr. R. S. Howard, Jr. Executive Secretary State Water Quality Control Board 47 Trinity Avenue, S. W. Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Dear Mr. Howard: T-hank you for your letter of November 1 7, forwarding a copy of "A Water Quality Study of Proctor Creek", outlining the biological condition of this stream. I am sure that our Water Pollution Control Division will find this information most helpful in working toward relief of the pollution problems in this area. You should be advised that the City of Atlanta has undertaken several actions to improve the conditions of Proctor Creek from the stand_i:.,oint of both sanitary sewer overflows and general pollution due to combined storm and sanitary overflows corning from the combined storm sewer system connected to that basin. I will briefly outline in the following paragraphs some of the major actions planned for the basin in order that your office may be kept continually posted. You and your staff will be advised further and in more detail regarding each project mentioned below. The City plans to provide a major temporary treatment facility in the vicinity of Hollywood Road _to accommodate a major portion of the sanitary sewer overload that e xi sts in that basin and to allow further development in the months ahead . This plant will be so designed that it may serve as an adequate treatment device for the period from mid- summer 1968 through mid- summer 197 O, until such time as the diversion line from the Proctor Creek Ba sin into the Sandy Creek Basin and into the new enlarged Sandy Creek Water Pollution Control Plant is constructed . Detailed plans and specifications for the prop o sed system he ar Hollywood Road will be provided to your office in the near future . �:) December 19, 1967 Mr. R. S. Howard, Jr. Executive Secretary State Water Quality Control Board Page Two A contract was recently let to relieve a small portion of the Bellwood Outfall sewer which has badly deteriorated over the years of its use and is an area of frequent break-down and spill to Proctor Creek. This contract will be further extended immediately after the first of the year to provide for a similar relief to the lower end of the Bellwood Outfall and totally prevent overflows in this area. This was a major pollution point mentioned in the report that you offered us. The items mentioned above are in addition to the major Water Pollution Control Improvement Program laid on in 1966 by the City of Atlanta which will eventually lead to a drastic reduction of pollutional effects on the Chattahoochee River due to the construction of major trunk sewer facilities and new or improved water pollution control plants at the R. M. Clayton and Sandy Creek site. Unfortunately, these major improvements cannot be expected to show marked be_nefits until approximately 1971. The items mentioned previously are intended to provide a more imm e diate relief to some particularly troublesome areas that exist at present or that can be anticipated as problem areas with the increasing development in this area. If this office can work with you in any way to further alleviate identifiable problem areas, please contact us immediately. Sincerely yours, Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor IAJr:lp . �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 12

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_012.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 12
  • Text: DRAFT REPLY December 18, 1967 Mr. R.S. Howard, Jr. Executive Secretary State Water Quality Control Board 47 Trinity Avenue, S.W. Atlanta, Georgia 30334 Dear Mr. Howard: Thank you for your letter of November 17, forwarding a copy of "A Water Quality Study of Proctor Creek", outlining the biological condition of this stream. I am sure that our Water Pollution Control Division will find this information most helpful in working toward relief of the pollution problems in this area. You should be advised that the City of Atlanta has undertaken several actions to improve the conditions of Proctor Creek from the standpoint of both sanitary sewer overflows and general pollution due to combined .storm and sanitary overflows coming from the combined storm sewer system connected to that basin . I will briefly outline in the following para graph$ 1 some of the major actions planned for the basin in order that your of fice may be kept continually posted . You and your staff will be advised fur ther and in more deta il f regarding each proj ect ment i one d be low. The City plan s to provide a ma jor tempor ary treatment f acility i n the v i cinity of Hollywood Roa d to acconnnodate a major portion of the sanitary sewer ove r load t ha t exi sts i n t hat bas i n and to a llow further deve lopment i n the mont hs ahea d . Th i s plant will be so de signe d t ha t it may s erve a s a n a dequate trea t men t device fo r the period fr om mid- s ummer 1968 t hr ough mid- s ummer 1970 , until such time as the diversion line fr om the Proctor Creek Basin int o the Sandy Creek Ba s in and into the new enlarged Sandy Creek Water Pollution Control Plant is constructed. Detailed plans and specifications for the pr oposed system near Hollywood Road will be provided to your office in the near future . �2 A contract was recently let to relieve a small portion of the Bellwood Outfall sewer which has badly deteriorated over the years of its use and is an area of frequent break-down and spill to Proctor Creek. This contract will befurther extended immediately after the first of the year to provide for a similar relief to the lower end of the Bellwood Outfall and totally prevent overflows in this area. This was a major pollution point mentioned in the report that you o£fered us. The items mentioned above are in addition to the major Water Pollution Control Improvement Program laid on in 1966 by the City of Atlanta which will eventually lead to a drastic reduction of pollutional effects on the Chattahoochee River due to the construction of major trunk sewer facilities and new or improved water pollution control plants at the R.M. Clayton and Sandy Creek site. Unfortunately, the se major improvement s cannot be expected to show marked benef its until a pprox imate ly 1971. The items mentioned previously are intended to provide a more immediate relief to some particularly trouble some areas that exist at present or that can be antic i pated a s problem areas with the increasing deve lopment in this area. If this off ice can work with you in any way to further alleviate identifiable problem areas, please contact us immed iat e l y . Yours ve r y t r uly, I van Allen , J r . Mayor �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 14

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_014.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 14
  • Text: ~tatt ~attr
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_017.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 17
  • Text: ' November 16 , 1967 Mr . R. E. Newton Newton , Incorporated 633 Pryor Street, S.W. Atlanta, Georgi 30315 Der Mr . Newton: Your letter of November 10 to Mr . Ray Nixon. regarding the repairing of the City sewer located through your property , has been referred to me for reply. As was noted in your letter an~ verified by our field inve ti ation of November 14 , this matter does require immediat attention . Mr . Sam Freem n , our Conetruction Superint ndent , assures me that h will have a crew begin the repair work a soon a po 1ible , hopefully within t n day . Th nki g you for your patience in this Your tter , I r truly, R. K. L nca1t r Engineer W. P.C . Division lUCL :lfw cc: Mr.' Ray Nixon \Alayor Ivan Allen ain �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 18

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_018.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 18
  • Text: Novembor 109 1967 City of Atlanta City Hall~ 68 litchell street Atlanta, o~gia Attantiona Mr. Ray Nixon Chief, Construction Dept, Gentlem ni Over the past several years o have tried to get the combination torm ewer, indicated on the attached .o keteh, ropa.ired; so far, no result other than convoraation. The aroa. de ignatod by hatohing and numbered 6:n 1 our property and io constantly being !loodod wi. th both storm and ea.nit~ ate from an unlmown nwnber of houses , schools o.nd whatever a.bovo us . and. ae.n:i. taey- The City of Atlanta is s e of this oitu.ation and ha.a as yet don nothing. This cannot continue, mu.at have roli r. tovor w can reasonably do to help, 1te v,ill. Plca.e 1 we exp ct to h i'r tho City oon. lours very t:ru.ly, REh o co1 /4 y-or, Cit of J.tls.nt Julton Oount7 He 1th Dopt. 99 Butlor tr ct, s~ D• • llob rt Donnie 1502 AtlMt fed ral Dldg• • Or r:,
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 26

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_026.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 26
  • Text: DRAFT REPLY TO ATTACHED LETTER Mr. Warren O. Griffin Assistant to the Executive Secretary State Water Quality Control Board 37 Trinity Avenue, S. W. Atlanta, Georgia 30334 RE: Federal Grant Application Atlanta Georgia Airport Industrial Facility. Dear Mr. Griffin: This is to acknowledge rece ~pt of your letter of August 28, 1967 in which you advised us of the unavailability of funds to support a Federal Grant Application referenced above at this time. While we regret that funds are not available for this purpose, we would appreciate your continued review of this matter in the hope that funds may become available at some early date. If we can Bo anything further to assist you in this regard, please advise us. With reference to your comment regarding State Funds, I am sure that you are aware of our interest in this area and of our desire to see the State Government play an active roll in the construction of this type facility. If the City of Atlanta can assist your agency in any way in moving the State Government into a financial support field, please advise. Yours very truly, Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor City of Atlanta IA , Jr . /pae �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 27

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_027.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 27
  • Text: C TA TY OF A T LA DEPARTMENT of CONSTRUCTION 301 CITY HALL Atlanta 3, Georgia RICHARD W. RESP ESS July 28, 1967 RAY A. NIXON Chief of Construction ASST. CHIEF OF CONSTRUC TI ON ROBER T H . MORRISS ASST. CHI EF OF CONSTRUCT I ON Mr. R. Earl Landers Administrative Assistant to the Mayor Mayor's Office Dear Earl, Please note the attached correspondence which followed a memorandum that you forwarded to this office regarding contract negotiations for water treatment operation and construction. From the letter of July 21 from Turner McDonald, I find that no attitude change has occurred on the part of Fulton County. It appears that we have again reached a log jam in this matter, but I will contact Turner in the near future to see if we can move the issue off of dead center . I will keep you a dvis ed as progress is made tn this matter. Yours very truly, ~,~ Robert H. Morriss WPC Engineer RHM/pae Enclosur e ATLANTA THE DOGWOOD CITY @ �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 28

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_028.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 28
  • Text: ATLANTA , GEOR GIA OFFICE OF DIRECTOR OF PUBLIC WORKS ROOM 300 • TELEPHONE , 165 CENTRAL AREA CODE AVENUE , 404 s. W , 522-5310 • 30303 EXT . 301 July 21, 1967 Mr. Robert H. Morriss, Asst. Chief of Construction 301 City Hall Atlanta, Ga. 30303 Dear Mr. Morriss: We have delayed answering your letter of July 7th concerning the Long Island Creek Pumping Stations because we wanted to review the original contract for the Metropolitan Sewer System, and subsequent amendments under which the va rious s ewag e facilities have been constructed, remodeled and operated . We think it would be very ba d indeed if we should depart , in this instance, from the well- e stablished custom of having all municipalities and the County participate in the cons truction and operation of each facility on the pro-rata basis of its use of the fa cility . The suggestion which you ma de in your letter of July 7th, and the earlier agreem ent which apparently was prepared in your office, of course , have merit, but we feel tha t continua nce of a system which has wo rked w ell in the pa st not only will b e fa ir in this insta nce, but will have some value because it follow s an established custom . Anot her reason why w e feel this course of action should be followed is that we have other fa cilities, including FulCo, which should be t reated in the same m a nner . Undoubtedly in the futur e there will be other occasions where the County or the City will build the fac ility, but the cost of construction a nd maintenance will be s hared with other governments . Will you consider the matter and draw a pr oposal in l ine with the exi sting amendments t o the original contract? ~ ATM / h cc : Messrs . Carl Johnson, Har old Sheat1;, rytruly, F. . T . J . ~ i r e c t o r , Public Works Depanment - ·' �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 29

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_029.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 29
  • Text: July 7 , 19 7 rir . A. Turner :r-~c Do a lcl Di r ector of Pub lic Hors 165 Ce tral Aven e At anta, Ge orgia Dear Turner : ha ve rec ntly been sent a copy of a ~eno dated June 27,P 1~& 7, addressed to ycu by :'1r . Al len F . Keipper, County lana3er, 7ith re rcnce to cap: tali zat ion c onsid~rati on in co trnct neg otiatio ns between t e City and ti1e. County. In light of ,r. Keipper's cornments D I am in~uiring into the possibil ity o f reo pe ning ,egotiation s on contrac s currently out sta n~ing for the operation of the Fulco Water Pollution Control Plan and the Long Island Creek Pumping Stations . You ~i l reca 1 that pr elimin3ry negotiations on these contracts st opped soll!etime .ngo w en the old bug- a-boo of ca pitalization fi · st reered its head. I hnve atta ched a single copy of the original y proposed contracts fort ese operations for your consideration. If it appe s th~t \1e can proceed o a reasonable bas s, I would appreciate any moiification you might suggest in order to bring these contracts to an ~cceptable f inal form. o .:is Yo1rs very truly, ,,1::d,, I:/jj tJL:,, . Robert Horriss Asst . Chief of Construction E.1c losures �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 6, Document 35

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_006_035.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 6, Document 35
  • Text: ,· . ,· U.S . DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION PERTINENT AREAS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STORM ·AND COMBINED SEWER POLWTION CONTROL . .. · 't··; ,·.,,··:i . .. . .. • . . . . !~ . • Ma.y, 1967 l I �,, . The problem of pollution from storm and combined sewers is one which has only recently begun to receive pro~er emphasis as a signif i cant pollution source. There are in the United States CNer 1900 ·... commun:l.ties with combined or partially combined sewerage systems serving some 59 million people. The discharge of polluting wastes from storm drainage systems and overflows from combined sewers serves as a distinct challenge to the ingenuity of minicipal officials, consulting engineers, universities and corporations engaged in research and development, as well as equipment manufacturers. Polluting discharges from combined storm and sanitary sewers occur during wet-weather periods when the carrying capacity of the sewers is exceeded due to the large amounts of storm water entering the sewers. The normal, or dry weather flow is prevented from overflowing continuously by means of CNerflow weirs, mechanical regulators, valves and other devices. They permit CNerflows to occur when sewer flows reach a predetermined level. Separation of the storm water from the sanitary sewage can be at least a partial answer to the problem since if the systems are completely separated the most concentrated waste load can be conveyed to and treated at the waste treatment plant. We have come to recognize in recent years, however, that surface runoff also contains significant amounts of pollutants - some cases nearly as much as sewage - so that separation of sanitary wastes is now believed to be only a ·partial solution to the total problem. Congress had these factors in mind when the current storm and combined sewer pollution control demonstration grants were authorized. Section 6 (a) (1) of the Federal Water Pollution Act authorizes"---grants to any State, municipality, or intermunicipal or interstate a gency for the purpose of assisting in the development of any project which will demonstrate a new or improved method of controlling the discharge into any waters of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or other wastes from sewers which carry storm water or both storm water and s ewage or other wastes----." The Federal Government can provide up to 75 percent of the estimated reasonable cost of individual research, development and demonstration projects. The applicant must provide assurances that local funds are or will be available to pay for the remainder of the cost. Application for contract support for pertinent research and development projects will also be considered. The necessary application forms and more detailed information concerning the Program can be obtained by writing toz Offi ce of Research a nd Development Federal Wat er Pollution Control Administration U.S. Depart ment of the Interi or 633 I ndiana Ave nu e , N. W. Washingt on , D. C. 20242 .·. · ··,. I . I �2 By wa:y of assisting those who wish to participate in the task of controlling or abating pollution from storm and combined sewers the following outline of technical areas for which applications a.re desired is provided: A. DRAINAGE AREA CONTROL l. Reduce and regulate stormwater input to sanitary sewers a. Diversion of surface runoff to the ground water by altering and controlling land use to increase infiltration 1. Reduction of impervious areas - increasir.g open spaces 2. Terracing and otherwise reducing land slopes through landscaping 3. Planting grasses, trees and shrubbery 4. Reducing extent and time of exposure of bare earth during land development and construction b. Shallow pervious basins for percolation to ground water or use sprinklers c. Ground water disposal wells (injection & others) d. Reduction of ground water infiltration to sewers 1. Development of better methods of determining location and extent of sewer infiltration 2. Development of better sewer joints, lateral connections, etc. 3. Development of better methods of repairing existing lines, making new installations and closing of abandoned connections e. Storage of stormwater runoff l. Temporary storage of stormwater at building or immediate area through us e of holding tanks, seepage pits, rooftops, or b ackyard storage (detention) facilities. Regulated discharge from storage to the groundwater, a watercourse, or s ewer system. 2 • . Stormwater collection sumps (neighborhood) with regulated dis charge to sewer system ( includes storage facility under , , streets) 3. "Upstream." storage or other control methods to decrease runoff effect on lower portions of the system 4. Stormwater storage in urban area surface lakes, ponds, caverns, for subsequent discharge to watercourse or sewer systems 5. Storage and operating characteristics necessary for snowmelt runoff 6. Reuse of stored water for irrigation, street cleaning, sewer flushing and other purpos.es I· . �3 2. 3. Eliminate discharge of sanitary sewage and other wastes to storm sewers a. Eliminate illicit connections of sanitary sewers where separate sewers exist b. Reduce groundwater infiltration to storm sewers c. Separation and collection of concentrated waste materials on the surface for discharge to sanitary or industrial waste sewers. (Animal waste,. industrial materials and waste projects, sludges, etc.) Reduce solids in storm runoff a. Soil erosion control . 1. Highway, street, and utility construction methods and practices changes 2. Use of solids retaining pon~, basin, or other type unit with necessary treatment 3. Grass seeding and other type plant coverage of exposed earth b. Improved street cleaning and urban "housekeeping" methods to prevent solids from reaching the sewers 4. Pre-treatment of water entering storm sewers B. a. Disinfection only b. Primary clarification With modifications (With and without chlorination or other type disinfectants) c. Lagoons, ponds, tanks with solids holding capacity for given period d. Filtration e. Tr eatment for nutrient removals f. Tr eatment or storage in cat ch basins g. Other t reatment methods and pr ocesse s or combination s of the above including chemic al t reatment COLLECTION SYSTEM CONTROL 1. Improvements in gravity s ewer system . . '1 � ~ , I·'1· l ,1 I 4 2. a. Catch basin improvements including operation and maintenance practices b. Sewer planning and control s to regulate time of flow during heavy stormwater periods, including sewer flood flow routing techniques, travel time, etc. c. Improved sewer shapes and materials to improve flow conditions, (lower1 "n") better sewer connections and manhole flow channels d. Increase trunk and interceptor design capacity e. Improved system design methods utilizing best hydrological practices Special conveyance syst ems a. Limited s eparation of combined sewers with express sewer construction for sanitary waste b. Partial separation 1. Separate drains f or streets, yards, parking lots, n ew buil dings, etc. 2. Phased s eparation of sewer systems in all n ew areas to be sewered and redeveloped. While this method could have significant long-range beneficial effects, demonstration grants for separation of sewers are not envision ed 3. Preventing stormwater flows in s eparate systems :from b ei ng discharg ed to combined sewer s c. Separ ation of sanitary s ewage and use of s eparate s ewer i ns i de l arger s ewers where available to convey sewage to treatment plant 3. d. Us e of vacumm conveyance systems..: :for -sanita.ry sewage . _. & s olid wastes e. Others Redu ce peak flows a. b. Di ver sion of exc ess flow f rom combined sewer to ext ernal fac ilities f or storage and regulat ed feed back to syst em f or t reat ment In-line treat ment to improve f low c ondit i ons c. In-line detention through use of enlarged segment of sewer d. In-sys t em detent ,i on of waste and stormwater through telemetering or other t ype signaling systems with remote control on flow. Reduction in water use through improvements in plumbing fixtures e. �5 4. 5. C. Reduce in.filtration and exf'iltration a. Development of improved methods of locating sewer leaks; checking out new sewers, laterals and house lines b. Development of new and better methods and materials for making sewer repairs, closing abandoned openings and construction in general c. Development of methods of sealing sewers in place, internally and externally, to reduce infiltration . d. Improved means of implementing control of illicit "clearwater" connections to sewers Systems analysis and control methods a. In-line (internal) storage with telemetering and remote or automatic flow control b. External storage in tanks, ponds, etc. for feed back with automatic control system c. In-system routing of stormwaters to utilize full storage capacity of system and subsequent treatment d. Others and combinations of (a), (b), (c) (Including periodic dry weather flushing to move solids deposited in sewers, and better sewer maintenance in general) EXTRANEOUS (EXTERNAL) DISCHARGE CONTROL 1. Treatment of combined sewer overflow a. Tr eatment at or near point of overflow of conventional type primary treatment tanks, l agoons with chemical treatment Other type s of treatment facilities or through us e units or ponds, and chlorination. processes . b. Use of subter ranean holding basins with treatment f aciliti es c. Expansion or additions to existing t re atment plant s to treat exc ess flow d. Nut rient rem.oval e. Treatment with re t urn of conc entrat e to interceptor for f'urther treatment at sewage treatment plant �6 2. D. Treatment of stormwater runoff a. Sma.1.J. drainage area plants vs. central plant utilizing new or improved methods of treatment b. Utilization of upstream storage to cut peaks and control plant input c. Pre-treatment and direct ground water replacement d. Irrigation by spreading, spray or other methods e. Treatment and use as supplement to raw water supply f. In-line treatment g. Others MISCELLANEOUS l. Determination of economic feasibility study of separation vs. combined sewer system and local vs. central treatment facilities for overflow and stormwater. 2. Development and demonstration of new or improved accurate instruments for flow measurement and water quality monitoring. 3. Development and demonstration of improved techniques of hydrologic analys es, to determine re asonable accurate r ainfall runoff relationships. Compilation of sources of existing data and development of improved statistical methods. 4. Management techniques geared to optimize control_ and/ or treatment through utilization of new methods. · 5, Development of improved construction materials and methods 6. Development of performance criteria needed in relationship to stream wat er quality s tandards I t should b e noted that the above outline i s not considered to be all-inclusive, since there may b e numer ous completely or i gi nal i deas which could b e added -- some of which may be more significant than any of those listed, Submiss i on of such ideas to t he Federal Water Pollution Control Administration is strongly encouraged. Some of t he t echnical areas out lined are currently under evaluation by means of either grant or contract projects, for exam.pler Most of the �.. 7 more conventional storage techniques including the use of tanks with pump-back to the interceptor, surface storage ponds, treatment lagoons are underway. More unique applications of storage principals such as localized "upstream" storage to prevent overloading of "downstream" sewers need further development. The use of chlorine to disinfect storm and combined sewer discharges· is included in several projects, therefore new disinfection techniques suitable for application to high volume -- short duration flows need exploration. Similar examples can be found in any of the major technical areas listed. The brief descriptions of existing demonstration projects will serve as additional examples of work being done. Any further duplication of these control methods will be minimized as much as possible to permit activation of projects designed to explore technical areas not now being evaluated. Some duplication will be in order so as to provide evaluation of function under a suitable variety of hydrological conditions. �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 6, Folder topic: Water pollution control | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 27, Document 4

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_027_004.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 27, Document 4
  • Text: August 21, 1967 Mr . Cecil A . Alexander Finch, Ale mi r , Barnes , Rot child nd Paechal 44 Broad Stre t , N. W. Atlanta, Georgia 30303 De r C cll: aclm ledg r ceipt of your letter on f of Judy .Neiman her inters tin iti in t odel Citi • Pr-ogram. All f the e itions- will be filled under the City ' merit . yat m. 1 ,am a ar of J intet It and •h to e you that h 1 r c i · e -ery consideration. Sincer !y y Ivan Allen, Jr. ay ~ lAJr/ r CC: Mr. Dan Sweat �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 27, Folder topic: Demonstration Cities | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 27, Document 6

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_027_006.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 27, Document 6
  • Text: March 15, 1967 Mr. Wellborn R . Elli , d.ministrator Fulton County Deparbnent of FamUy d Children Service CoUDty Administration Building 165 Central Avenue, S . W. Atl nta, Georgia 30303 Dear llborn: May I acknowledge rec ipt oi your letter of rch 14th reg rding Fulton County•s proposed partid ti in t Mod l Citie Program. I . m pl cin thi letter in D Sweat' handB re arc:ling your meetin • I ould like to thi opportunity to expre my ppreciation for the plendid cooper tion you b ve lven this project. Sincerely yours , Iva.a Allen, JI'. yor CC: Mr. Dan Sweat �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 27, Folder topic: Demonstration Cities | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 27, Document 12

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_027_012.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 27, Document 12
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  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 27, Folder topic: Demonstration Cities | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 27, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_027_017.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 27, Document 17
  • Text: ATLANTA,GEORGIA !$Wl'n - Mrs. Ann M. Moses Ivan: Here is the schedule for Thursday morning. I am going to the Marriott from home to set up the meeting room. I will wait for you to get there before I leave. It is scheduled at 9:30, however, I don't think Ylvisaker will arrive until 10:00 a.m. I will show Mr. Leone the location of the room for lunch, so he can lead the group. I I F O R M 25• 6 �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 27, Folder topic: Demonstration Cities | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 1

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_001.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 1
  • Text: Bedeviled by long, hazardous hours, low pay, public abuse and unrealistic court decisions, policemen across the country are at an all-tim e low in morale. Is it any wonder that police departments are so dangerously undermanned that crime is flourishing? Our Alarming Police Shortage BY \ i\l JLLI AM SCHULZ M m ajor crim es a re committed during a typica l week in the city of Los Angeles. Twenty-five women are raped; fo ur citizens are murdered; 190 others are bea ten , kni fed or shot. Poli ce switchboa rds light up w ith reports of r 53 robberies, 445 stolen ca rs, 637 larcen ies involving $50 or m ore, and 1076 housebrea kings . Yet thi s orgy of law less ness is no reAection on the L os Ange les Poli ce Depa rtm ent. " We just don't have the m a npowe r to keep crim e in check," says embat tl ed poli ce chi ef Thom as Reddin . " We need 10,000 m en, but we ca n't even fi ll our a uthori zed st reng th of 5383." ORE THA N 2500 Officials in every sect ion of the co untry echo C hief Reddin 's complaint. Ameri ca is desperately underprotected - at a tim e w hen crime is grow in g six tim es fas t er than p op ul a t io n- a nd t he situ a ti o n is wo rsening rapidly. Demoralized by in a dequ a te wages, fr ustrated by judicial nitpicking , sickened by citize n apathy, poli cemen by the thousa nds are turning in their badges, whi le potentia l replacem ents look elsewhere fo r employm ent. A survey of 36 m ajo r departments from Bo sto n to Hono lulu di sc loses that not one is up to authorized st reng th. U.S . Ass istant Atto rn ey General Fred Vin son, Jr., puts the I �2 THE READER'S DIGEST nationwide police sh ortage at a frightening 50,000. On the Run. New York's 73rd Precinct - the teeming Brownsville section of Brooklyn-is a microcosm of the national problem. Last summer, the "normal complement" of 374 men needed to safeguard the area was short by more than roo. Bone-weary officers put in r6-hour days in the attempt to maintain law and order. But they were no match for ma rauding criminals. Homicides soared. Stores were repeatedly burglarized . Policemen themselves were mugged in broad daylight. "They've got us on the run," an exhausted patrolman said bitterly. "And they know it." To remedy the situation, ew York officials have la unched a highpowered recruiting campaign. But their problem is not unique. Recruiters from the Washington, D.C., police department comb the eastern United States, a nd cannot fill the nearly 400 vacancies on their 3100man force. Meanwhile, crime in the nation's capital increased 38 percent in a recent 12-m onth period. Behind the cold statistics are the individuals who suffer: the mercha nt forced out of business by repeated holdups; the pretty teen-ager disfig ured for li fe by a n assailant's razor; the young housewife thrust into widowhood by an armed robber - and you may well be next. For make no mistake about it: every gap in the "thin blue line" means that more citizens get hurt. This was demonst rated vividly in mid-1966, when hundreds of Chicago police were taken off their regular beats to quell potential riots in the tense Eighth District. During this time, the city's crime soared 29.8 percent over the previous year, with increases recorded in 20 of 21 police districts. The sole exception: the Eighth District. H igh Risk, Low Pay. The shamefu l events of last summer, during which more than 100 communities were ravaged by riot, have made the police manpower situation even more acute.For example, 20 men had signed up to take the examination for admission to the undermanned P lainfield, .J., police department. Then came that city's riot, in the course of which a young patrolman was stomped to death by a savage mob. Only five of the applicants showed up to take the test. Of the five, only two qualified. In nearby ewark, a policeman threatening to turn in his badge said, "They just buried the best man I've ever known" -this of Frederick Toto, a decorated policema n shot to death by a sniper during the July riot. 'Tm not afraid, but m y wife's near a nervous b reakdown." But the riots are only part of it. In recent months I have traveled from one end of the country to the other, interviewing former policemen as well as harried young patrolmen who at least for now, are stick ing it out. From their stories t hi s dep lorable f inanci al picture emerges : Although the Office of Economic �OUR A L ARMING POLICE SHORTAGE Opportunity puts the pove rt y level a t $3200 for a non -farm fa mily of fou r, patrolmen in Di ck so n , Tenn., start at $2400 a year ; in Durant, Okla., at $2760; in Glasgow, Ky., at $3000. Coeur d 'A lene, Idaho, pays its patrolmen an annual ·$5280, but requires them to work 54-hour weeks . Salaries in large r citi es, while hig her, are nonetheless disg raceful. In Seattle, cable splicers ea rn $375 a month more than poli ce men; Chicago electri cia ns receive $1.40 an hour more than the patrolman on the bea t; carpenters in N ew York comma nd 50 percent m ore per hour than patrolmen. M oreover, the cable sp li cer, e lect rici a n a nd carpente r work 35- or 40-hour weeks, with genero us ove rtime. The policeman toils ni g h ts and holidays, rarely with overt im e, often under in cr edibl e stra in , hi s li fe freq uentl y in danger. In 1966, 23,000 poli cemen were assa ulted in the lin e of duty. More appa lling than low pay to m an y po li cemen is the att itude of the publi c. "I'm willing to take m y chances w ith the punks and the hoods," says a vetera n policeman in Balt imore. "A ll I ask is a li ttle support from the average citizen." Yet, all too often, peop le "wa lk the ot her way." Fo r h::i lf ::i n hour, t wo membe rs of t h e C a li fo rni a Hi g h way Patrol teetered on the edge of a bridge 185 feet above Sa n Pedro Bay, st ruggling to save a man bent on suicide. Agai n and aga in they shouted for help to passing cars. Not one driver stopped, or even bothered 3 to ca ll for aid when he reached the end of the bridge. In another insta nce, a Sa n Fran cisco policeman attempted to arrest two drunks on a downtown street. Forty minutes late r he was ca rried into San Fra ncisco General Hospital, his cheek slas hed open, his nose broken . "The crowd just let them beat m e," he sa id . "People act as if the police were their enemies." Case Dismissed. A nother m ajor factor in the sorry state of police morale is th e se ries of vague and loosely wo rded Supreme Court rulings handed down in rece nt years. Consider these typical cases reported to the Senate Subcommittee on C rimin al L aws a nd P rocedures: • " Thi s fe llow went throug h a red lig ht a nd ran into me," an a ng ry motorist told the policem an dispatc hed to the scene of a traffic acci dent in Providence, R.I . " Is that so?" the officer inqu ired of the second motor ist. The latter ad mi tted that he had indeed run the li g ht. Later, the case aga in st him was thrown out of co urt . Why? Th e poli cema n had fa iled to notify him of hi s rig hts, as required by the Supreme Court's 1966 Mira nda decisi on,* before asking, " ls that so'" • An officer in Torran ce, Ca lif., picked up two young men on narcotics cha rges. Acu tely ::iwa re of Miranda, the pol ice man in formed the suspects, "Yo u have the rig ht to • Whi ch ,a ,·s that a suspect mu, t be info rmed of hi s right to silence, of his rig ht to a lawyer e,-cn if he cannot affn rd o ne. a nd of the fact tha t a nything he sa ys ca n be held .tga in !-i t hirn in court . �THE READER'S DIGEST the services of a n attorney during all stages of the proceedings against you." Tot good enough, Judge Otto Willett ruled in dismissing the charges. What the officer should have said, Willett declared, was, "You have the right to the services of an attorney prior to any questioning." The defendants left the cou rtroom gn nnmg . " itpicking of this kind h;r.; had a disastrous effect on our force," says Lt. L ee J. As hma n, head of the T orrance narcotics squad. "Some veteran officers have become so frustrated they've simp ly quit." Turnstile Justice. Just as demoralizing is the cava lier attitude that m any judges have toward juvenile crime. Co nsider the case 0£ Harry Sylvester Jones, Jr., a Washing ton, D.C., delinquent who was g iven an earl y release from reform schoolonl y to embark on a criminal career that included rape, auto theft and g rand larceny. Sentenced to prison three times in eig ht years, Jones was three times released on parole or p robation. Within seven m onths after he was released for the third tim e, he had raped two women at kni fe-point, stabbed a nother nine times as she knelt in church, and committed his third rape against a 54-yea r-old wom an he trapped in an elevator. Jones is ha rd ly unique. Police fil es in every state bulge with cases in which innocent members of society pay fo r the mistakes of unrealistic judges and pa role o fficers. The careers of Gregory Ulas Powell and 4 Jimmy L ee Smith, young Cali forn ians who had amassed 25 arrests by the time they were 30, are depressingly typical. On the night of M arch 9, 1963, en route to their fi fth robbery in two weeks, Powell a nd Smith were stopped for a defective taill ig ht by Los Angeles policemen Ian James Campbell and K arl Hettinger. The unsuspecting officers were promptly kidnaped at g u npoint, d riven n o rt h in to K e rn County an d m arched on to a deserted field . As the officers stood with their hands raised, Powell calmly fired a .32-caliber bu llet into Campbell's mouth. Hettinger whirled and ra n, miraculously escaping as Powell soug ht to gun him down and Smith pumped four more slug s into the dying Campbell. The lesson to be learned from that March night is the folly of turnstile justice. Campbell's killers were both- on parole. Eight tim es they had been the recipients of judicia l leniency in the form of conditional release, parole or probation. N or has their luck run out. C aptured within hours of the murder, the two were convicted a nd sentenced to death . But, last July, the Ca liforni a Suprem e Court reversed the convictions on the ground that the defendants had not been fully ad vised o f their rig hts, and ordered a new tria l, perhaps p roviding a noth e r oppo rt u nit y to prove tha t crime does pay. " The. weakness in our handling of re peating offenders has caused vet- �5 OUR ALA RMIN G POLICE SHORTAGE eran law-e nforcement officers to of a nonparti sa n crime comm ittee. throw up their hands in despair," Mobili z ing public support, the comsays FBI Director J. Edgar H oover. mittee won an imm edi ate $rooo pay " Worse, it makes ou tsta nding you ng hik e for Cincinnati 's policemen, men reluctant to enter the law- with promises of m ore to come. enforcement profession at the ve ry Today, a bi t m ore than a year later, tim e their services are so gravely m orale is m eas urably improved. needed." Resig nations and retirements have A Major Commitment. Wh at can been slas hed by two thirds, and the we do to close the dangerous "police force is aga in attracting ambitious gap"? Two steps are clearl y called yo un g recru its. "We've got to unfor : dersta nd," says John Held, " that 1. We must pay th e police a Living yo u ca n't stop crim e wi th an underwage. James Ro ye r, father of two, ma nn ed police force whose morale resig ned from the C incinnati police has been broken." 2. T,Ve must provide th e police the department in the summer of 1966. "My ran k is that of police specialist," moral su pport they so desperately he wrote. "My sa la ry, after -nine need. Througho ut the countr y, poyea rs, is $7507- I have no union , no lice efforts to improve community g uild and ve ry few rig hts - civil or relation s have been undermined by otherwise. Our city perso nn el offi cer a co n cer t ed campa ig n of ab u se. classifies me as se mi-sk illed labor Commonest charge is that of "police my co llege degree, g raduate work, brutality." Yet a tas k force of the adva nced train ing and yea rs of pro- Pres id e nt 's Cr im e Co mmi ss ion, fess ional ex perience notwithstand- whi ch w itn essed 5339 " police-citi zen ing . Private industr y has offered m e encounters," during 850 eight-hour a substa ntia l sa lary increase and an patrols, fo und only 20 cases in which opportunity fo r advancem ent. I re- police were fe lt to have used ung ret that thi s co uld not be ac hieved necessa ry force. " Th at is a reco rd of as an employe of the people of Cin- . sa ti sfactory perfo rm ance in 99.63 percinn ati. " cent of the sa mple under stud y," Jim Royer was not a lone, as City says syndicated newspaper columCou nc ilm a n Jo hn E. H e ld w as ni st Jam es J. Kilpatrick. "What shocked to nnd . M any of the city's other occupa tion or profession boasts outstand ing poli cem en we re q uit- a better record ?" To counterbala nce the work of poting the force to acce pt hig her-paying jobs as g ua rd s, truck dri vers, lice-baiting grou ps, F red E . Inbau, sa lesmen. Crime was up sharp ly; the professor of crim inal law at Northnumber of offenses culmin ating in western University, recently formed a rrest was down 25 percent from a n organ iza tion ca lled A mericans the preceding yea r. for Effective L aw Enfo rcement "to H eld led the ng ht for the creatio n represent the law-abiding p ubli c and �THE READER:S DIGEST its embattled protectors." Enthusiastically supported by many of the country's top experts on crime and punishment, AELE will defend , among others, policemen it considers unjustly accused of brutality; draft m odel anti~crime statutes; and argue major cases in the nation's courts. Meanwhile, in Indi ana polis, a band of housewives has demonstrated that anyone may enlist in the battle for law and order. Stunned by the brutal slaying of a 90-year-old woman, a group of women residents initi ate d the Indian apo lis AntiCrime Crusade in March 1962. Since then, enlisti ng more than 60,000 women in its ranks, the Crusade has won badly needed pay hikes for the Indianapolis police, lobbied for effective anti-crime measures and sat in on more than 80,000 court cases to keep local judges on their toes. Its dogged efforts have helped to curb Indianapolis crime and have 6 won the kudos of the President's Crime Commission. The exodus of policemen can be stopped. Thousands of young men can be persuaded to make law enforcement their career. But it will require a major commitment from ordinary citizens across the land, not only in dollars but in spirit. As Rep. Joel T. Broyhill, of Virginia, has said, "In part because we, as ordinary citizens, have waited too long to fight back, a pol ice uniform today is the target for epithets and abuse. It is time to ask our decen t citizens for collective action; our public officials for more backbone; our courts for more reality. We must stop this nonsense not tomorrow, not next week, but today." Rep rints of this art icle arc available. Prices, postpaid to one add ress: 10 - 50¢; 50 - $2; 100 - $3 .50; 500 - $ 12.50; 1000 - $18 . Address Reprint Editor, The Readers Digest, Plcasamvillc, N.Y. 10570 REPRINTED FROM THE JANUARY 1968 ISSUE OF THE READER ' S DIGE ST ©1967 THE READER ' S DIGEST ASSOC I ATION , I NC., PLEASANTVILLE, N. Y. 10570 PRIN TED IN U.S.A. �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 5

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_005.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 5
  • Text: Mr .E r qn 9r Of fice G'.?. • �- -- - ~- -- Vo ·ri8 D r · ng 164 T") hode I c- "c1 t, v e. '•Ir, s .. in2:t0 . , D. C. 71T.rl. ~ !"_.J ·' !, • �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 9

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_009.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 9
  • Text: Mayor Ivan Allen City Hall As t he parents of the c hildren at Warren. Jaekson School, we feel t ha t it is necessary for t!heir safety tha t a polie e woman ·-lYe ·stat ioned on Mt. Paran Road to assist them in crossi ng o We feel that economy is not a factor where t he safety of our children i s involved o ..... ... • w �
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 14

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_014.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 14
  • Text: JULY 1967 LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETIN r7 therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies. • JJ WILLIAM TYLER PAGE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION JD EDGAR HOOVER, DIRECTOR UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE �JULY 1967 VOL. 36 NO. 7 ..,_ ...... . __ ·-· ·----·-* " ... ._ ,__,...,,....,, , ,__,, _CTGO ,_ -·- THE COV ER- Patriotism and respect /o r the fi ag. S ee Mr. Hoove r's message on page 1. -- LAW ENFORCEMENT BULLETIN CONTENTS Message From Director]. Edgar Hoover . 1 An American Policeman in England, by Lt. R obert C. Mitchell, Multnomah County Department of Public Safety, Portland, Oreg. 2 Search of Motor Vehicles (Part V) 7 Seeing More While Looking Less, by C. Alex Pantaleoni, Coordinator of Police Science, Rio Hondo Junior College, Santa Fe Springs, Calif. . 9 A Public Safety Cruiser, by Warren Dodson, Chief of Police, Abilene, Tex. 12 The Silent Witness 17 FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION Wanted by the FBI 24 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Tribute to Peace Officers Published by the Washington, D.C. 20535 ( inside back cover) �CAN THERE BE ANY ACT more sickening and revolting than a crowd of so-called citizens desecrating and burning their country's flag? Those who resort to such moronic behavior are surely lost in the depths of depravity. Obviously, their first loyalty is not to the United States. emphasized and excluded from several phases of our life. Many educators and other leaders seem to feel it is no longer necessary for boys and girls to be concerned with how our country came into being, what it stands for, and the courageous and noble deeds of our forefathers to preserve it. True, our Nation is founded on concepts and principles which encourage dissent and opposition. These are traditions we must always defend and support. But touching a torch to the flag far exceeds reasonable protest. It is a shameful act which serves no purpose but to encourage those who want our country to erupt in violence and destruction. Conditions are now such in some circles that an individual who professes love of his country, reverence for its flag, and belief in the principles which make our Nation great is considered a yokel. Open aversion to patriotism of any form is increasing. Even some news media take a "tongue-in-cheek" approach to persons and groups which promote and pa1iicipate in patriotic endeavors. Love of one's country is treated as some kind of social disease to be tolerated, if not stamped out. Protests are made that too much patriotism leads to international conflict. I submit that the United States will never have anything to fear from its ardent and genuinely patriotic citizens. On this 191st anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, we might ask what causes unpatriotic outbursts and irrational protests. Why do people turn against their native land and openly support totalitarian forces whose goal is to enslave the world- forces which do not even allow token opposition from their subjects ? Why do some individuals refuse to serve and defend their country? Why do they burn their draft cards and their flag? There may be many reasons for such action, but I am fully convinced that dying patriotism is one major cause. Love of country is being de- JULY 1, 1967 American history proves that freedom and liberty come at high prices and that their upkeep is costly and time-consuming. As Daniel Webster so aptly put it, " God grants libe1iy only to those who love it and are always ready to guard and defend it. Let our object be our country . . . "-not our country the object of desecration and abuse. �An American Policeman • 1n England Lt. ROBERT C. MITCHELL Multnomah County Departmen t of Public Safety, Portland, Oreg. Lightweight motorcycles are used to patrol extensive rural beats. An American police officer, for a period of 6 months, exchanged home, car, and job with his English counterpart in an experiment in the observation of police work in a foreign country. �Law Enforcement Foreign Exchange Experiment 0 n April 1, 1966, I began a 6month tour of duty with the Lancashire Constabulary, England's second largest police force. At the same time, Chief Insp. John P. Kennard, of the Lancashire force, was assigned to the Multnomah County Sheriff's Office, Portland, Oreg., to study our organization and methods. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first direct exchange of police personnel between an American and a foreign police agency. I t should not be the last. The exchange was total in that we traded houses and a utomobiles as well as jobs during this period . Personal problems arose almost immediately, b ut none were beyond solution. For example, both of our insurance companies had to be contacted and their feelings determined as to continued insurance coverage on the automobiles. Chief Inspector Kennard I fo und that the fir ms with which we dealt were fascinated by the idea of the exchange and were more than glad to give us their full cooperation. My own children are grown, but Chief Inspector and Mrs. Kennard were bringing their two daughters, Paula, age 3, and Alison, age 9, to the United States. Our local elementary school was delighted with the idea of enrolling Alison for the balance of the school term. House payments and the forwarding of pay were left in the competent hands . of the assistant cashier of our bank. Advantages of Venture There are tremendous advantages, both personal and professional, for the police officer chosen to participate in such a venture. The exposure to different concepts, tools, techniques, and training methods is bound to create a thirst for further knowledge. The exchange certainly changed any_preconceived ideas of ours about the " typical" Englishman. We had prnbably seen too many motion pie- tures depicting stereotyped roles of the English and heard too many jokes about their lack of a sense of humor. We found a warmhearted, generous, and hospitable people with a sense of humor as keen as our own. There are differences in living conditions, monetary systems, and many of the things which we take for granted in -t he United States. We found no real difficulty in adapting to these differences. Housing, or a housing allowance, is provided for the British policeman by his force. Thus we found ourselves housed in one of a row of nine police houses. They were more or less identical, of standard brick construction, and heated by coal fireplaces. Our neighbors were policemen and their families. Some of the friendships formed with our neighbors will last a lifetime. I believe that living under these conditions proved the necessity of a n Chief Supt. William Little (right), uN" Division (Ashton-Unde r-Lyne ), and Lie ute nant Mitche ll. a'~a July 1967 3 �and as a result we both found ourselves being invited to speak to various civic organizations. It is our hope that we left a good impression of Americans with those organizations. The Unarmed Police Lieutena nt Mitchell chats with offi cers in the communications section, a vita l public service in all police departments. officer involved in such an exchange being accompanied by his wife a nd famil y. It would have been difficult, if not impossible, fo r a single man to have fitted in with the fa mily atmosphere of this police community. Scope o f the Exchange Inasmuch as this was to be a new experience, neither my sheriff nor I was in a position to know just what we should consider as the scope of the experiment. I was given specific a reas to study : The penal system, the use of the summons as opposed to physical arrest, and the relationship of the British police with the public they serve. Beyond these three points, I was given a free hand to delve into anything I felt would be of value to us. Chief Constable Col. T. Eric St. Johnston was on a world tour at the time of my arrival, but he had left instructions that I was not to be " desk bound" but was to be left ver y much as a free agent to come and go as I 4 saw fit. Visits had been scheduled for me with police fo rces in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the Isle of Man. Although b ased at Lancashire Constabular y Headquarters, I visited each of its 18 divisions as well as 15 other police forces, In every case I was given any information I requested, shown anything I wished to see, and given free access to anything I fo und of interest. Each fo rce visited had ar ranged both professional and social engagements which they felt would be of value and interest to both Mrs. Mitchell and me. As a result, we h ad access to ma ny places and activities that no tourist would ever have. Thro ugh these programs we were able to broaden our outlook far beyond the confines of the police service. Being cast in the role of an ambassador of good will came as something of a surprise, but both my wife and I fo und ourselves placed in this position. P ress and television coverage of the exchange was quite extensive, After 22 years of close association with a sidearm, it was both pleasant and disconcerting to find myself work ing with policemen who neither use firearms nor care to use them. This, of course, was the first difference to be encountered in our two police systems and was the one on which I was most often questioned. The arming of the British police became the subj ect of a great deal of public controversy when Detective Sgt. Chris Head and P olice Constables Geoffrey F ox and David W ombwell were slain in London on August 12, 1966. Oddly enough, the police were not nearly as enthusiastic about being armed as the public was about a rming them. In my opinion the answer to this problem may lie in stiffer prison sentences for those criminals wh o use a gun against an unarmed society and unarmed police fo rces. The British policeman has spent nearly 150 years in building the tradition of keeping the peace without the use of firearms. This is a tradition which should be kept as long as it is possible to do so. I t would be h ighly improper if I were to create the impression that the police are completely inept in the use of firearms. Every force has a num ber of men trained in the use of weapons, and the equipment i available for issue when it is needed . Standard ization The British police enjoy a standardization of many elements of the police service that may not be attainable in the United States. P a y scales are the same in all E ngli h forces, with the exception of London, which FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin �allows a cost-of-living adjustment. Entrance requirements may vary slightly from force to force, but conditions of service are the same in all forces. This standardization is also found in training, uniforms, and retirement benefits. It would appear that the key to standardization is the 50 percent grant from the national treasury of the annual budget of each police force. Every force is inspected annually by one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Constabulary. His report, indicating that the force is up to standards, determines whether the grant will be allo wed. Although placin g chief constables in a ver y advantageous position when presenting the p olice budget to their local authority, this system does place the national government squarely in the local police picture. Any suggestions presented to the chief constables by the Home Secretary will usually be implemented. Without a doubt, this is the major factor in achieving the uniformity which I found so impressive. Training Program The value of standardization is most apparent in the training program. England is divided into eight geographic police districts, each with a district training center. Recruits from every force in the district train together and take the same 13-week basic training course. This concept of training is possible where criminal law is national in scope rather than regional, as in our own State statutes. Women police constables in patrol cars undertake the same duties as the men but especially concern themselves with cases involving women and children. The police car is white so that it can be readily identified as a police vehicle. Training does not stop at the recruit level. Inservice training is carried out within the forces, · and refresher courses are offered at the district trammg center. Specialized courses are frequently given in the larger forces with vacancies in the class held open for officers from surrounding forces. One of the more interesting inservice training courses is the refresher course for sergeants of the Lancashire Constabulary. It is based on a concept of three R's: 1. Relax-by virtu e of short hours, no pres- sure, and long weekends. 2. Refre sh- the officer's kn owl edge of th e latest laws and court decisions. 3. Ren ew- the officer's enthusiasm for his job, the department, and th e future. Supt. Walter Butterworth, now retired, assured me that the relaxed atmosphere, the roundtable conference approach to teaching, a nd the complete lack of pressure do send the men back to their posts with a far better outlook on their job. The Police College at Bramshill is the seat of higher education for the whole of the English police service. The 6-month Senior Staff Course trains officers of the rank of inspector and above to assume the highest posts in the police service. The Intermediate Command Course, lasting 3 months, is designed to train inspectors and chief inspectors in the responsibilities of posts held by superintendents and chief superintendents. Sergeants and newly promoted inspectors attend the 6-m onth " A" Course to prepare them for the duties of inspector and chi ef inspector. The Special Course impressed me with the potenti al of hav in g tremendous impact on the British police service of the future. Young offi cers of outstanding pro mise, wh o have passed hi gh ) n pro motio nal examinations, are assig ned to this 1-year course under a q uota system. They are given the temporar y ra nk of sergeant 5 �for the duration of the course, the rank being made permanent after the successful conclusion of their studies. There are a number of scholarships available for the outstanding officers in the class to continue on to university studies. I would hope that the P olice College program could be expanded to accommodate far more students. The coll~ge graduated 448* men and women in 1965 from a total authorized police strength of about 95,000. Crime prevention and public relations are sometimes treated as sepa- On the day I inspected this installation, police were keeping a parking lot and a city street with a high crime rate under surveillance. Any suspicious activity was reported to plainclothes officers on the ground who immediately investigated !he situation. In addition to setting up many good arrests, this system appears to keep many of the thieves · off balance, as they are never quite sure where the television will be installed next. With the cooperation of BBC and the independent television stations, the police sponsor regional programs Officer and police dog patrol a children's playground at Kirkby near Liverpool . rate fun ctions, but to me they appear to interlock to such an extent that it is difficult to tell where one stops and the other begins. Most of the forces I visited had assigned offi cers to the crime prevention detail on a full-tim e basis, and these men were very devoted to the program. In addition to the expected posters, pamphlets, and personal contacts with business people, I found two techniques th at were of great interest. The Liverpool City P olice have mounted mo vable television cameras atop one of the do wntown buildings. R eport o f H er i\ laj cs ty·s Ch ief Ins pec tor o f Co n stnbu lnry for th e Year, ] 965 (Lond on: Her Majes ty' s Sta ti onery Office, 1966), p. 33 . 6 with such titles as " P olice File" and " P olice Five." These programs are on the air during prime time in the evening, and public reception and reaction are excellent. The usual fo rmat might show a photograph of a wanted man, a certain type of vehicle the police are looking fo r , a list of stolen items, and a missing person . " Police File" is aired at 7 p.m. on Frida y over Granada TV. The ro ugh scri pt is written by the Manchester City P olice public relations offi cer and is then poli shed by television script writers under his supervision. T his is not an attempt at censorship or co ntrol by the television people, but is designed to convert the script from police language to television language. Forty-eight police forces in the Granada viewing area contribute to the program through the Manchester Police. Displays Also of particular interest and value are large assortments of locks and security devices displayed by most crime prevention officers and · provided through the courtesy of the manufacturers of such hardware. Many officers pointed out that the businessman should be invited to the police station to view these displays privately. There was a strong suspicion that the local burglars would enjoy attending any public display of such security devices. During my tour in England, I had the pleasure of visiting the following police departments: Lancashire Constabulary, P reston Borough P olice, Ro yal Ulster Constabulary, Liverpool City P olice, Isle of Man Con stabular y, Manchester City Police, Birmingham City P olice, Coventry City P olice, Stockport Borough Po lice, Blackpool Boro ugh Police, City of London P olice, London Metrop olitan Police, Southport Boro ugh P olice, Edinb urgh City P olice, Glasgow City Police, and Durham Constabulary. The British Police m an I have touched briefl y on a few of the many facets of the British police service. I should like to generalize a bit and attempt to describe the Br itish policeman . He is a first-rate police officer by the standar ds of any p olice agency known to me. He is gro3sly underpaid when one weighs his respo~sibilities against those of men employed by British industry. He perfo rms the deeds of valor which a re expected of policemen everywhere. The 1965 report of Her Majesty's ( Continued on page 16) FBI Law Enforcement Bull eti n �Search of Motor Vehicles This is the fifth of a series of articles discussing the Fecleral law on search of motor vehicles. VI. Consent Searches The constitutional p r o t e ct i o n against unreasonable searches and seizures provided by the fourth amendment can be waived by the express consent of the person whose· property is to be searched. On Lee v. U.S., 343 U.S. 74-7 (1952 ) . Because of the obvious advantages it offers over the search by warrant or incidental to arrest, the consent search has become a popular method of sec uring evidence from suspected offenders. Where properly obtained from the party in interest, it _avoids the requirements of probable cause and particularity of description necessary to a valid warrant. And since it need not be tied to an arrest, the contemporaneo us factors of time and place associated with the incidental search are also inapplicable. But it is precisely because thi s technique circumvents these traditi onal safeguards of privacy that consent searches are looked upon with disfavor by the courts. When one consents to a search of his automobile, it is said that he waives any constitutional right of privacy he might otherwise en joy over the vehicle or any property contained therein. And as in all situations involving a waiver of fundamental constitutional rights, it can be expected that the pr,osccution will have to meet a hi gh standard of proof. Johnson v. Zerbst, 304 U.S. 458 ( 1938) . In general, the limitations set on consent searches are the same considerations that have been employed in the past in determining the voluntariness of confessions. Thus the courts have held that consent must be given in circum263-817 0 - 67- - 2 stances free of "d uress or coercion," that it be " knowingly and intelligently:' given, and that it be stated in a "clear and unequivocal" manner. Because these determinations generally involve inquiries into the subjective state of mind of the suspect, the officer, or both, they present practical difficulties in judicial supervision which more often than not are resolved in favor of the criminally accused. A. Duress or Coercion Applicability of the fourth amendment guaranty of immunity from unreasonable searches or seizures is not dependent upon any affirmative assertion by the private citizen. U.S. v. Rembert, 284. F. 996, 998 (1922); Dacle v. State, 188 Okla. 677, 112 P. 2d 1102 (1941) . To hold otherwise would require the individual to make the difficult choice either of challengin g the officer's authority, perhaps by force, or waiving his constitutional rights through inaction. I bicl. Thus, in many cases where a consensual situation is in issue, there is no overt indication that the person voiced objection or otherwise contested the search. The courts must therefore look to the surrounding circumstances to determine whether or not the purported consent was induced by pressure or coercion. Peaceful submission under such circumstances is not consent but simply acquiescence to higher authority and cannot lawfully support a search without a warrant. U.S. v. Rembert, supra; Johnson v. U.S., 333 U.S. 10 (194-8) ; Amos v. U.S. , 255 U.S. 313 (1921). There is, of course, no easy yardstick by which to measure the degree 7 �of coercion or duress necessary to vitiate an expressed consent, for this must depend upon the characteristic facts of each case. Nonetheless, it is possible to identify several factors which generally influence the courts in making this determination. It has been held, for example, that the attitude and conduct of the advising officer are an important consideration, particularly where they might indicate that he had intended to search in any event. If he states peremptorily, "Open the glove compartment," or "I want to look in the trunk of your car," it is likely that this will be viewed as coercive. The courts have also pointed to such factors as undue emphasis on authority and even an aggressive manner as being sufficient to invalidate consent. U.S. v. Kelih, 272 Fed. 484 (1922). Similarly, the time of night, U.S. v. Roberts, 179 F. Supp. 478 (1959), number of officers seeking consent, U.S. v. Alberti, 120 F. Supp. 171 ( 1954,) , display of weapons or other symbols of authority, U.S. v. Marquette, 271 Fed. 120 (1920), or presence of the suspect's family during questioning, Catalanotte v. U.S., 208 F. 2d 264, (1953) , all tend to create a strong implication of CO· ercion. It is important therefore that the police avoid use of demanding words or gestures or any comment which might be construed to mean that the subj ect has no ch oice but to allow a search. This issue often arises when an officer threatens to procure a search war rant if consent is not given. It has been held by some courts that permission given under these circumstances is a mere submission to a uthority and that the individual yields his rights only because he feels there is no reasonable alternative but to consent. U.S. v. Baldacci, 42 F. 2d 567 (1930); U.S . v. Dix on, 117 F. Supp. 925 (194-9) ; see also, Weecl v. U.S., 340 F. 2d 827 (1965 ). On the other hand, it is arguable 8 that knowledge that one cannot lawfully prevent a search indefinitely may enable him to make a more intelligent decision as to whether and how much he will cooperate. It is not required, of course, that the individual desire a search be made of his property, but only that he make a free and voluntary choice on the matter. Accordingly, some cases hold that where the officer in good faith informs a party of the likelihood that a ~varrant will be issued, he does no more than advise the _suspect of the legal alternatives confronting him, and, i"n the absence of any aggravating circumstances, this factor alone will not invalidate the consent. Simmons v. Bomar, 230 F. Supp. 226 (1964) . This line of reasoning is implicit in Hamilton v. State of North Carolina, 290 F. Supp. 632 (1966 ) , wh ere po· lice, alerted to a recent safe robber y, arrested the defendant near his automobile. The arresting officer asked for permission to search the car, stating that he did not have a warrant with him but could get one if necessar y. The defendant replied, "There is no need of that. You can search the car ." He then handed the keys to the officer who searched the vehicle and found a pistol. In denying a petition for habeas corpus, the Federal district court ruled, " The fact that the officer told [the defendant] that he did not have a search warrant but that he could get one is immaterial." Citing an earlier appellate decision, the court stated, " a defendant cannot assert the illegality of a search made with his consent, though given in response to a threat to procure a search warrant." !cl. at 635. See, Gatterdam v. U.S. , 5 F. 2d 673 ( 1925 ); K ershner v. Boles, 212 F. Supp. 9 ( 1963 ), modified and aff'd, Boles v. Kershner, 320 F. 2d 284, ( 1963) . There is common agreement, however, that if the consent is obtained through fra ud, deception, or misrepresentation regard- mg either the officer's authority or intention to secure a formal warrant, the search will be invalid. Bolger v. U.S., 189 F. Supp. 237 (1960 ) , a:ff'd 293 F. 2d 368, rev'd on other grounds, 371 U.S. 392 ( 1963 ) ; Pekar v. U.S., 315 F. 2d 319 (1965 ) ;U.S. v. Wallace, 160 F. Supp. 859 (1958) . One of the more troublesome issues of consent arises when permission to conduct a warrantless search is obtained from one who is under arrest or otherwise subj ected to official restraint. Since intimidation and duress are necessarily implicit in such situations, it is especially difficult for the prosecution to convince the court that the waiver was given free from negating pressure or ·c oercion. U.S. v. Wallace, 160 F. Supp. 859 (1958 ) . But while some courts consistently view consent given b y one in police custody as invalid, Judd v. U.S., 190 F . 2d 649 (D.C. Cir . 1951 ), most Federal courts will inquire into the total circumstances of the case. Burke v. U.S. 328 F. 2d 399 (1st Cir.) , cert. denied, 379 U.S. 84.9 ( 1964); U.S . v. Paradise, 253 F . 2d 319 (2d Cir. ) (1958 ) ; U.S. v. Perez, 242 F . 2d 867 (2d Cir. ), cert. denied, 354, U .S. 941 ( 1957 ) ; Gendron v. U.S ., 227 F. Supp. 182 (1964,) ; Kershner v. Boles, supra; Hamilton v. State of No rth Carolina, supra. On the other hand, where condi tions of the restraint indicate a high probability of intimidation, consent by the person in custody will usually be invalid. This is often the result when a display of firea rms or other open show of force is made during the course of the arrest. Thus, in one case police officers, exhibiting drawn pistols and riot gun, stopped the defendant's veh icle an d placed the occupants under arrest fo r vagrancy a nd auto theft. One of the offi cers asked the defendan t, Weed, about a vehicle parked approximately one and onehalf blocks a way from the scene of ( Continued on page 20) FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin �A New Application of an Established Technique- Less [seeing I Looking More While Law enforcement officials are constantly seeking new and productive means to solve old and persistent problems. Rapid technological advances mark the pattern of growth of today's police forces, but sometimes a new and modified application of an old method proves highly effective. Such is the case with the proposal presented in 1964 to the California Peace Officer's Training Division by the California Optometric Association. In charge of the research proposal was Dr. Arthur Heinsen of San Jose. In 1964 vision science as applied to law enforcement was a new application of an already known and established training technique. During World War II many courses were developed for aircraft spotters and other military personnel receiving tachistoscopic training. Such a course conJuly 1967 sisted of Hashing silhouettes of various aircraft, naval vessels, and other military equipment on a screen for a fraction of a second. With speedy identification as their ultimate goal, the military was very successful with this type of training. However, after the war, the consequent reduction of a constant need created obsolescence for the tachistoscopic training. With an official of the California State Department of Education, Dr. Heinsen and I explored the feasibility of a pifot research study to present a new application of the tachistoscopic tramm g. Our final project involved the development of an optometric program applicable to law enforcement personnel and suitable for possible incorporation by the department of education into a teaching manual. The manual would then be available to local law enforcement agencies C. ALEX PANTALEON!* Coordinator of Polic-e S·cience, Rio Hondo Junior College, Santa Fe Springs, Calif. M r. P an taleoni recei ced his Bachelo r of A rts t11l d Maste r of S ci ence degrees from California Sta t e College and has done additional gradu at e work nt U.C .L.A. and the Unive rsity of Washington. 9 �which would be able to conduct their own local program. The necessary funds for the pr oj ect were made possible by a contract grant from the department of education to the California Optometric Association to develop and prepare a teaching syllabus that included equipment, supplies, and training aids. Early in the development of the program, it became increasingly evident that at least one complete course would have to be offered prior to completion of a syllabus worthy of distribution. Accordingly, the Rio Hondo Junior College participated in a National Defense Education Act grant which provided matching funds for the cost of initiating this type of pilot program. Three-Part Program The theor y of vision was the first a rea wherein the optometrist could apply already established and known training procedures. Already in use and available for application to this program was a basic slide series prepared by Dr. Ralph Schrock of Chula Vista. This excellent slide series was used in the beginning phases of train. ing with the tach istoscope. The use of symbols, such as numbers, letters, and geometric configurations, applies training techniques similar to those currently used in speedreading. This method begins by h aving the students view one digit for a fraction of a second and thereafter three, four, five, and more digits. This allows the students to develop their perception and " after-image recall" so that they perceive more in a given time period. As a second step, the motivation fo r police officer personnel required the use of numerous law enforcement "s~enes," which were prepared in cooperation with the Los Angeles P olice Department and the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. As a one-man patrol unit, an officer remains extremely busy while driving 25 miles an h our on routine patrol, operating his radio, and referring to a list of stolen cars. When he passes an alley, he has but a fraction of a second to glance down it and determine whether any police action is needed. Frequently, he is already past the alley at the time of his mental reconstruction of the perceptual "after image." T his was only one of the many areas that were developed to orient the program toward law enforcement. Students in the program use p eriph e ral s timulators to increase more accurate fi xa tions. The initial phase of letters and numbers rendered itself very naturally to the speedy identification and recognition of license plate numbers. After the initial slide series, numerous license plates were flashed on the screen and, thereafter, pictures of autom obiles were placed on the screen to simulate various driving conditions which might be encountered by the patrol officer. The third phase involved actual eye training, using specialized equipment developed by Dr . Schrock in cooperation with the Keystone View Co. The first pilot program was ready and offered on a test basis in the spring semester of 1965 at Rio Hondo Junior College. The course was designed to cover 30 h ours on the basis of a 2-hour class twice a week. However , the initial pilot course was for 34, h ours, with the additional h ours at the beginning a nd end devoted completely to testing. T his comprehensive testing si:rved to properly evaluate the total project and was not merely a part of the traihing program. T esting With a Control Group Twenty-six students from 14 different law enforcement agencies started the program. A group of 25 officers from the Los Angeles P olice Department's cadet class was chosen as the control group. Accordingly, both groups were tested with tachistoscopic slides and a series of timed tests developed by the Califo rnia Test Bureau. The parts of the multiple aptitude tests that were used were : ( 1 ) Factor II: P erceptual Speed: Test 3-Language Usage. Test 4--Routine Clerical Facility. (2) F actor IV : Spatial Visualization. Test 8-Spatial Relations, two dimension. Test 9- Spatial Relations, three dimension. FBI Law Enforcemen t Bulleti n �The group scheduled to undergo the training was further tested for peripheral vision and possible vision deficiencies. Two of the students needed glasses, but they were allowed to continue the program and their improvement was measured accordingly. Because of its initial testing and its research problems, the pilot course was conducted by local optometrists, Dr. Homer Hendrickson and Dr. Luprelle Williams. These two optometrists studied , reevaluated, and rewrote the course as it progressed. In short, the course consisted of three basic phases for each session. The first phase involved vision theory, which explained the functions of vision memory and the various structures which permit vision . The second phase of instruction revolved around tachistoscopic training, using the basic law enforcement slide series. The third pha3e involved actual exercise and development of vision skills throu gh use of optometric equipment developed by Keystone Co. The vision science kits included stereoscopes, plus and minus lenses, peripheral stimulators, and chiro-3copic drawings as well as manuals on their use. Two students used a kit on a "coach-buddy" system. It should be noted that the kits cost $125 each and refill consumable supplies for each kit cost $25. At the completion of the course, both gro ups we re again tested. Comparison of the two sets of tests provided an evaluative basis inasmuch as the Los Angeles P olice Department cadets had been given no specialized visual training. The results were evalu ated by Dr. Melvin H. Dunn , an analytical psychologist and chairman of special services education at the University of Nevada, Reno, Nev. His complete report confirms that there was a high degree of improvement on the part of the trainin g program g ro up. Definite improvement was achieved in speed and adjustment of July 1967 <· .s; .t. .r. ·> ¢:- ~ ¢ -~ !,~ h','I ' S \tf!tJ&. \\'t.S!tOS ., Students improve the visual ability of their eyes to converge accurately and quickly at various distances. fo cus, span of perception, and "afterimage recall." In addition , Dr. Dunn's report indicates the training was more beneficial for yo unger students than it was for older students. There also appeared to be a correlation between I.Q. and vision ability. The self-evaluation reports prepared by the sudents indicated certain unexpected benefits. One student stated he was an avid golfer and that the course had taken five or six strokes off hi s handicap because he was able to judge distances more accurately. Another student who played in a semiprofessional softball league indicated his batting average had improved over 20 percent. Additional Studies Followup 3tudies made 6 months later indicated a reduction in proficiency. The optometrists felt that this loss could be reduced to a negligible percentage if the trained officers were assigned to patrol functions exclusively after their training. This procedure might help the officers maintain their acuity through prac- tice. The expected net result of the officer's maintenance of his improved visual acuity is the reality of a "foureyed" one-man patrol unit. The coune, taught by Dr. Williams, was again offered by the college in the spring of 1966, at which time several preservice police science students were also enrolled. The improvement noted after the course was very similar to that in the pilot pro gram; however, the improvement was much greater in the younger students between the ages of 19 and 22, thereby suggesting that this training be conducted for recruits rather than for older officers. The college is offering the course again this year. The California State Department ·o f Education is proceedin g with the production of the teaching syllabus as well as conducting programs throughout the State. Dr. Williams is most satisfied with the results of the program and feels very strongly that this course can be presented throughout the country if it is taught by an optometrist who is familiar with the program. Rio Hondo Junior College has added this course to its vast police curriculum. 11 �A Public Safety Cruiser l WARREN DODSON Th e A bilene sa fety cruisers have the necessary equipment for any emergency. Chief of Police, Abilene, Tex. Abilene to the public safety cruiser which was inaugurated in February of 1963. Since then its sound in emergency situations has become a source of comfort and solace to many of Abilene's citizens. Purpose of Cruiser "D ogs were once content to howl at train whistles, fire trucks, and Civil Defense sirens. Now they have another electronic tormentor. It's the 'yelper' on the Abilene Police Department's new public safety cruiser. Every time the powerful wagon roars off to the scene of a bad wreck or other emergency, the dogs join in the chorus." This excerpt from an article which appeared in the Abilene Reporter News shows the immediate reaction of 12 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin Capable of performing a multitude of tasks relating to public welfare and safety, our public safety cruiser is a multipurpose police unit designed and equipped to render service and protection for citizens while aiding in the enforcement of laws. As a police unit, public safety officers are responsible for the enforcement of all laws of the State of Texas and the city of Abilene. They respond to all calls of the police dispatcher just as any other police unit. The safety cruiser is assigned to a district to patrol with due regard for the enforcement of all laws including those pertaining specifically to traffic. However, as a specialty unit, it is not assigned to investigate traffic accidents, handle domestic problems, or transport prisoners. Likewise, it July 1967 is not required to respond to calls involving misdemeanors~ unless the call is an emergency. As a public safety unit, it responds to all major accidents where persons are injured for the purposes of rendering first aid, releasing trapped persons, and preventing fire. The cruiser responds to all calls of an emergency nature, such as drowning cases in which they use scuba diving equipment to dive, locate, and recover the victims and render what first aid is possible. When the fire department arrives on the scene with its equipment for dragging, etc., the public safety officers assist as directed by commanding officers of the fire or police department. The unit also responds to any call concerning unconscious or seriously injured people, _ like those suffering from heat exhaustion, strokes, poisoning, asphyxiation, electrical shock, or heart attack. The unit frees trapped persons and removes and destroys the explosive in cases involving an explosion or explosive material. Under normal circumstances, this unit does not respond to calls involving gunshot or knife wounds unless so directed and then op.ly to render what first aid is needed at the scene or to act as a backup unit. As a fire patrol unit, the . public safety cruiser responds to all fire alarms and upon arrival extinguishes all small fires that can be controlled with a hand extinguisher, if the fire department unit has not arrived. At all major fires, the public safety officers are under the immediate control of the fire department supervisors and carry out their orders immediately to the best of their abilities. While on patrol, our officers always watch for fire hazards and notify the fire department of any encountered. The public safety cruiser never, under any circumstances, operates as an ambulance. However, in many cases the assistance of the public safety officers is needed by the ambulance attendant. In such cases, one of our officers ( the cruiser is a two-man unit) will accompany the victim in the ambulance to the hospital and will render aid and assistance if necessary. The public safety cruiser is not a rescue unit per se, nor is it an ambulance, but it is basically a police 13 �unit fully equipped to handle all types of emergencies. Services Rendered "Send the safety cruiser" has become the most common request at the Abilene Police Department. In ali emergencies, both large and small, our citizens have come to rely on the se.rvices rendered by the cruiser. Many of the calls are humorous (such as, " My cat is caught in the air conditioner"), but others are tragic and often fraught with danger for our safety officers. Recently, on an attempted suicide -call, the person threatenino- suicide was located in a garage, . o H holding a razor to his wrist. . e refused to lay the razor down. One of the safety officers calmly talked to the disturbed person and grabbed the razor away from his wrist while the other officers assisted in restraining the individual. During the first 14 months, the cruiser made 740 emergency calls. Out of this total number of calls, emergency oxygen was administered to 83 people. Man y of these first calls involved life- or-death situations. \ Record of Service In the 3½ years that the cruiser has been in existence, we have a record of first aid bein g administered 983 times. The resuscitator has been used 294 times, the scuba diving equipment 9 times, and the fire extinguishers 79 times. The safety officers have administered a rtificial respiration 18 times and assisted in sav ing 20 persons wh o had attempted suicide. Th ey also performed ma ny min or services, such as in cases involvin g citizens who had locked themselves out of their cars or homes, fin gers ca uo-ht in a utomati c electri cal kitchen 0 appli ances, ca rs with dead batteri es, etc. 14 One phase of training given by our local physicians has come in handy a number of times-how to deliver a baby. Incidentally, the first baby delivered by our public safety officers was 1 year to the day from the time they began their duties. Since that time a number of Abilene's "young o-eneration" has arrived with the aso sistance of the safety officers. In one case the parents honored the officers by naming the new arrival after them. Last year, during the national scare that dolls shipped home to loved ones by servicemen in Vietnam might be booby trapped, these officers, who are thoroughly trained in the handling of explosives, checked more than 500 of these dolls. However, they found none containing explosives. SCUBA Gear The SCUBA diving gear ha.:5 been a real asset to our police department as well as to the public. In some cases, the public safety officers have retrieved discarded evidence from one of the three large lakes nea r Abilene. In cases involving a possible drownin O' rr one officer begins dressing for divinoen route to the scene and is 0 ready to don the underwater breathing apparatus when he arrives. In one such incident where a double drowning was reported at Lake For:t Phantom Hill, both bodies were recovered within 5 minutes after our cruiser arrived at the scene of the emergency. While the diver goes into the water, his partner maintains the safety line and has the resuscitator read y to administer oxygen when th e victims are located. The most co mmon treatment given by the offi cers is to apply a medical swab to a cut or laceration a nd an anti septic bandage while awaitin g the ambulance at the scene. They apply an air splint to broken limbs q uite often also. Thi s p rocedure is of grea t assistan ce to the hospital because it allows them to make an X-ray without removing the splint. Emergency Procedure Since it stays in-service at all times, the cruiser seldom is preceded to the scene of an emergency by an ambulance. Because it is on call for emergencies, both officers are never out of the cruiser at once except at the scene of an emergency. This policy is also true in cases where the public safety officer is writing a traffic citation. If, in an y case, the officers have to be out of the car at the same time, they are able to switch their radio to a public address system which enables them to hear all calls from the dispatcher. After making an emergency run , they call the station and are switched onto a dictating machine to record a report of their run. This is then typed by a clerk typist and placed in a file. Conception of th e Unit We conceived the idea for a public safety unit after the drowning of two youths in a creek which flows th ro ugh Abilene's city limits. We were the first called to the scene of this tragic occurrence, but when the drownings were established, the fire department with their boats and rescue equipment had to be called because we did not have the necessary training or prope r eq ui pment to retrieve the victims. A short time a fter this, on a dark rainy night, an a utomobile crashed into a utility pole causing a high voltage line to come p recariously close to the vehicle. There was some diffi culty getting the occupa nts of the car to remain in the car until the utility co mpany co uld be summoned to remove the live wire. The many spectators who were attracted to this incident were in jeopardy of coming in FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin �The unit' s portable oxygen kit has b een used to save several lives. contact with the high voltage wire which hung close to the gro und . Some of these individuals stooped t o go under this wire before ou r officers at the scene could move them back to a safe distance. After this tragic incident and near catastrophic occurrence, we began to plan and resea rch for a police unit which wo uld be trained to cope with all types of emergency and rescue work. After discussing our ideas abo ut the safe ty unit, we assigned senior staff officer Capt. L. A. Martin to head the planning a nd research. We contacted the director of civil defense and obtained hi s opinion as to what type of emergency gear would be needed to eq uip the unit. Next, we called the fi re chi ef for con sultation and considered his recommendations. Then we invited the local chapter of the Ameri can Red Cross to assist in the train ing of each officer assigned to the safety unit in advanced first aid co urses. We contacted the local medical society, and they agreed to appoint a committee to serve in an advisory July 1967 capacity as well as. to assist m the training of the officer s. After months of a rdent research , the plans were fin ally fo rmulated and presented to the city governmen t. They were hesistant at fi rst to approve such a project mainl y beca use of the expense of such a unit. However, when they were presented all the fac ts of the value of its services, they gave us the authority to proceed wi th our plans. After m uch consideration , we chose a fo ur -doo r stati on wagon as the vehicle for th is unit. I ts equipment included spotlights, large revolving red lights, a nd an electronic siren and public address system to iden tify it as an emergency vehicle. Selection and Training of P e rsonnel The men operating and maintaining the public safe ty cruiser are all vo lunteers carefull y screened on the basis of their experience, aptitu de, a nd mental and ph ysical abilities. A committee comp osed of train ing office rs fr om both the fi re and police departments, plus the city's personnel director and assistant city manager, screens the volunteers before they receive joint approval by the chiefs ·of both departments. The fire department conducted the initial training of the pu'blic safety officers over a 3-week period. This training covered such basic firefi ghting techniques and subj ects as: small structure fires, ladder and aerial work, elements and causes of fires the duties of fire hosemen, fire re: sponse and attack, rescue and carries, safety techniques, the use of a gas mask, ventilation of a fire, and fire hazards. Experienced fire department training officers personally conducted or supervised these training sessions and exercises. The second phase of training included a 1-week session in high-risk rescue work at Texas A. & M. College. Thi s second step included " hotwire" handling and first aid through the advanced level, along with instructions in the use of such life-saving appa ratuses as resuscitators, oxygen equipment, cutting torches, etc. Additional trainin g included defen sive d riving, scuba di ving, explosives handling, and radiological monito ring. The Taylor-Jones Count y Medical Society fu rn ished the physicians who trained our officers in such techniq ues as how t o deliver a baby during emergency conditions and other emergency aid that could be rende red at the accide nt scene. Thi s extensive emergency tra ining, plus the past experience and training that normally is retained by vetera n poli ce officers, full y prepared our p ublic safety offi cers to cope with any emergency that might arise. · Ve hicle and Equipment As mentioned above, the p ublic safe ty cruiser is a n up-to-da te station wago n eq uipped with radi os on both 15 �police and fire department frequen- has run approximately $30 per month cies, emergency lights and sirens, res- in keeping it equipped. cue and first aid equipment, and firefighting extinguishers and tools. Evaluation A partial list of the cruiser equipment includes: fire extinguishers, There seemed to be some skepticism ( dry, CO 2 , and water) , fireman boots, at the start as to the true value of such helmets, bunker coats, gloves, safe- a unit as the public safety cruiser. It ty goggles, gas masks, completely had only been in service a few days equipped toolbox, axe, sledge ham- when the public began to recognize its mer, disposable blankets, army blan- worth. One lady wrote our department and kets, ropes, _block and tackle, large, co~pletely equipped first aid kit (in- the Abilene Reporter News the followcluding splints, medicold compresses, ing letter after her husband had been etc.), Porto-Power kit, frogman suit aided by our public safety officers : and scuba equipment, lanterns, hot " He is alive today due to the excellent stick (for handling high voltage service rendered by your safety wire), stretcher, Scott resuscitator, cruiser and its men. My husband Scott air pack (for use in building had an acute attack o-f allergy, to the filled with smoke, etc.) , battery jump point of death. He collapsed from cables, tools for entering locked ve- lack of oxygen and at one time comhicles, various types of saws, and pletelr: stopped breathing. Officer other tools to cover any type of emer- Bill Paul, our neighbor, rendered first gency situation. When the unit aid and called the cruiser. makes an emergency run and the offi"We are grateful to the Abilene Pocers have no tool to cover the particu- lice Department and its men for the lar type of situation, they immediately service rendered. Words seem inadeadd that tool. The initial total cost quate when you are trying to thank for equipping the cruiser ran close to someone for saving your mate's life." $3,000. The average cost of supplies We have received numerous similar letters of thanks and appreciation from citizens. Public acceptance of the safety cruiser grew until it was necessary for us to add a second unit in July of 1965. Even physicians now tell their heart patients and others who may need emergency aid to call the safety cruiser prior to calling them. Not only do our public safety officers feel a keen sense of pride in being able to serve humanity in this capacity, but the citizens of Abilene are very proud of our cruiser and the men who operate it. We feel that it has done more for the benefit of public relations than any other thing that the department has ever undertaken. One of the big selling points that we used in getting our cruiser approved was, " If one life is saved, it will he well worth all the expense." Well, the public safety cruiser has more than proved its worth. This is attested to by many local physicians, families who have been assisted, and three Red Cross Life Saving Awards earned by the men who operate Abilene's public safety cruiser. AMERICAN POLICEMAN Chief Inspector of Constabulary lists 58 awards for gallantry to British policemen ranging in rank from constable to inspector. Two of them are posthumous. Five civilians who assisted the police are also on the list. Armed with a whistle, a wooden truncheon, a pair of handcuffs, and, if available, a personal radio, the British policeman performs the same duties as his American counterpart. I formed the impression that, although he may be as young as 19, a great deal of his success is based on his almost amazing personal dignity when on duty. Most of the policemen I came in contact with were more than deserving of the English term of ap. "He,s a proper Copper." pro bat10n, 1 ( Continued from page 6) A police employee explains lo Lieutenant Mitchell her department's records and flling system . FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin �Let the bank robber b eware! More and more his criminal acts are b e ing w atched by a sile nt witness-the hidden cameraw hich re cords the infallible truth. Washington area. These identifications supported prior investigation by FBI Agents who had developed the man as a suspect. He was arrested and charged with bank robbery. The value of a strategically placed camera and resulting publicity of suspects ia illustrated by another incident in which a subject was caught on camera in the act of committing a bank robbery. In this incident a youth entered the National Savings & Trust Co. in the District of Columbia on January 4-, 1967, at which time he took an estimated $6,000. The picture taken by a hidden camera during the robbery showed a man wearing glasses, with his hand partially covering a pistol, at a teller's window. The suspect in the photograph released to newspapers by the FBI was recognized by a local police officer. He notified police investigators who arrested the youth . Just in Time I n identifying bank robbers, many times a picture . is worth a th o usand descriptio ns-espec ia ll y if th e ph otograph catches the bandi t com mittin g the robbery. Abo ut 6 :45 p.m. , December 6, 1966, three armed men, all wearin g sun glasses, ente red a branch of the So uth ern Maryland Bank and Trust Co. a t Oxo n Hill, Md. , a nd ordered two ma le tellers to th e rear of th e bank. One of the robbers ha nded a la undry-t ype bag lo the fema le tell er and ordered her to J)UL al/ the money from the cash drawer into th e ba~. Then the robbers fled. Total amount of mone y taken was $1,659. The bank is equipped with a co ncealed camera whi ch runs continu ously during bankin g hours a nd takes photographs at r eg ular inter vals. T he July 1967 film in th e camera was processed by the FBI. Three frames contained photogra p hs of the per so ns in volved in the r obber y, one of which was a good clear picture of the fa ce of one of the ro bber s. He was wearing a special police offi cer 's uniform, including a b adge a nd cap. Th e ph otograph and p ertinent information co ncerning the robber y were pr epar ed by the FBI and r eleased to all maj or newspapers in th e Washin gton, D.C. area for p ublication in t he hope o f sec ur in g a n ide 11Lification . Several calls were recei ved fr om citizens who sa id they could p ositively id entify the s ub ject of the ph oto g raph. He was s ub sequen tl y identi fied by th ree people as a n ind ividu al who had pr evio usly worked in th e In one instance, a camera had been installed only the day before the robbery, when shortl y before noon a masked bandit, accompanied by a teenage female, entered a banking institution in Cleveland , Ohio. Brandishing a small h and weapon, the masked man warned bank employees that this wa.;; a stickup and to stand back. Stationing himself in front of a teller's window, he waited while his accomplice calml y proceeded to empt y the money fr om the teller's cash dra we r into a b row n paper bag . One of the b ank tellers had observed Lhe m a sked bandit e nle r the bunk and had immediately tripped a silent alarm which also set a hidden movie camera into motion. T wo minutes after the bandits had fled wi th $2 ,,372, detecti ves fro m th e Cleveland Police Department arri ved at the b an k and rushed the film for 17 �immediate processin g. FBI Agents dispatched to the scene commenced immediate investigation. Still prints of the film taken during the robbery were distributed to police officers, FBI Agents, surrounding police dep·a rtments, and to newspapers. The film was rushed to TV stations and given nationwide coverage. The youthful b ank robber turned himself in to police the foll owing day. He told police he h ad gone to Indiana by bu:, after the robbery, but when he realized the robbery film was being shown on TV, he had decided to return to Cleveland and surrender. "Where can you go when you're on TV all the time !" was the remark he made to detectives and FBI Agents. The girl was arrested the following day when her whereabouts was made known to police by an anonymous telephone call. The man was sentenced to a term of 10 to 25 years in the State penitentiary. The girl was. placed on probation fo r 2 years. Joe Meador, caught by a hidden camera , wa s convicted on charges of robbing a bank of more than $30,000. Ne rv ous Robbe r Another bank robber, an 18-yearold youth, robbed the Citizens & Southern Emory Bank, Decatur, Ga. Holding a sawed-off shotgun, he herded 18 persons into the open space of the bank lobby, then ordered the tellers to put the money in a green paper bag he was carrying. , He showed extreme nervo usness and at one time was heard to remark, " I swear to God, I'm scared to death ." He obtained $19,475 and escaped in a stolen car. The bank manager in an office ad joining the lobby, seeing this acti on, set off the silent bank ala rm which also activated the bank's two hidden cameras. Ten clear photographs of the robber were taken during the course of the robbery. These were released to all available news media and dis18 ' . Jo e Meador photographed following h is arrest. pl ayed thro ughout the Nation. The robber was identified as Stephen P atrick Wilkie by a tenant of a home where the robber had been livin g for several months; but he, in the meantime, was traveling all over the co untr y living a life of luxur y on th e money he had stolen. When a phone call to his hometown revealed that he was wa nted by the FBI fo r b ank ro bber y, he surrendered to Specia l Agents in San Francisco. He was sentenced to 10 yea rs fr1 the custody of the Attorney General. In another ro bbery two bro th ers armed with h andguns entered an Indiana bank and forced the manager to fi ll a cloth bag with money fro m the vault and the tellers' cashboxes. After obtaining $30,845, one of the brothers r ipped two sequence cameras from the wall of the bank and took them along when they fled from the scene. Apparently they had no objections to being photographed during the robbery, but they made sure the film co uld not be developed after they left. During the ensuing investigation, one of the bank tellers told FBI FBI Law EnforcelT! ent Bull etin �Agents that she recognized one of the robbers as having b een in the bank some 6 weeks previously to cash a check. With the cooperation of the bank officials, FBI Agents assisted the teller in the task that lay before her in effecting an identification. Sequence camera films for the preceding 6 weeks were developed and shown to the teller. F or several h ours each day fo r 11 days, she sat with FBI Agents reviewing the frames, until one day, after having viewed some 20,000 frames, she picked up the frame identifying the robber- the man who h ad entered the bank almost 6 weeks before the robbery. N umerous prints of this photograph were made and circulated iby the FBI to various sources. T hree days after the photograph was first obtained, a trusty of a local county jail identified the bank robber as Joe Wayne Meador. With h is identification, the brother , Ratline Meador, was fo und to answer the description of the other robber. Green Thuml1 Both men denied guilt of the rob bery, stating they had been planting tobacco on the far m of a relative at the time. T his in fo rmation was checked out, but apparently tobacco was not the only thing they had planted. After many hours of backbreaking digging, FBI Agents unearthed a 25-pound la rd can which had been b uried some 15 inches under a stable. Inside the lard can was a plastic container ; inside the plastic container was a styr ofoa m ice bucket ; and inside the bucket was $ 11,000 completely saturated with talcum powder. Confronted with the buried treasure, the brothers accompanied FBI Agents to another location where a simi lar lard can was buried containing a nother bucket a nd $11,487 comJuly 1967 pletely saturated with talcum powder. The brothers explained that the talcum powder served as a dehydrating agent for the preservation of the buried money. FBI Agents and SCUBA divers located the cameras in a deep creek running through a heavily wooded area in the geileral vicinity of the bank. Although t he cameras had been completely submerged for almost a month, it was possible t o develop 1½ frames on the exp osed film which clearly showed one of the victim tellers with hands upraised a nd one of the brothers standing nearby. The two brothers were each sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment. pictures or show them on television which requires pictures of good quality if results are to be achieved from such investigative procedures. Experience in the FBI with pictures provided by numerous bank camera installations have led to the following conclusions with respect to these installations: 1. Cameras of 35 mm. or larger negative size will produce better results than cameras of smaller negative size. 2. A sequence camera is preferable to · a movie camera. This kind of camera will produce a series of still photographs tha t will ordinarily be of higher quality for identification purposes and will also record the action. 3. Camera (s) (more than one if necessary) ( Continued on page 24) Camera Scores Again Another y
  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_017.pdf
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  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 17
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  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 12, Folder 28, Document 19

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_012_028_019.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 12, Folder 28, Document 19
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  • Tags: Box 12, Box 12 Folder 28, Folder topic: Police Department | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017