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Box 21, Folder 18, Document 7

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_007.pdf
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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 7
  • Text: Press Be/ease FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE October 19, 1967 CHANGES SET IN FARM DEPARTMENT AND ON BRAVES COACHING STAFF Vice President Paul Richards announced today a realignment of duties in the Braves organization. Jim Fanning, who served as farm director in 1967, will join manager Luman Harris' coaching staff for the 1968 season. Eddie Rob i nson, formerly associated with the Kansas City Athletics, will become Braves Farm Director. Joining Fanning on the coaching staff will be pitching coach Harry Dorish, Ken Silvestri, Bob Uecker and Jim Busby. Whitlow Wyatt, last year's pitching coach will become minor league pitching coach. Fanning, 40, has served the Braves in numerous capacities since joining the organi zation in 1960. He has been a minor l e a gue manager and has served a s assis t ant to the gen e ral man~ger bef ore a s s uming duties as farm director. Dorish, 45, managed the Braves' Jamestown team in the New York-Penn League during the past season. As a major league pitcher he perf ormed for the Bos ton Red Sox , the St. Louis Browns , Chicago White Sox and Balt i more Orioles. Bus by, 38 , comes to the Braves from the Houston Astros. As a player he perfor me d f or the Chicago Whi t e Sox, Washington Sena to rs, Cleveland I ndians, an d Bal timore Or ioles. Si l vestri , 51, who served as i nterim manager f or t he l ast three games of the 1967 season, will retu rn to his b~ll pen du ties. Uecker, 32, will have special assignments. Robinson, 47, has served as administrative assistant and farm director for the Athletics, during which time the A's have built up a farm system recognized as one of the finest in baseball. 111111 �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 9

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_009.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 9
  • Text: June 5, 1967 Mr . Russell C . Moore 5670 Kendall Drive Na hville, Tennessee· Dear Mr. Mooze : Thank you for your letter of May 24th and I certainly ppreeiate your upport of the Brave . I mu t gr that with little pitching e can cert inly win th pennant. I hope you ·u have n opportunity to com to Atlanta often to ee the Brav play. Sincerely your , Ivan Allen. Jr. Mayor IAJr/b:r �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 14

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_014.pdf
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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 14
  • Text: & Co. ARTHUR AN D ERSEN 34 PEACHTREE STREET, N. W. ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30303 April 17, 1967 Honorable Ivan Allen Mayor of the City of Atlanta City Hal l Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Al l en : Several months ago I wrote you and told you of Georgia Tech's study of the economic impact of the Braves on the City of Atlanta. With usual academic speed , it has j ust now been published and I thought it might be helpful to your staff . Durin g the early months of this study we were concerned that wh ile the Braves were having a s i gn i ficant impact on th e bus in ess co mm unity, their contribution to city revenue was relatively insignificant. Perhaps the ne wly proposed Bu s in ess Lic ense Tax will divert some of this money to the city. I wou ld lik e to take this opportunity to tell you how intensely pro ud I am to be a n Atlan tan; I nev e r miss a n opport unity to si n g the praises of o ur city. If I can ever be of any assistance to you or your staff, I wou ld be delighted to help sustain the progress which ha s characterized Atlanta during your admin istr ation . Wit h best wis h es, ~ l y ~ G. Enclosure D. Hous er �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 23

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_023.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 23
  • Text: .January 26, 1967 Honorable Fletcher Thompson Congre s of the United S tes House of Repre entatives Washington, D . C e De r Fletcher: Thank you for your letter and the positi<'.m you ha.ve taken regarding rganized ba ebaU Wlde.r the· Anti• Tru t A<:t. 1 am mo t grateful £or your effoz in Si.nc rely your , 1 n Allen, Jr. Mayor lAJr/br · matter. �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 25

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_025.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 25
  • Text: ~ongrt~~ of tfJt Wntttb ~tatt~ J,oust of l\tprtsentatibts lllaB'bington, ]&.~. J anu a r y 1 0, 1967 Mr . Wi l liam Ba rtholomay At l anta Brave s Commerc e Bu i ld ing At l anta, Ge orgia De a r Bi ll: I n ot i c ed t h e enclosed a r t i l e fr om the Wash i n g t o n Post and rath e r than h a ve y ou wr i te me concerning i t , I thoug h t I wou ld wr i t e you and l et y o u know that I am comple t ely oppos ed to this p iec e o f leg i s la tion . With my v e r y be st r eg ards Since r el y yours, FLETCHER THOMPSON Member of Congre ss FT/lg cc : Mr . S i d Scarborough Manage r , Atl a nt a Stadium Iv an Al len , J r . Mayor , City of Atlan ta �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Complete Folder

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Complete Folder
  • Text: s;llfDc»lla..-s; . tS'eops W h e n H a n k Get s Riled, He Really H a mme r s 'Em A 'l143.215.248.55k~Ahl!1ap~~c:a~~ni~!u~~ ~~:~i:e143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)1gvi~li~~-.- I~~ baseball, b u t he h as a way of doing it tha t avoids per - sonalities. He is by far t h e mos t accessibl e of a ll t h e so-called Super Stars in baseb a ll. He has a keen sense o f hu m o.r, Jau.a-hs eas ily at his own expense, and is p os::;essed with so mu5,:h talent that al m ost everything h e d oes appears effortless, s on1etirnes lazy . There . are those who say h is -major league career is being prolonged by such firm. control of his emotions, and there are others who say lac1c of fire in Aaron's makeup deprives the Atlanta Braves of the . on-the-field leadership so vi tal to championship ath- letic teams. So it was w ilh somewh a t mixed fee lin·gs t h at peoff!JJ~!rfr~~t3d h\l~e c\1:,~ ~~;a~tpw~!~/hs~\n1!e~!'/m~~-t: made at a booster c lub banquet by Milo Hamilton , U1e Atlanta radio a nnouncer. MANAGER BILLY HITCHCO CK, rushing q u i ck ly to Aaron's defense, could not h elp but be s ecrelly happy over Urn contr o ver sy. In two ga,111es t h ereafte r , H a nk ~:r. s~r~;1 ~t!~ i1~./!i~: t143.215.248.55s ; ~ s howed 1n o re aggr essiveness t h a n anyon e in these parts h as ever seen h i m display. ft was in jest, but w'ith some semblance of truth, that a wag com-niented after Sunday's tremendous exhibition by Aaron that it would be a good investment to hire a h a nd to visit H enry each day with just one re?nark : « Robe-rto Clem.ente' s a b e tter outfie lder t/ian you are." Act u a lly, t h at is not w h at Hank Aaron Ham ilt o n said. nor w h ~t Aar on got angry a bou t . M ilo's remark was to the effect t h at l ast yea r·, in the All-St ar game. Aaorn was s h ifted lo left field to m ake room for Cl emente in right, i mplyin g that b aseba ll pl ayers f.ivorcd CJemente. AARON'S DISPLEASURE was in being broug h t into verbal testimonial to C le m e n te, in t he first place, and to Hamilton's ig norance of t h e facts. Aaron got n1a,,·e v ote;; for o utfielde r i n the A U-Star game than did Cle111e nte a .fear ago, and coutd h-avc -s-tactcd in right H h e had insist e d upon lt. He s hifted to Jeft at the r equest of Al l-Star Manager Walter Alston. Duroch er Set OfAi C o n trove rsy A year ago down here th e r e was a big c ontroversy going over whether Aar on was as good a n outfielder as Willie Mays. L eo Durocher s e t tha t o ne off, and coincidentally, h e d id it in a s peech at a nother Atlant a Booster n1eetin g. L e o took Mays , of course. c.Actually, I 'm flattered to be -nientioned with Willie Mays or Clernente when people get to talking about who's the b est outfielder playing today/' said Hank. '"I 'm.. perfectly wilting f or rny re cord to s p eak for rne . The record s p ea ks loudly . H e has a life t ime b atting average of .317 . To d ate h e has h it 453 h o n1.e runs, ha·s batted in 1 ,461 men . I-Ie is r egard e d , w ith Mays, as the very best base r u nne r in the Nat ion a l League, not becau se of the bases h e stea ls, b u t because h e- seld om ever gets th row n out t a k ing an extra base. He has a great arm , h e has 1nore tha n adequate speed. And w hen h e gets mad, h e's viciou s a t the right place-at h o me pl a te. w ith a base ball bat ln hi s han d. The 1,irob!.em ~s k;e ping hi m mad . It Takes Ho(l1ers To Draw Fans The Braves, w ho o pen a t hree-ga me series ~fa143.215.248.55t 2Jh3at!~ a\0h~:n;143.215.248.55tha~!e 1d:1w~0 143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)J2o 1~ evo~ pie. That's s ome 22.000 less than at a c orres pon d ing time d uring their firs.t season i n the South . Almost all the difference can be traced r igh t b a ck to o pe nit1g day. aron and Joe Torre are the main reasons that fans are flocking through the turnstiles in suc h great numbers . They h i t ho'm-e runs, Still the greatest at- · traction baseball has to o s 11 Torr nine Al'm.ost anyone who has ever seen a base all: game knows t hat Atlanta cannot win the National League pennant--yet i t is an interesting team an excitin espi e mJunes an 1 n esses a a epri ved him of his two best p itc h e1·s, Tony C loninger and Ken Johnson, for much of the ea r l y goin g, Manager Hitch- cock has the cJub p laying a t a 1nu c h be tte r pace t ha n a year ago . W ith a record of 18-16, t h e Braves a r e two games above the .500 m a rk. A year ago t h ey were two games under the break-eve n poi nt. .. Unpopular Walke r o n W ay O ut? Harr.v \Valker, the talkatiVe A l abaman man aging the P ittsburgh Pirates, is as unpopul a r w it h his players as was Bobby Bra_gan with t he Braves a year ago. Sources c lose to the Pirates say only a p e nna nt can save \.Valker's job 1 a nd they add, the penna nt will never be won with him as 1nanager. Admittedly, Walker is one of baseball's keenest stu6'ents especially in the art of hitting. His problem with the players , it seems, is that he never knows when to leave t h em, alone. I-I arn1 is a stickl er for per- h16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)~· 143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)lk~oc:i~~1¢i7fatf::i c~~e~~=n~~y:vitntelZ,_~ t~0 at a time when the h?tter.<; sf10ulcl be practicing that, as well as their hitting. One report ci rcnl::t.ti.ng in t h e lobby of the hote l where the Pirates lived du r in g their fonr ga m es w it h the Braves h ad \.Valker e nforc ing a b e d check on V e rnon Law, a d eacon in t he Mormon Churc h a n d perhaps the most devout baseb a ll pl aye r i n the m ajor leagues. True or not, it m a kes the point of w h y hi s players do not like him. �L l ' ' Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor of the City of Atlanta City Hall Atlanta, Georgia ��T E L E P HONE 088 - 6838 GE ORGE DAVI D HOUSER A RTH UR .AND E R S E N & CO . 34 P EACHTREE STRE E T, N . W. • ATLANTA :J0 :303 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES ON ATLANTA: 1966 by William A. Schaffer· George D. Houser· Robert A. Weinberg FEBRUARY, 1967 Industrial Management Center GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Atlanta, Georgia �ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to express their thanks to the many people who worked on this study, and particularly to the Atlanta Braves whose whole-hearted cooperation made this study possible. 3 ... �CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 3 LIST OF TABLES 5 LIST OF FIGURES 5 I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS II. PROCEDURES . Sampling, 9 Interviews, 10 Reliability, 10 Representativeness, 12 7 9 Ill. CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS General, 13 Local Fans, 16 Out-of-Town Fans, 17 · · · · . . . . . . . . . . 13 IV. ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES · · · · · · · . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Expenditures, 20 Expenditures of Local Fans, 22 Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 23 Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 25 Summary of Direct Expenditures, 25 V. THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT . . . . . VI. THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Questionnaire, 32 B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results, 33 C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries, 36 D. Estimation of Number of Different Persons Attending Games, 37 E. Confidence Limits of Sample, 38 F. Expenditures of Local Fans, 39 G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 40 H. Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 42 I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier, 42 4 . 27 . 31 . 32 �LIST OF TABLES 1. Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions 11 2. Comparison of Population and Sample 12 3. Makeup of Attendance at Games 14 4. Radio Following . . . 15 5. Mode of Transportation 15 6. Seat Preference . . . 16 7. Attendance Expectations of Local Fans 16 8. Estimated Distance Traveled by Local Fans 17 9. Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans 18 10. States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn . 18 11. Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game . 19 12. Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State . 19 13. Summary of Expenditures . . . . . . 22 14. Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans . 24 15. Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment Producing for Export, 1954 and 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Expenditures of Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2. Th e Mu ltiplier Effect for Braves Related Income in Atlanta . 28 0 5 �I I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS THE purpose of this study is to assess the economic impact of the Atlanta Braves baseball team on Atlanta. In addition, the study includes a variety of information, ranging from game starting times to hot dog expenditures, which will help the Braves management better understand their fans and provide Atlanta with a closer and more up-to-date look at the economic importance of major league baseball in Atlanta. A similar study is being conducted t o assess the impact of the Falcons on the city. The combined reports should serve to underline the contributions of professional sports to a growing Atlanta. The study is divided into six parts. A summary is provided in this section. Then the survey technique is briefly described. Third, the characteristics of the fans are outlined. Fourth, an analysis of expenditures made in connection with the Braves is presented, followed by an examination of the flow of income as these expenditures are spent and respent. Finally, the noneconomic impact of the Braves on Atlanta and Georgia is discussed. (A technical appendix is also provided to supplement findings summarized in the text.) In summary, the Braves had a significant economic impact on 7 �the city of Atlanta in 1966. Over 9 million dollars were spent in Atlanta in direct connection with the baseball season. As this money circulates, up to 30 million dollars in income for Atlantans will be generated. Two-thirds of the initial expenditures were made by the 174,000 different visitors to Atlanta who made up 41 per cent of the official attendance of 1,539,801. Over half of the expendit ures by out-of-towners went for food, entertainment and lodging, although significant amounts were also spent at the game itself, for gasoline, and on transportation. Attendance by an estimated 107,000 Atlantans reached over 905,000. In contrast to the pattern set by out-of-town fans, twothirds of the expenditures of local fans were made at the St adium itself, with food and entertainment, parking, gasoline, shuttle bus and other transportation expenditures following in importance. A hard core of baseball fans has been uncovered in Atlanta. The typical local fan expected to see 16 to 25 games while the out -oftown fan expected t o see four games over the season. While 82 per cent of season attendance was drawn from wit hin 150 miles of Atlanta, over half of the out-of-town fans came from 23 other states, primarily Alabama, Tennessee, South Carolina and N orth Carolina. A majority of the fans came with t heir families, although a large number of fans came in organized groups from as far as Los Angeles, Chicago, and Ottawa, Canada. And no matter where their homes, the Braves fans were loyal both in and out of the Stadium, with 73 per cent of all fans admitting to regularly following the Braves on t he radio. While the economic impact has been substantial, the noneconomic contribution of the Braves to Atlanta is no less important. Some partial indicators of this contribution are available. Thus, Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 times in daily newspapers, four games were televised nationally from Atlanta, 20 games were t elevised over the Southeast, and 39 regional radio stations carried regular broadcasts of the Braves. If other teams have similar networks, then t he Atlanta Braves played before millions across the nation every week of the season. Further, Braves personnel appeared over 395 times as speakers throughout the state and made preseason visits to 24 major cities in the Southeast. Finally, the Braves have contributed substantially to programs at schools in the neighborhood of the Stadium. 8 �II / PROCEDURES THIS study describes the characteristics of Atlanta Braves fans through the application of standard sampling procedures. The analysis of a small, carefully selected segment of a population will yield information almost as accurately as if the entire population had been studied. The technique used is outlined here; details are presented in the Appendix. Sampling THE population for this study is defined as all persons who attended an ~tlanta Braves game in the Atlanta Stadium. Since seating by section appeared to be proportionately stable from game to game, the proportional method of sampling was chosen. That is, the size of the sample for each section was proportional to its population. These proportions, initially based on the first 13 home games, were adjusted as necessary later in the summer. Within each section of the stadium the sampling was random. Each member of the population in a section had an equal chance of being interviewed. Locations for interviews were based on a mathematical formula and the interviewers were not permitted to make decisions based on their own desires and observations. This insured a reasonable objectivit y in the survey results. The sample games were selected to include each team, day of 9 �the week and starting time and were played over a three-month period from mid-May to mid-August. The sample itself consisted of a total of 1479 fans interviewed at 16 games. 1 Interviews APPROXIMATELY 90 to 100 interviews were conducted at each sample game by carefully trained students and members of the faculty of Georgia Tech. Each interviewer carried an identification card indicating the purpose of the interview and authorizing his presence in the Stadium. The interviews were conducted according to a preset format and usually could be completed in less than two minutes each. Interviews were begun 30 minutes before game time and stopped before play commenced. As a technique for data collection, personal interviewing yields good results. It allows the respondent to relax, requires a minimum of effort in answering questions and provides a larger proportion of usable replies than other methods. The interview form was carefully constructed to avoid bias, and each question was selected for a specific purpose. 2 The questions did not probe into the personal background of the respondents; as a result, there was little or no reluctance in answering them. Several interviews were conducted wit h t he quest ionnaire in a rough-draft form to insure that each question was easily answerable. Once the format was established, t he questions and answers were number-coded so that responses could be keypunched directly from the questionnaire. This facilitated analysis of the results through the Rich Electronic Computer Center at Georgia Tech. Many questions were eliminated prior to the start of the study because of the availability of information from other sources; were it not for access to t hese sources, the time involved would have become excessive and both fans and interviewers would have suffered unnecessarily. Throughout the survey, the cooperation and willingness of fans to participate in the study greatly simplified the interview task. Reliabil ity W HILE the nature of the questionnaire prevents the determination of a degree of accuracy for the questionnaire as a whole, an 1 2 The schedule of games sampled is presented in sectum C of the appendix. The interview questionnaire is reproduced in section A of the appendix. 10 �expected error can be stated for selected questions. Computations based on standard statistical techniques indicate that there is 95 per cent probability that the population means will lie within the intervals shown in Table 1.3 Where only a yes or no answer is involved (i.e., where the distribution is binomial), the per cent of the population possessing the characteristic in question is expected to differ no more than 4 per cent from the corresponding per cent of the sample. Where the answer is subject to more variation ( e.g., distance from Stadium, expenditures, length of stay, etc.), the maximum expected error rises, particularly when the number of observations is small. Thus, the mean entertainment expenditure of all out-of-town parties may vary from the mean based on our sample by as much as $6.61. In general, the usual cautions in the interpretation of survey results apply, but estimates based on this sample should reasonably approximate the characteristics of fans of the Atlanta Braves m 1966. Table 1: Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions Maximum expected error Topic of question Confidence interval Lower limit Upper limit Asked of everyone: Desirability of starting t ime (proportion) Number in party . . . . . . . . . Loca l or out-of-town resi dent (proportion) .01 .48 .03 .90 4.29 .56 ,92 5.25 .62 .37 .03 .61 1.34 8.00 .27 4.64 22.53 8.74 .33 5.86 25.21 11.02 .04 6.61 .04 .50 .04 .54 .15 .81 150.00 .37 27.71 .43 2.47 .49 6.68 1.48 7.11 172.00 .41 40.93 .51 3.47 .57 7.76 1.78 Asked of local fans: Distance of home from Stadium (miles) Game-connected entertainment (proportion) Entertainment expenditure (dollars) Number of games expect t o see . . . Asked of out-of-town fans: Distance of home from Atlanta (miles) Game-connected entertainment (proportion) Entertainment expenditu re (dollars) . . . Overnight visit (proportion) . . . . . . . Number of nights stayed . . . . . . . Gas and oil purchase in Atlanta (proportion) Gas and oil expenditure (dollars) Games expect t o see this trip . Games expect t o see for season 3 See sectwn E of the appendix. 11 8.73 �Representativeness To demonstrate its representativeness, the sample is compared with the population in several key areas in Table 2. The sample and population proportions according to these classifications are very close. Most of the relatively high differences in attendance proportions in the population and sample for the various teams played can be explained by an inability to adjust the survey schedule to account for changes in the popularity of teams as the season progressed. But even these are slight enough to be disregarded. Thus, the survey appears to be adequate in size and composition to yield reasonably accurate results. Table 2: Comparison of Popu lation and Sam pl e Classification Attendance, by day of week Week game . Weekend game Attendance, by opposing team Los Angeles Philadelphia New York Cincinnati Houston St. Louis . San Francisco Chicago Pittsburgh Attendance, by section of Stadiums General admission Field level Loge Pavilion Upper level Games scheduled, by day of weekb Weekday afternoon Weekday evening Friday evening Saturday aftern oon Saturday evening Sunday afternoon Per cent of populatio n Pe r cent of sampl e 56 57 44 43 21 20 8 11 8 8 8 7 11 6 18 7 12 13 13 14 11 4 21 24 34 3 39 5 7 35 28 1 45 17 11 4 0 44 19 12 9 6 17 19 Not es : a. The po pul ation percenta ges in secti o ns of t he Stad i um a re based o n actua l attendance f or t he first 13 hom e games. b. Doub le head ers are counted as o ne game. 12 �Ill/ CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS AN expected outcome of any survey of baseball fans would be a description of the average fan. Unfortunately, much of the information required to draw a good fan profile is confidential (age, income, education, etc.) and a direct query into these topics is likely to be answered in an exaggerated or biased manner. To protect answers more pertinent to the central purpose of the study, questions of this type were eliminated during the initial testing of the questionnaire. But several items of general interest were compiled and are presented below. The next two sections then provide discussions of the characteristics of local and out-oftown fans. General A'ITENDANCE. There is little doubt that the 1966 baseball season has been highly successful. Official season attendance was 1,539,801, and the highest for the Braves since 1959. Playing in the smallest metropolitan area with a National League team and spending most of the season in the lower division, the team still ranked sixth in total attendance ahead of Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and Chicago. Attendance at home games appears to have depended in part on the standing of opponents, 13 �with Los Angeles (first place) drawing over 330,000 followed by San Francisco (second place) with over 270,000 and Pittsburgh (third place) with over 200,000. This stands in contrast with attendance of less than 100,000 for games with Chicago (tenth place) and 111,000 with Cincinnati (seventh place). Average attendance also varied by month, with games played in July and August drawing large crowds. While those are vacation months, school, football and other activities tend to reduce baseball attendance in May and September.4 According to the survey, roughly two out of every five fans were from out of town and accounted for a total attendance of Table 3: Makeup of Attendance at Games Type of game Week . . . Weekend Total Per cent local fans Per cent out-of-town fans in Atlanta for: Ball game Other reasons 62 27 55 59 11 6 9 39 32 634,398. Table 3 shows that most out-of-town fans (78 per cent) were in Atlanta primarily to see a game and attended more games on weekends than otherwise.5 Per cent of total: August 10 Survey A ugust 8 A uto registration ( or home) Other states Other Georgia counties Metropolitan Atlanta Counties (Fulton Co.) (DeKalb Co.) ( Cobb, Clayton, Gwinnett Cos.) 24 14 62 (37) (16) ( 9) 19 16 65 (33) 22 16 62 (21 ) ( 11) The tag counts did not include fans arriving by shuttle bus; our interviewers (when asked) defined A tlanta as within 15 miles of downtown. If these differences counterbalance each other, the results are virtually identical. •See section C of the appendix for details. 5 Our results are remarkably close to those of surveys conducted by the R esearch Department of the A tlanta Chamber of Commerce. While their complete study is not y et available, they have provided preliminary results of two counts of automobile license plates in the Stadium parking lots. B oth counts were conducted on week nights with the Los A ngeles Dodgers as the opposing team. The first (1,814 cars) was on August 8 and the second (4,967 cars) on August 10. Compared with our survey, the results are as follows: 14 �As evidenced by the interest with which fans follow the Braves on radio, baseball is not just a sport of passing fancy. One of the questions asked of fans was designed to determine whether they followed the Braves by radio regularly, occasionally, or not at all. As Table 4 indicates, a large proportion of fans follows the Braves regularly. While most of the regular RADIO FOLLOWING. Table 4: Radio Following Type of fan Per cent of attendance following radio broadcasts: Regularly Occasionally Never 82 59 73 Local fans Out-of-town fans . All fans 12 22 19 16 11 6 listeners are local fans, the out-of-town following is still substantial (81 per cent) and is probably closely associated with the 78 per cent of out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a ball game. PARKING. Anyone who attended a game during the 1966 season was reminded of Atlanta's parking problems and expressway traffic jams. The Atlanta Transit Company established a convenient shuttle bus service from downtown to the Stadium to supplement the limited number of parking spaces at the Stadium. Nevertheless, as shown in Table 5, 81 per cent of the fans inter- Table 5: Mode of Transportation Mode Per cent of attendance 81 1 7 1 Drove car to Stadium . . . . Drove car t o t own and walked . Drove car t o town and took bus Drove car t o other and took bus Took bus on ly Charter bus 4 2 2 2 Taxi . . Walked viewed chose to drive their cars and either park in the Stadium lots or use one of the bootleg parking facilities which have sprung up around the Stadium. Some 12 per cent of the fans elected to use t he shuttle bus service; this figure was generally lower during 15 �games with smaller attendance and increased markedly as attendance approached sellout proportions. 6 SEAT PREFERENCE. One of the interviewers' tasks was to code each questionnaire according to section of the Stadium and type of fan (local or out-of-town). This was done as an interest item to determine out-of-town seat preferences. As Table 6 indicates, there were no sharply drawn preferences, with the exception that Table 6: Seat Preference Section of Stadium Loge . . . . . Upper level . . General admission Field level Pavilion . . . . Per cent local fans Per cent out· of-town fa ns 50 50 40 30 48 32 60 70 52 68 70 per cent of the general admission tickets was sold to local fans and that the out-of-town fans, in general, tended to gravitate toward the more expensive reserved seats. All it ever took during the season was a glance at ·the grandstand area with its "Hammering Hank" and "Go Joe" banners to know that the hard-core baseball fan was firmly entrenched in the grandstands. Local Fans ATTENDANCE. Baseball is not just a novelty for Atlanta fans: the typical fan expected to see 16 to 25 games, and 16 per cent of the local fans planned to see 40 or more games before the season was over. Attendance expectations are presented in Table 7. If Table 7: Attendance Expectations of Local Fans Number of games Pe r cent Less than 3 3 to 6 6 to 11 11 to 16 16 to 26 26 to 41 41 or more 6 4 10 19 15 22 14 16 While offici,al figures are not available from the Atlanta Transit Com-pany, their estimates parallel ours. 16 �these expectations held true, over 107,000 different Atlantans had attended a game by the end of the season for a local season attendance of over 905,000.7 RESIDENCE. While 40 per cent of local fans live in the Northeast section of the city, the remainder are drawn fairly evenly from the other quadrants of·the city (20 per cent from the Northwest, 19 per cent from the Southeast, and 21 per cent from the Southwest) . The average distance traveled from home to Stadium was 8.4 miles. As Table 8 shows, this average is heavily weighted by Table 8: Estjmated Distance Traveled by Local Fans Miles traveled (one way) Per cent of local fans 18 Less than 4 4 7 10 13 23 to 7 to 10 . to 13 . 26 or more 20 14 the large proportion of fans traveling ten miles or more. The most frequently estimated distance traveled was 10 to 13 miles. GROUP COMPOSITION. Baseball is a family sport in Atlanta. 52 per cent of the local fans attended games with their families, 30 per cent with friends, 16 per cent by themselves, and 2 per cent with an organized group. The average group size was four. Out-of-Town Fans ATIENDANCE. In measuring t he impact of the out -of-town fan, this study has directed its attention to the out-of-town fan who was in Atlanta primarily t o see a ball game. 78 per cent of the out -oftown fans (or 32 per cent of all fans ) interviewed were in this category. As shown in Table 9, the remainder were in town for a variety of different reasons and simply selected the ball game as one form of entertainment. By t he time the season ended approximately 634,000 out-of-town visitors had been to a Braves game. This total includes a number of fans who came to several 7 For computation, see section D of the appendix. 17 �Table 9: Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans Per cent of out-of-town f ans Reason 78 To see a baseball game On business On vacation . . . . Visiting friends . . Just passing through Conventioneering . Other . . . . . . 7 6 4 1 1 3 different games (the average out-of-town fan planned to see four games during the season). On a non-repeat basis, approximately 174,000 different out-of-towners were drawn to Atlant a by the Braves.8 STATES REPRESENTED. Of this 174,000 total, 75,000 came from other towns and cities in Georgia, and the remaining 99,000 came from 23 other states. While the greatest number of out-of-state fans came from Alabama and Tennessee, it was quite common t o encounter fans from Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina. Table 10 shows the attendance breakdown for the major contributing states.9 Table 10: States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn State Per cent of out-of-town fa ns Georgia Alabama Tennessee . . South Carolina North Carolina Florida Other . . . . 43 13 11 9 9 5 10 DISTANCE TRAVELED. Although more t han half of the out-of-town fans live within 150 miles, the average one-way distance traveled by out-of-town fans in Atlant a primarily to see a game was 161 miles. According to Table 11, the median dist ance traveled is 100 to 150 miles. 92 per cent of these fans traveled by car, 5 per cent BFor computation, see sectwn D of the appendix. 9 The 17 other states from which fans interviewed came were (in order of frequency ) Mississippi, Ohw, Texas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Indiana, Louisiana, South Dakota, Maryland, Illinois, California, Minnesota, New Jersey, Nebraska, and Missouri. 18 �Table 11: Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game Distance Per cent of out-of-town fans Less than 50 miles 50 to 100 miles 100 to 150 miles 150 to 200 miles 200 to 300 miles 300 miles or more 16 21 18 12 16 12 by bus, 1 per cent by airplane, and the remaining 2 per cent used some other means of travel. (One fan insisted that he had driven from Alabama in the family truck and flatly refused to have it classified as anything but "other.") Baseball for the out-of-town fan is also a family occasion: 55 per cent of the fans interviewed were with their families, 33 per cent were with friends, 7 per cent were by themselves, and 6 per cent were with organized groups. A tabulation of group ticket sales provides an interesting aside, in addition to confirming our survey results. Table 12 shows that, GROUP COMPOSITION. Table 12: Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State State Cities Geor.gia Alabama South Carolina Tenn essee North Carolina Fl orida Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi Ohio California Illinois Ontario (Canada) Total 95 46 30 24 23 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 235 Number of Groups 246 152 91 86 77 15 5 2 4 2 1 1 2 684 Fans 17,546 9,420 4,375 3,388 6,507 441 539 68 293 800 50 130 33 43,590 excluding groups from Metropolitan Atlanta, a total of 684 groups from 235 cities ordered tickets to games this season, representing 6.9 per cent of estimated out-of-town attendance. This compares favorably with survey results (6 per cent), even though the distribution among states is not the same as for all out-of-town fans. T he average organized group size was 64. 19 �IV/ ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES THE study now turns to the monetary impact of the Braves on Atlanta. The discussion will show the effect of the Braves on funds flowing through Atlanta's economy, the sources of these funds and where, specifically, they entered Atlanta's economic stream. In addition to new funds from other areas, locally-held funds spent due to the presence of the Braves will be considered. Sources of Expenditures LET us first consider new money introduced into the economy 20 �from outside of Atlanta. There are several possible sources of these funds: 1. Money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets to games; 2. Money spent by out-of-town fans (in Atlanta for the specific purpose of seeing the Braves) on transportation, food, entertainment, lodging, shopping, parking, concessions, etc.; 3. Money earned by the Braves outside of Atlanta (The Braves receive remuneration for playing in other cities based on attendance.) ; 4. Money spent by other baseball teams in Atlanta; 5. Money spent by baseball scouts, reporters and other support personnel in Atlanta. All money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets and at the games represents an inflow to the economy of Atlant a directly attributable t o the Braves. But it is reasonable to consider any other expenditures made by out-of-town fans attributable to t he Braves only if the out-of-town fan was in Atlanta primarily t o see a game. The enumeration of induced local expenditures is more difficult. Local expenditures are simply the sum of local ticket expenditures, local moneys spent prior to or following games on meals or entertainment, and moneys spent at games on concessions, programs, etc. But would this direct spending on entertainment have existed without the Braves? If t he Braves were not in Atlanta, would the local fan have selected a movie or local theater group to provide his entert ainment for the evening? This issue cannot be resolved with complete satisfaction. The questionnaire was designed, in so far as possible, t o limit the measurement of local expenditures to those directly attributable to the Braves. Since it is a purpose of this section to point out the tremendous pmchasing power of one and a half million fans, we have assumed that local expenditures made in connection with baseball were induced by the presence of the Braves. While some error might be involved, we feel that the exclusion of local expenditures would be even more erroneous. Table 13 delineates sources of expenditures and indicates their points of entry into the economic stream. The following comments briefly explain the summary amounts provided in the table. 21 �Expenditures of Local Fans As pointed out earlier, over 107,000 Atlantans attended games at the Stadium more than 905,000 times. These local fans introduced funds directly into Atlanta's economic stream through their ticket purchases and expenditures on food and entertainment before and after games, on concessions, on transportation, and on parking.10 Table 13: Summary of Expenditures Source of expenditure Object of expenditure Game (tickets) Food and entertainment Concessions Gasoline Parking Buses Taxis Lodging Other Total . Local fans Out•Of• town fans . $1,576,000 $1,195,000 202,000 905,000 56,000 115,000 54,000 35,000 2,276,000 634,000 473,000 63,000 38,000 9,000 1,479,000 2,943,000 6,167,000 Visiting teams Visiting scouts Total $2,771,000 41,000 8 ,000 14,000 31,000 41,000 127,000 5,000 4,000 17,000 2,527,000 1,539,000 529,000 178,000 106,000 44,000 1,515,000 45,000 9,254,000 While Atlantans spent over $2,078,000 for admission to games, only $1,576,000 has been included in the tabulation of direct expenditures. 11 This is the share of expenditures of the Braves which is attributable to local attendance. About 24 per cent of ticket revenue leaves Atlanta in partial support of the farm system (four clubs, each of which requires a substantial subsidy) , spring training, and other activities. TICKETS. FOOD AND ENTERTAINMENT. 30 per cent of all local fans attending a game stopped on their way to or from the game for food and entertainment. Specifically, 4.5 per cent of these fans attended the games by themselves and spent an average of $3.63 per person, 14.1 per cent were with their families (average size of 3) and spent a total of $5.41, and 11.4 per cent attended the games with Most of the calculations for this section are reproduced in section F of the appendix. 11 This statement is based on our estimate of ticket sales. The Braves provided a summary of their expenditures in Atlanta which has been prorated on the basis of the proportion of local fans. 10 22 �friends and spent an average of $5.73 on two persons. The total food and entertainment expenditures (not including concessions) of local fans for the season is estimated at over $202,000. CONCESSIONS. According to Automatic Retailers of America, the concessionaires at the Stadium, the typical fan spent about $1 per game on refreshments for a total of $905,000 from local fans. GASOLINE, PARKING AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. The sample indicates that the local fan lived an average distance from the Stadium of 8.4 miles. Further, 89 per cent of those interviewed drove t o the Stadium or parked in town and took a bus. As a result, over 2,400,000 miles were driven by local fans in connection with a game. Ignoring depreciation, oil consumption, tire wear and other measurable (but important) expenses and using informat ion supplied by the American Petroleum Institute, the total expenditure by local fans on gasoline alone is estimated at over $56,000. 89 per cent of the Atlanta fans parked either downtown or at the Stadium with an average of 3.5 fans per car. Assuming a fee of $0.50 per car, over $115,000 was spent by local fans for parking. 12 per cent of the local fans used a bus at some point in their trip to the Stadium. At $0.50 per round trip, the Atlanta Transit Company took in over $54,000 due to the presence of the Braves in Atlanta. 2 per cent of the fans arrived at the Stadium by taxi. Assuming an average of 3.5 fans in each party traveling 8 miles ( oneway) and using rates of $0.50 for the first ¾ miles and $0.10 per addit ional ¼ mile, the expenditure for taxis by Atlantans was over $35,000. Expendit ures of Out-of-Town Fans THE 174,000 different out-of-t own fans attending Braves games in Atlanta introduced new money into the local economy in several different ways. But expenditures of these fans on such things as food and entertainment and gasoline may properly be, and are, attributed to the Braves only when the out-of-town fans came to Atlanta primarily to see a game (78 per cent of outof-town attendance, or 494,830, were in that category) . TICKETS. By our estimates, out-of-town fans spent over $1,576,000 23 �for tickets to games. But, as explained for local fans, only $1,195,000 should be included as first-round spending. This is the portion of direct expenditures by the Braves in Atlanta attributable to out-of-town fans. FooD AND ENTERTAIN:MENT. 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans here to see a game spent money on food and entertainment. Of this group, 4 per cent were by themselves and spent an average of $13.75 each, 55 per cent were with their families (average size of 4) and spent $35.97 per family, and 41 per cent were with friends and spent an average of $33.84 on two people. These figures include all food and entertainment expenses (excluding concessions) for the entire length of an out-of-town fan's visit. For the season, out-of-town fans spent over $2,276,000 on food and entertainment in Atlanta. CONCESSIONS. With an average expendit ure of $1.00 per fan, outof town fans spent over $634,000 on concessions. LODGING. A large number of visitors stayed overnight. Many came for several days or a weekend to see more than one game. Specifically, 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans stayed overnight; the average visit extended over two nights and the average size of party was five. As shown in Table 14, visitors most frequently stayed downtown. Using rates provided by the Georgia HotelTable 14: Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans Location Per ce nt Downtown hotel or motel . . . . Motel in outlying or suburban areas Home of friend or relative . . . . Elsewhere (campers, etc.) . . . . 51 6 41 2 Motel Association (downtown-$13.00 for double and $10.00 for single room; suburban area-$11.00 for double and $8.50 for single room), out-of-town fans here to see a game spent about $1,479,000 for lodging. GASOLINE, PARKING, AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. 53 per cent of out-of-town fans in Atlanta to see a game spent money on gasoline. The average amount spent per party of four was $7.22 for a 24 �season total of over $473,000. While this amount may seem high, it should be remembered that many fans stayed in Atlanta for more than a single day and may have purchased gasoline on several occasions. 89 per cent of all out-of-town fans paid parking fees in connection with a game. With an average of 4.5 persons per car, over $63,000 was shared by the downtown parking lots and the Atlanta Stadium Authority. 12 per cent of all out-of-town fans traveled to the Stadium by bus at $0.50 per round trip for a total of $38,000. 2 per cent of all out-of-town fans arrived at the Stadium by taxi. Assuming their trips started in the downtown area and were $1.40, one way, out-of-town fans spent about $9,000 for taxi transportation. Expenditures of Baseball Teams DIRECT expenditures were made in Atlanta not only by fans and the Braves but also by visiting teams and scouts. The total firstround spending by baseball clubs (including the Braves) is estimated at $2,914,000. This figure is based on estimates provided by members of the staff of the Atlanta Braves. The Braves spent about $2,771,000 in Atlanta for such items as salaries and wages, utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and equipment , the Stadium Club, travel, aI1d rent. Visiting teams are estimated to have spent about $127,000 for lodging, food, entertainment, transportation, miscellaneous personal items, and tips for clubhouse personnel. Visiting baseball scouts spent about $17,000 for similar items. Summary of Direct Expenditures FIGURE 1 contrasts the spending patterns of local and out-of-town fans. The local fan clearly spends most of his money at the Stadium itself, while the out-of-town fan spends substantial amounts in other parts of the city for food, entertainment and lodging. A total of $9,254,000 in first-round expenditures may be credited to the presence of the Braves in Atlanta. Of this amount, 68 per cent was new money introduced into Atlanta's economy by sources outside of the city, and 32 per cent was induced local spending attributable to the presence of the Braves. But to say 25 �that total first-round spending represents t he economic impact of the Braves on Atlanta is not entirely correct. To det ermine the total impact, consideration must be given to the multiplier effect which occurs as this money is spent and respent. Figure t Expenditures of Fans EXPENDITURES OF LOCAL FANS Concessions $905,000 31 % $2,943,000 Food and Entertainment $202,000 7% Game $1,576,000 53% EXPENDITUR ES BY OUT-OF-TOWN FANS Lodging $1,515,000 24% Game $1,195,000 19% Food and Entertainment $2,325,000 36% �V / THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT A commonly-held theory of urban growth states that a city must export goods and services if it is to prosper economically. Called economic base theory, it depends on a division of the city's economy into two sectors, the export ( or basic) sector and the local (or support) sector.12 Exporters such as automobile and aircraft manufacturers, hotels, restaurants, service stations, department stores and recreation centers obtain income from customers outside the city. This export income then enters the local economy in the form of wages and salaries, purchases of materials, dividends, etc., and becomes income to other local citizens. But unless t he economy is entirely self-sufficient, a portion of this circulating income leaks out of the local economy with each transaction in payment for other goods, supplies and services which are imported. Wit h each round of expenditures, local incomes increase in a continuing but diminishing chain. The impact of the original export sale tends to decrease with each successive round of expenditures as leakages cont inue. The series of events following the initial injection of income is known as the "multiplier effect" and traces the indirect effects of the injection. A crude estimate of this effect can be made by calculating the local and export employment ( income figures would be better HFor details of economic base studies, see Charles M. Tiebout, The Community Economic Base Study (Washington: Committee for E conomic Development, 1962), and W alter Isard, Methods of R egional Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science (New Y ork : John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960), chapter 6. E conomic base multipliers have been replaced in recent years by more sophisticated, and more costly, inputoutput studies and can be justified " ... only when crude, hurried research is required . .." (ibid., p.221). The multiplier computed here is of the crude and hurried sort. More detailed work is in progress and will be included in the study of the economic impact of the Falcons. But a more sophisticated multiplier for the Atlanta area is not available and awaits adequate funding. 27 �Figure 2-The Multiplier Effect for Braves-Related Income in Atlanta $9.25 M $6.31 M $6.42 M Outoftown fans t--.:) 00 $4.46 M $4.37 M $3.10 M $3.03 M I $2.15 M $2.10 M $2.94 $1.49 M Local fans $1.46M $1.03 M $2.05 M $1.43 M 2 3 $1.01 M $1.00 M 4 $0.72 M $0.70 M $0.69 M 5 Rounds of Spending ' $0.48 M 6 7 j'+ . . . = $30.5 ,4 $0.49 M 0 total �but are :riot available) in the city and using them to determine the proportions in which support and export activities tend to exist. Table 15 shows the proportion of Metropolitan Atlanta's employment in 1964 and in 1954 which may be considered exportoriented. The estimates are based on the assumption that employees of Atlanta industries which are concentrated here in heavier proportions than are employees in either Georgia or Atlanta are employed in the production of goods or services for export to state or national markets. 13 In 1964 Atlanta relied heavily on the transportation equipment, wholesale trade, printing and publishing, and finance, insurance and real estate industries for its export income. Approximately 3 out of every 10 workers were employed in export production. In 1954 the primary metals and other durable industries were also prominent in the city's export base but have declined in importance. But the proportion of workers producing for export was about the same. With these data, the economic base multiplier ie computed as follows: Multiplier, 1964 = Multiplier, 1954 = Total employment Basic employment 445.3 = 3.4 131.9 --- Total employment 303.3 = - - = 3.4 88.5 Basic employment . . Change in total employment 142.0 Change Multiplier, 1954-64 = Ch . b . t = 43 4 = 3.3 1 ange m as1c emp oymen . If the multiplier ratio tends to remain constant (as it apparently has) and if it applies to income as well as employment, then a one unit increase in export activities will tend to increase total activities 3.3 times as successive rounds of expenditures are made and the Atlanta economy adjusts to accommodate the additional expenditures. This means that about 70 per cent of each dollar spent is retained within the economy to be recirculated, with 30 per cent immediately leaving the local area. Figure 2 illustrates this process. 13 The computations are roughly based on a method described in Gerald E . Thompson, "An Investigation of the Local Employment Multiplier," Review of Economics and Statistics, XLI (1959), pp. 61-7. For details, see section I of the appendix. 29 �Table 15: Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment Producing for Export, 1954 and 1964 (in thousands) 1 954 Total employment Industry . 16.0 Contract construction 2.9 4.2 1.0 2.7 Lumber Furniture and fixtures Stone, clay, and glass products Primary metal industries Fabricated metal products Machinery, except electrical Transportation equipment Other durables 2.5 2.5 . 22.1 3.7 Food and kindred products Textile mill products Apparel and other textile products Paper and allied products . 10.9 8.3 7.4 3.0 Printing and publishing Chemicals and allied products Leather and leather products other nondurables 1964 Export employment .32 Total employm ent 29.3 Export employment 7.56 2.37 2.2 3.5 3.8 2.6 .87 .94 .31 21.19 2.16 4.2 3.9 28.3 5.1 .44 24.28 .46 13.1 6.1 8 .0 5.9 .91 2.70 1.84 4.8 2.9 .4 .2 1.92 .29 . 32.0 .88 6.6 3.5 2.1 1.0 3.96 12.99 4 1.4 18.26 81.1 22.46 48.2 69.3 34.37 4.85 Finance, insurance, and real estate . 21.4 13.87 32.3 16.83 Service, miscellaneous, and mining . . 37.8 5.14 62.4 13.85 2 1.2 41.3 3.54 445.3 131.90 Transportation and public utilities Wholesale trade Retail trade Federal government State and local government . 35.5 Total . . 303.3 88.50 .84 The additional income brought into Atlanta by t he Braves in 1966 has been estimated at $9,254,000. As this income is spent and respent, the total income accruing t o citizens in the Metropolitan Atlanta area should approach 3.3 times this amount, or $30,538,000.14 1 4/f only expenditures by out-of-town fans were included in the "new money" category, their expenditures of $6,311,000 would mean up to $20,826,000 in additional incomes for Atlantans. 30 �VI/ THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES WHILE this study is specifically devoted to an examination of the impact of the Braves on Atlanta in terms of measurable monetary outlays, it would be remiss if some of the noneconomic :impact of the Braves were not included. The :impact of the Braves in terms of public relations is perhaps more :important than that measured in terms of dollars and cents. In 1966 there were over 1,750 daily newspapers in the United States. If these papers reported scores for baseball games, then Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 t:imes during the course of the season. The Braves TV Network, composed of 21 stations in the Southeast, telecasted 20 games during the season and 4 home games were carried on the NBC network. Further, 39 radio stations in the Southeast regularly carried Braves games. And as the Braves traveled to other parts of the nation, an undetermined number of stations broadcasted their games. Braves personnel from both the front office and the playing field appeared on over 395 occasions as speakers at service clubs, church groups, athletic banquets, etc. The majority of these functions took place in the state of Georgia. In addition, many personal visits by players were made to hospitals, children's homes and other charitable institutions. In February a Caravan of Braves personnel traveled throughout the Southeast. In each city, with the help of local people, a press luncheon, a sports night, and visits to children's and veterans' hospitals were conducted. Cities visited included: Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga in Tennessee; Asheville, Greensboro, Charlotte, Salisbury, D urham, and Gastonia in North Carolina; Charleston, Columbia, Greenville, and Anderson in South Carolina; Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery in Alabama; Jacksonville, Florida; and Augusta, Savannah, Dalton, Athens, Columbus, Albany, and Rome in Georgia. It is apparent that this aspect of the Braves' presence is :important but cannot clearly be quantified. 31 �- - - - - - -- - - - - -- APPENDICES A. Questionnaire Questions for Out-of-Towners What state are you from? 01-Georgia, 02-Alabama; 03-Tennessee, 04-South Carolina, 05-North Carolina, 06-Flor. ida. Other stat es-see Instructions. How far do you live from Atlanta (miles)? 0001-less than 50, 0002-50100, 0003-100-150, 0004-150-200, 0005200-300. Over 300 enter actual distance. How did you travel to Atlanta? 1-car, 2-airplane, 3-bus, 4-train, 5-other Are you in Atla nta primarily to 1-see a ball game, 2-vacation, 3-passing through, 4-business, 5-convention, 6shopping, 7-visiting friends, 8-other Do you plan to t ake advantage of any other forms of entertainment while in the Atlanta area? 1-yes, 2-no If yes, can you estimate your anticipated expenditures? 1-0-5, 2-$5-$10, 3$10-$15, 4-$15-$20, 5-$20-$50, 6-$50 or m ore, 7-no estimate Do you intend to stay overnight? lyes, 2-no If yes, how many nights? If yes, are you staying in I-downtown hotel or motel ; 2-su burban hotel or motel; 3-with friends or relatives; 4other Questions for Everyone Do you follow the Braves on radio? I -regularly, 2-occasionally, 3-seldom Are you pleased with the starting time for this game? 1-yes, 2-should start earlier, 3-should start later With whom did you come to the game? I-yourself, 2-friends, I-family, 4-organized group How many are in your party? How did you get to the stadium? 1-car, parked at stadium; 2-car to town, shuttle bus; 3-car to town, walked; 4-car to other, bus; 5-taxi; 6-charter bus; 7-busses only; 8-walked Do you live within the greater Atla nta area (within a 15-mile radius of town)? 1-yes, 2-no Questions for Locals How far do you live from the stadium (in miles)? (00-less than one mile ) In what quadra nt of the city do you live? 1-NE, 2-NW, 3-SE, 4-SW Did you stop for food or some form of entertainment on the way to the stadium or do you expect to after the game? 1-yes, on way to game; 2-yes, after game; 3-yes on way to and after game; 4-no Do you think you 'll need to buy gas and oil while in town: 1-yes, 2-no If yes, can you give u s some idea of how much you expect to spend, not including what you will spend a t the stadium? 1-0-$5; 2-$5-$10; 3-$10-$15; 4-$15-$20; 5-$20 or more; 6-no estimate How many games do you expect to see in total this season? 32 If yes, can you estimate how much you will spend? 1-0-$3, 2-$3-$6, 3-$6$9, 4-$9-$15, 5-$15 and over, 6-no estimate How many games do you expect to see this trip? (00-no estimate) How many games in total do you expect to see this season? (00-no estimate) �B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results 1. Out-of-town fans are fro!Il the fol- lowing states: Georgia . ... . ... .. ... .. , 262 Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53 North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53 Other Out-of-town fans .. 59% Local fans .... .... 82% All fans . . . . . . . . . . 73% 3. Starting time: Night Game Starting time okay Local fans . . . ....... .. . .. .. . . 460 88% Out-of-town fans .......... . . 298 93% Should start earlier Local fans ...... .. .......... . 55 11% Out-of-town fans ..... . .. .. . . 22 7% S hould start late r Local fans . . . ............. . . 8 2% Out-of-town fans . . ... . ... . . . 2 1% 4. Group composition: Self Drove to stadium .. ... ..... . . 81 % Drove car to town and took bus 7 % Drove car to town and walked . . 1 % Drove car to other and took bus 1 % Took taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 % Charter bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Took bus only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Walked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% local fans live 10% 22% 12% 16% Day Game Sun DH 195 92% 65 88% 199 97% 34 92% 19% 6% 11% Sat Ngt. 55 89% 44 98% 9 3 4% 1% 5 2 7% 5% 7 1 11% 2% 0 0% 1% 4 1 5% 3% 0 0 0% 0% ~ Fans came to e-ame withFriends Family Org. Gp. 34 19 6% 2% 7. Draw from qu adrants of the Northeast . . ..... .. . .. .... . ... Northwest . . . . .. . . ....... . .. . Southeast . .. . . .............. . Southwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . city : 40% 20% 19% 22% 7% 16% 5. Modes of transportation : 6. Distances stadium: 63 2. Frequency with which fans follow Braves on radio: Reg. 0cc. Never 43% 5% 13% 11% 9% 9% Out-of-town fans . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Local fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 .................. 198 260 33% 30% 335 453 55% 52% 8. Number of games local fans expect to see : Less than 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4% 3 to 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 10% 6 to 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 19% 11 t o 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 15% 16 to 25 .. . ........ _ . . 188 22% 26 to 40 .......... . ... .. 125 14% More than 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 16% (Average number of games a local fan expects to see is 24. ) from Less than one mile 16 2 % One mile . . . ............ . 13 1% Two miles .......... ... . . 50 6% Three miles .. . ... . . . .. . . . 74 9% Four miles . . ..... . . . .... . 57 7 % 9. Distances out-of-town fans traveled Five miles .... . .... . . . . . . 75 9% primarily to see a game: Six miles ... . . . ..... . .. . . 57 7% Less than 50 miles ........ 74 16% Seven miles .. . .... . . ... . 47 5% Eight miles .. . ... . . . . .. . . 71 8% · 50 to 99 miles .......... 99 21 % 100 to 149 miles ........ 87 18% Nine mil!iS ...... . . . . .. . . 11 1% 150 to 199 miles . . . . . . . . . . 57 12% Ten miles .. . .... . ..... . . 128 15% 200 to 300 miles . . ...... 74 16% Eleven miles . .. .. . ... . . . 14 2% More than 300 miles . . . . . . 58 12% Twelve miles .. . .. ...... . 81 9% (Average distance traveled by an outThirteen miles . ... . . . .. . . . 20 2% of-town fan primarily to see a game is Fourteen miles .. ..... . . . 10 1% 161 miles.) Fifteen miles ... . ... . 146 17% 33 �13. Number of games out-of-town fans primarily in Atlanta to see a game expect to see: Games This Trip F or Season 1 297 62% 40 8% 2 95 20% 39 8% 3 50 11% 41 9% 4~7 31 7% 177 37% 8-15 l 0% 115 24% 16-25 1 0% 42 9% 26-50 1 0% 15 3% Over 50 0 0% 7 1% 10. Out -of-town fans interviewed were m Atlanta for the following reasons : To see a game . . . . . . . . . . 476 78% On vacation . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6% Passing through . . . . . . . . 4 1% On business . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7% For a convention . . . . . . 5 1% On a shopping t rip . . . . . . 1 0% 4% Visiting friends . . . . . . . . . . 22 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4% 11. Out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game traveled by the following means to Atlanta: Car . .... . ... ...... . .... 440 Bu s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 14. Number of games out-of-town fans not primarily in Atlanta to see a game expect to see : Games This Trip F or Season 1 69 52% 28 21% 20% 2 27 25 19% 3 12 9% 11 8% 4-7 23 17% 48 36% 8-15 2 2% 16 12% 16-25 0 0% 2 2% 26-50 0 0% 1 1% Over50 0 0% 2 2% 92% 5% 1% 0% 1% 12. Of the out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game, 253 or 53% spent an average of $7.22 on gas and oil. This accounted for a party of average size = 4. 15. Makeup of attendance at games : Out-of-Town Fans in Atla nta To For Local S ee Ot her Game Fans Game R e ason Week, .. .. . . . 62% 27% 11% W eekend .... 55% 39% 6% A rough breakdown of these expenditures is as follows : $0 to $3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4% $3 to $6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 46% $6 to $9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 28 % $9 to $15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 11% $15 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 11 % 16. Per cent of ou t-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game, classified by lodging p reference, length of stay and section of stadiwn Length of stay (in nights) One Two Three Stadium Section More Total DOWNT OWN HOTEL OR MOTEL 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 0 13 7 26 1 47 0% 38% 19% 28% 50% 27% 0 6 5 13 1 25 0% 18% 14% 14% 50% 14% 1 3 1 5 0 10 11% 9% 3% 5% 0% 6% 1 0 1 5 0 7 11% 0% 3% 5% 0% 4% 2 22 14 49 2 89 22% 65% 39% 53% 100% 51% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2 1 22% 3% 6% 5% 0% 6% SU BURBAN HOTEL OR MOTEL 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 1 1 2 3 0 7 11% 3% 6% 3% 0% 4% 1 0 0 0 0 0 11% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 34 0 0 0 1 0 0 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 5 0 10 �H OME 0 F FRIEND OR RELATIVE 1 3 4 5 TOTAL l 7 7 20 0 35 11% 21% 19% 22% 0% 20% 2 2 5 11 0 20 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 0 0 3 0 0 3 0% 0% 8% 0% 0% 2% 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 22% 6% 14% 12% 0% 11% 0 0 2 6 0 8 ELSEWHERE 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0% 0% 6% 6% 0% 5% 2 1 3 2 0 8 22% 3% 8% 2% 0% 5% 5 71 56% 29% 47% 42% 0% 41% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 1 0 0 0 1 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0 1 3 0 0 4 0% 3% 8% 0% 0% 2% 10 17 39 0 (302 or 63 per cent of those in Atlanta primarily to see a game did not stay overnight.) 17. Average number of persons in parties interviewed Organized Friends Family Group Local fans . . . . . . . . 3.50 3.43 27.63 Out-of-town fans here to see game 6.88 3.93 33.39 Out-of-town fans here to see game and staying overnight . . . . . . . 5.50 3.96 32.25 Out-of-town fans here for other reasons .. .. . . ... 4.75 3.98 56.50 (Of those who came to see a game and stayed overnight, 7% were by themselves.) 18. Overnight stays in connection with a game: 37% of the people here to see a game stayed overnight. The average length of time stayed was 2 nights. This accounted for a party of average size = 5. 19. Food and entertainment expenditures of local fans: 30% of the local fans spent money on 35 the way to or from the game on food and entertainment. T he average amount spent was $5.25. 15% of these people were by themselves and spent an average of $3.63. 47% of these people were with family and spent an average of $5.41. T his accounted for a party of a verage size = 3. 37% of these people were with friends or a group and spent an average of $5.73. This accounted for a party of average size= 2. 20. Food and entertainment expenditures of out-of-town fans : 37% of the out-of-town fans here to see a game spent money on other entertainment in the Atlanta area. The average amount spent was $34.32. 3% of these people were by themselves and spent an average of $13.75. 55% of thse people were with family and spent an average of $35.97. This accounted for a party of average size = 4. 41 % of these people were with friends or a group and spent an average of $33.84. This accounted for a party of average size = 2. �21. Standard error of the mean for selected questions: Mean or Standard ProporError of tion the mean GENERAL QUESTION 3. 6. 8. 9. 12. 13. 14. 15. 17. 18. 19. 20. Starting time okay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Distance traveled, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.37 Number of games, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.87 Distance, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.00 Stopped for gas and oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 gas and oil expenditure . . .. . .. . . . .... .. .. .. . .. . . . . . 7.22 Number of games this trip .. ......... .. . . . . .. .. . . . 1.63 Number of gamea for season, out-of-town fan ... .. .. . 7.92 Local residence . . ........ .. . .. . . . ... . ... .. .. ... ... . .59 Number in party .. .. ....... . . ........ . ..... . ... . 4.77 Stayed overnight [all fans] .. . ....... . . .. .. . . ..... . .47 number of nights ... . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. ..... . . . . . .. . . 2.97 Stopped for entertainment, local fan . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 entertainment expenditure, local fan ... ... . . . . . .... . 5.25 Stopped for entertainment, out-of-town fan .. . .. . . . .36 entertainment expenditure, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . 34.32 .007 .191 .682 5.620 .021 .276 .074 .411 .013 .245 .021 .258 .016 .312 .020 3.367 C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries 1. Interview schedule D a te May 22 May 31 June 4 June 15 June 16 June 19 June 26 June 'X7 J uly 15 July 16 J uly 17 July 26 J uly 29 J uly 30 Au g. 10 Au g. 12 Day Opposing te am Sunday Tuesday Sa turday evening W ednesday Thursday Sunday Sunday M onday Friday Saturday a fternoon Sunday Tuesday Friday Saturday afternoon W ed nesday Friday Chicago Los Angeles S t. Louis N ew York N ew York P ittsbu rgh Los Angeles Chicago Houston Houston Cincinnati St. Louis San Francisco San Francisco Los An geles Philadelphia 1. G ame played September 2. Attendance : 9,145 . 2. Game played A ugust 13. Attendance: 27,770. 36 Attendance! 24,302 27,310 11,298 14,842 15,514 17,758 51,632 10,517 (Rain) 1 14,208 37,782 18,101 31,716 30,365 28,824 (Rain) 2 �2. Average game attendance, by month 4. Attendance at home games for Na- tional League teams, 1966 Month Average att. April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,464 May ... .. .... .. . ........... 17,077 June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,204 July .. . ... . ... ... .... . . .. . . 25,167 August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,503 September ..... .. .. . ..... . : .. 16,242 City 3. Attendance at Braves games, by opposing team Attendance In On Opp. team Atlanta road Chicago (10th).... 99,162 57,739 Cincinnati (7th) . . 110,999 58,769 Houston (8th) . . . . 120,181 209,818 Los Angeles (1st).. 332,483 263,225 New York (9th) ... 160,897 211,705 Philadelphia (4th). 118,917 119,908 Pittsburgh (3rd) . . . 200,081 107,679 St. Louis (6th) . . . 124,606 197,034 San Francisco (2nd) 272,475 172,491 T otal ..... . . . 1,539,801 1,398,368 D. Att. Met. Aree pop. , 1960 Los Angeles 2,617,029 6,038,771 New York 1,932,693 10,694,633 Houston ..... 1,872,108 1,243,158 St. Louis .... 1,712,980 2,104,669 San Francisco 1,657,192 2,648,762 ...... 1,539,801 1,017,188 . .. 1,196,618 2,405,435 Philadelphia . . 1,108,201 4,342,897 ... . .. . . 742,958 1,268,479 635,891 6,220,913 Atlanta Pittsburgh Cincinnati Chicago 5. Miscellaneous Season ticket sales: 3,000 Children's tickets: 41,716 Passes (press, clergy, teachers, police, and other special nights): 105,665 Estimation of Number of Different Perso ns Attend ing Games and Average Number of Games Seen To begin, several summary figures are computed based on survey r esult s: Total number of Atlantans at games .588 (1,539,801) = 905,403 = Total out-o f- town fans at games .412 (1,539,801) = 634,398 = Calculation of the number of different persons seeing a game over the season is best explained with an example. Suppose a team plays before 10,000 fan s at each of 4 games and 30 per cent of those attending see all 4 games, 50 per cent see 2 games, and 20 per cent see just 1 game. Then 3,000 hardcore fans will see each game, 10,000 different fans will see 2 games, and 8,000 will see only 1 game, for a total of 21,000 different fans. A pictorial representation is as follows: Out-o f-town fans in Atlanta to see game = .78(634,398) = 494,830 Average attendance by Atlantans 905,403/78 = 11,608 = Average attendance by out-of-town fans = 634,398/78 = 8,133 Pe r cent of attendance 100 80 new at each g ame 2,000 I 2,000 2, 000 I 2,000 10,000 10,000 30 0 I 3,000 I I Ga me I Game II Game Ill Ga me IV 37 �Number of different Georgia (other than Atlanta) fans = 74,881 [ = .43 (174,143)] Thus, the number of different fans attending games can be computed as average attendance times the sum of the per cent of attendance in each category multiplied by the number of games at which the category was new. Using this method, proportions from section A, and midpoints for each of the attendance categories, the number of different Atlantans and out-oftown fans attending games can be estimated: W e should note t hat these estimates are based upon the plans of fans. If the fans were optimistic in their responses to our questions, then the numbers of different persons attending games should be greater t han our estimates. The number of games seen by the t y pical out-of-town fan is approximated by the weighted average of their expectations as 8.3 games [ .11(1) + .09(3) +.37(6) + .22(11) + .07 (20) + .03 (38) + .01 (50) ]. Number of different Atlantans attending a game = 107,561 [ = 11,608[.04 (78) + .10(19.5) + .19(9.75) + .15(6) + .22(3.9) + .14(2.36) + .16(1.60)]] Number of different out-of-town fans attending a game = 174,143 [= 8.133 [.11 (78) + .10(39) + .09 (26) + .37 (13) + .22(6.5) + .07(3.9) + .03(2.1) + .01(1.6)] ] The number of games seen by the t y pical Atlanta fan is estimated in section B. E. Confidence Limits of Sample The confidence intervals for statistics in this study are based on standard statistical procedures. W e assume that the amount of bias in the sample is so small as to have a n egligible effect on the precision of the sample and that the sampled population is distributed about its arithmic:tic m ean in an approxil;nately normal m anner. The assumption of normality is safe wh ere prop ortions are involved, since the binomial distribution approaches a normal form as sample size increases. For items su ch as distance traveled or entertainment expenditures, the distributions may be skewed, but this deviation from n ormality should not seriously affect our r esults. In the case of proportions, the stan dard error of the proportion is computed as s.=t;[ , wh ere p is the propor tion of item s in the sample possessing the characteristic in question, q is the proportion not possessing the. cha racteristic, and N is t h e numof i tem s in the sample. In the case of va riables which m ay take on several values, the standard error of t h e sample mean is com pu ted 5 x-/f, as , wh ere V is the sample variance. F or continuous variables, V = (~x2 - N x.0 ) I (N - 1): for grouped data, V = [~ (x"f ) - N x' ] / (N - 1), where x is the class midpoint, f is the number of obser vations in each class, a nd x is a simple weighted m ean. When a class inte rval is not closed , we h ave arbitrarily assigned a mid point. Thus, we h ave assu m ed that expenditures for gas a n d oil in excess of $15 a verage $17.50, that entertainment exp endit u res by local fans in excess of $20 average $35, and that entertainmen t exp enditures by ou t-of-town fans in excess of $50 average $60. For distances t raveled by ou t-of-town fans in excess of 300 miles, the actual m ean for the category is used . The confidence limits for a confidence coefficient of 95 per cent are t h e sample mean plus or minus 1.96 times the standard error of the sample mean. These limits are reported in Table 1 of the text and are interpreted 38 �to mean that, for a large number of samples, the chances are that the true mean will be within the stated interval 95 per cent of the time. For example, the survey indicates that 59 per cent of the fans are Atlantans, but if a large number of similar samples had been taken, we would expect their conclusions to range between 56 and 62 F. per cent for 95 per cent of the samples. References: Ferber, Robert. Statistical Techniques in Market Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949, chapter 6. Tintner, Gerhard. Mathematics and Statistics for Economists. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1953, pp. 245-51. Expenditures of Local Fans 1. Estimate of ticket purchases 3 In the following, the first figure is the per cent of those in a section who were Atlantans, the second is the per cent of total attendance sitting in the section, the third is total attendance (excluding children's admissions, which are listed separately), and the fourth is the price of a seat in the section. Field level: 52 X 34.3 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 Loge level : 50 X 2.4 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 $ 961,236 64,672 Upper level: 60 X 36.2 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 668,455 P avilion: 68 X 7.1 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 148,683 General admission: 69 X 21.0 X 1,539,801 X $1.00 41 ,716 X $0.50 39 X 100. X Children: Total expenditure by local fans on tickets 223,117 12,360 $2,078,523 a game. Using this and the proportions reported in the text, the following calculations show expenditures on food and entertainment by local fans: 2. Food and entertainment 271,621, or 30 per cent of local attendance, spen t money on food and entertainment while t raveling to or from Individuals: .045 X 271,621 X $3.63 Families : .141 X 271,621 X $5.41 / 3 .114 X 271,621 X $5.73 I 2 Friends: Tot al food and en tertainment expenditure by local fans $ 44,369 68,937 89,024 $202,330 4. Gasoline, parking and other transportation According to the survey, 89 per cent of local fans either drove to the Stadium or parked downtown and arrived at th e game by foot, bus or taxi. Further , local fans lived an average of 8.37 miles from the St adium and the average number of people per car was 3. This resulted in 2,248,206 driven 3. Concessions The estimate of $1.00 per person in concession expenditures used in the text was provided by M r . Ray Carr of Automatic Ret ailers of America. 3. We asked the Atlanta Braves staff to provide only summary expen ditu re fig ures for our use and avoided requests for revenue figures which might be of confi dential nature. 39 �Gasoline prices in Atlanta area (1965): premium, $0.379 per gallon; regular, $0.339, and sub-regular, $0.319. miles [.89 x (905,403 local attendance / 3 fans per car) x 8.37 miles per car] in direct connection with the Braves. Mr. John E. Hodges, Director, Department of Statistics, American Petroleum Institute, provided the following statistics: 4 Average gasoline consumption (1964): 14.34 miles per gallon Premium-grade sales in Atlanta as proportion of total sales: .54 On the basis of averages provided by the regional offices of several oil companies, we have assumed that 30 per cent of local sales were of r egular grade and 16 per cent of sub-regular grade. Gasoline expenditures for local fans are computed as follows: Premium grade: .54 x $0.379 x 2,248,806 I 14.34 = Regular grade: .30 x $0.339 x 2,248,806 I 14.34 Sub-regular: .16 X $0.319 X 2,248,806 / 14.34 = Total gasoline expenditure by local fans With the average taxi fare in Atlanta set at $0.50 for the first ¾ mile and $0.10 for each additional ¼ mile, and with the average local fan living 8 miles from the Stadium, we have estimated his round trip taxi fare at $6.80. If 2 per cent of local fans were transported by taxi in parties of average size of 3.5, taxi expenditures in connection with games should equal $35,325 [ = .02 x 905,403 x $6.80 / 3.5]. 12 per cent of local fans used a bus at some point in their journey to the $32,095 15,949 8,004 $56,048 Stadium. With one-wa y fare at $0.25, expenditures by local fans for bus transportation should amount to $54,335 [ = .12 X 905,403 X $0.50). 89 per cent of fans had to pay for parking facilities either downtown or at the Stadium. Assuming a uniform rate of $0.50 per car with an average of 3.5 fans per car, parking fees should total $115,239 [ = .89 x 905,403 x $0.50 I 3.5]. 4. In a personal letter dated August 12, 1966. G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans 1. Estimate of ticket purchases As in section F.l, ticket purchases of out-of-town fans can be estimated as follows: Field level: Loge level: Upper level: Pavilion: .48 X .345 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 .50 X .024 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 .40 X .362 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 445,949 .32 X .071 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 69,969 = General admission: .31 x .21 x 1,539,801 x $1.00 Children: .41 X 1.00 X 1,539,801 X $0.50 Total expenditure by out-of-town fans for tickets 40 $ 887,295 64,672 100,241 8,551 = $1,576,676 �2. Food and entertainment 183,087, or 37 per cent of out-of-town attendance, spent money on food and entertainment. Proceeding as in section F .2, their expenditures are estimated as follows: · Individuals: .04 X 183,087 X $13.75 Families: .55 x 183,087 x $35.97 I 4 .41 X 183,087 X $33.84 / 2 Friends: Total food and entertainment expenditure by out-of-town fans 3. Concessions (As in section F .3) .51 X 183,087 Downtown: .06 X 183,087 Suburban: Total lodging expenditure and 1,270,112 $2,276,336 of the Georgia Hotel-Motel Association, we assume that the average rate for a double room in the downtown area is $13.00 and in a suburban area is $11.00, and that the average rate for a single room is $10.00 in the downtown area and $8.50 in a suburban area. Thus for a party of five, the cost of lodging for two days (average length of stay) is $72.00 in the downtown area and $61.00 in a suburban area. Estimates of expenditures are as follows: 4. Lodging Several assumptions are necessary to estimate lodging expenditures of out-of-town fans. Since the average size of parties staying overnight was 5, we assume that each party occupied two double rooms and one single. On the basis of several inquiries of hotels and motels which are members 5. Gasoline, parking transportation $ 100,698 905,526 X X $72.00 / 5 $61.00 / 5 $1,344,592 134,020 $1,478,612 Using the same percentages as in the computation of the expenditures of local fans for bus and taxi service (separate percentages for out-of-town fans were not calculated), these expenditures for out-of-town fans are computed, along with parking costs, as follows: other With 53 per cent of out-of-town attendance spending for gasoline a total of $7.22 for a party of four, their total expenditure amounts to $473,379 [ = .53 X 494,830 X $7.22 / 4 ] . Bus: .12 X 634,398 X $0.50 $38,064 Taxi: .02 X 634,398 X $2.80 / 4 $ 8,882 Parking: .89 X 634,398 X $0.50 / 4.5 $62,735 (The average taxi fare from a downtown hotel or motel to the Stadium is assumed to be $1.40 each way) 41 �H. Expenditures of Baseball Teams 1. The Atlanta Braves utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and equipment, Stadium Club, and Stadium rental. Since the details are not necessary for a study of this level, they were not requested. According to a statement provided by the Atlanta Braves, their expenditures in Atlanta over the baseball season will exceed $2,771,000. This total includes salaries and wages, 2. Visiting teams Estimates by members of the Braves staff indicate that visiting t eams should spend the following in Atlanta: Hotel (26 rooms/day at $16/ day for 75 days) Meals (40 men/day at $12/ day for 75 days) Miscellaneous personal expenditures (40 men/ day at $10/day for 75 days) Transportation for baggage, equipment and t eam ($500/trip for 27 trips) Miscellaneous entertainment expenditures ($200/ trip for 27 trips) Tips for clubhouse personnel ($400/ trip for 27 trips) $ 31,200 36,000 Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting teams $126,900 30,000 13,500 5,400 10,800 3. Visiting scouts Similar estimates for visiting scouts are as follows : Hotel (5 rooms/ day at $14/ day for 75 days) M eals and entertainment (5 scouts at $20/ d ay for 75 days) Miscellaneous p ersonal expenditures (5 scouts at $10/ day for 75 days) Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting scouts $ 5,250 7,500 3,750 $16,500 I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier The m ethod used to compute the economic base multiplier for this study roughly corresponds to the m ethod described in G. E. Thom pson, "An Investigation of the Local Employm ent Multiplier," R eview of E conom ics and S tatistics, vol. X L I (1959) , p p. 61-7. T h e m ethod is also outlined in the M onthly R eview, F ederal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, M arch, 1960, and m ay be called the " prim ary market area" m ethod. We describe below the st eps involved in constructing T able 15. 42 1. Employment in 1954 and 1964 in each industry for Atlanta, Georgia less Atlanta, and t he continental United S ta tes less Atlanta is obtained from U .S. D epartment of Labor, B ureau of L abor Statistics, Employm ent and Earnings Statistics for State& and A reas, 1939-65, BLS Bulletin No. 1370-3, and Employ ment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-65, BLS Bulletin N o. 1312-3. 2. Location quotients for each of the industries are compu ted as follows: �Location quotient Industry employment as per cent of total in Atlanta Industry employment as per cent of total in primary market area candidate The primary market area candidate is defined first for Georgia less Atlanta and t h en for the U.S. minus Atlanta. 3. Loca tion quotients are c0mpared. If t he location quotient for either prima ry market area candidate is greater than one, the industry is considered to have some export employm ent and the area with the largest location quotient is designated the benchmark economy. 4. The specialization ratio for each export industry is then computed using the location quotient for the benchmark economy as : Specialization r atio = 1 - I/location quotient . This ratio indicates the proportion of employment in the industry in Atlant a producing for export. 5. Employment in each export ind ustry in Atlanta is multiplied by its specialization ratio and summed. The resulting figure is export employment in Atlanta. As indicated in t he text, this method yields an estimate of the economic base multiplier fo r Atlanta of 3.3. Other variations on t his m ethod show different results. One variation (used by Thompson) computes t he location quotients with the benchmark economies including the subject a reas (in this case, simply Georgia and the U.S.). This approach leads to a multiplier of 5.03 for Atlanta and m eans that 80 per cent of each dollar spent would remain in the area for recirculation. Another variation uses the United States as the benchmark economy in each case, and results in a multiplier of 4.2. In this case the propensity to spend locally would be 76 per cent. But the primary market area approach, with a propensity to spend locally of less than 70 per cent, not 43 only appears to be the most appropriate of this techniques-it also yields a multiplier in keeping with estimates for other cities. Thus, quoting from various sources, Isard and Czamanski report the following multipliers as typical of economic base studies: 0 City Year Multiplier New York Chicago Detroit Pittsburgh New York 1944 1950 1950 1950 1950 3.2 2.99 3 .16 3 .55 3.91 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 3 .93 3.97 4.16 4.18 4.35 1950 1950 1952 1961 1963 4.89 5.47 2.60 2.80 2.50 .. ... .. San Francisco Cleveland Boston Los Angeles Balti more .. .. St. Louis Philadelphia Wichita Los Angeles Wilmington .. While the above multipliers are taken from a variety of sources and may be computed in completely different ways from ours, they still indicate reasonable limits for our conclusions. For a discussion of the conceptual basis, application, limitations and criticisms of the economic base multipliers, the interested reader is referred to Charles M. Tiebout, The Community Economic Base Study (Washington : Committee for Economic Development, 1962 ) and Walter Isard, Me thods of R egional Analysis: an Introduction to R egional S cience (New Yor k : J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960) . 5. Walter I sard and Stanislaw Czamanski, " Techniq ues for Estimating Local and Regional Multiplier Effects of C hanges in the L evel of Major Governmenta l P rograms," Peace Research Society, Papers, vol. III (I 965 ), p. 22. �THE WESTMINSTER S C HOOLS ATLANTA, GEORGIA OFF I CE OF THE P RESIDEN T June 23, 1967 The Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor of Atlanta, Atlanta, Georgia 30303 Dear Ivan: Tonight the boys and girls of the dormitory go down to see the Braves play. I wish you could see how excited they are about it. If this enthusiasm lasts, I think every game this summer is going to see 60 or 70 of our boarding students returning. You were most thoughtful to arrange for us to be able to give them this initiation to professional baseball. Knowing how very busy you are, I am deeply appreciative of your help. Cordially, WLP:k William L. Pressly �I - ' ,. 90TH CONGRESS lsT SESSION ,. j '· H. R. 467 IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 10,1~67 Mr. DA vrs of Wisconsin introduced the following bill; which was referred to the Committee on the Judiciary JANUARY A BILL To amend the .Act of July 2, 1890, to make the antitrust laws and the Federal Trade Commission .Act applicable to the business of organized professional baseball. 1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representa- 2 tives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, 3 That the .Act entitled ".An .Act to protect trade and commerce 4 against unlawful restraints and monopolies", approved J uly 2, 5 1890, as amended (26 Stat. 209; 15 U.8.O. 1-7), is 6 amended by adding at the end thereof the following new 7 section : 8 "SEC. 9. The words 'trade', 'commerce', and 'trade or 9 commerce' as used in this .Act, the .Act entitled '.An .Act to 10 supplement existing laws against unlawful restraints and I �2 1 monopolies, ,a nd for other purposes', approved October 15, 2 1914, and the Federal Trade Commission .Act, shall include 3 the interstate business of professional baseball, and this .Act, 4 the .Act of October 15, 1914, and the Federal Trade Com5 mission .Act shall be applicable according to their terms to 6 such business." ~ ~ ..., ..., (1) 0:, P., ,.,. ~ 0 & I>-~ (1) ~ ~ ~- ~ ,.,. .... I-" 0 (1) (1) - g ,.,. 0, (1) ~ .:: e (') iii' ..., ~ ~ ~ 0 >-l I" li;'lil ~ ..... 1-j ~ (t) r:n mo t.<1z ~o cr'poa fn' ~ 13 u, ~- (t) (1) ·l'.:f s I" 0 I-" co ~ ~ ~ i::l Ill ¢ H> $j ..... u, 0 0 ~ u, s· ~- § .:: >-lO p.., s~ Zt;:I e+ p..,>c+P" "1:jOp;"CP 1-j 0 c+ ~ po u, > o [ '"C po c+ '"C ;::j 0 5· :=-: p.., H> j (';) c+ < ...i po P" .:: "-' ~ ('.t) i,..... b" O"(t)lzj~ E;g(t)~t:,O (t) p.., f-l O" c+ (t) 00 ~ P" 1-j <:O F (D ~P O" ~ c11-j 0 gi, j (t) I" .:: is gi O (t) I>,' Ul 0 0 H> S I c+ P" CP > :c to • rtl rtl ~ -0 • ~ en ~ �~ongress of tbe Wniteb ~tates J!,ouse of 1'.epresentatibt.s •a:~bington. 119.~. January 24, 1967 Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr. Mayor City of Atlanta City Hall Atlanta , Georgia Dear Mr. Mayor: Apparently those people in Wisconsin never give up! I am enclosing a copy of a bill introduced last week by Mr. Davis o f Wisconsin which would place organized baseball under the Anti-Trust Act. I have already written Bill Bartholamay about this and assured him of my opposition to a similar bill. I just wanted you to know about this bill and that I sha ll wo rk to have it "laid to rest 11 in the Committee on the Judiciary. Wi th kindest regards, I am FT/m cc: Sinc.eirely your s, Mr. Furman Bishes Spo r ts Editor At l a nta Journal Atlanta , Georgia Mr. Jesse Outlar Sports Edit or Atlanta Constitution Atlanta, Georgia Mr. Sid Scarborough Ma n a ger Atlanta Stadium Atlanta, Georgia ~ THOMPSON Member of Congress �Press Be/ease FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE October 19, 1967 CHANGES SET IN FARM DEPARTMENT AND ON BRAVES COACHING STAFF Vice President Paul Richards announced today a realignment of duties in the Braves organization. Jim Fanning, who served as farm director in 1967, will join manager Luman Harris' coaching staff for the 1968 season. Eddie Rob i nson, formerly associated with the Kansas City Athletics, will become Braves Farm Director. Joining Fanning on the coaching staff will be pitching coach Harry Dorish, Ken Silvestri, Bob Uecker and Jim Busby. Whitlow Wyatt, last year's pitching coach will become minor league pitching coach. Fanning, 40, has served the Braves in numerous capacities since joining the organi zation in 1960. He has been a minor l e a gue manager and has served a s assis t ant to the gen e ral man~ger bef ore a s s uming duties as farm director. Dorish, 45, managed the Braves' Jamestown team in the New York-Penn League during the past season. As a major league pitcher he perf ormed for the Bos ton Red Sox , the St. Louis Browns , Chicago White Sox and Balt i more Orioles. Bus by, 38 , comes to the Braves from the Houston Astros. As a player he perfor me d f or the Chicago Whi t e Sox, Washington Sena to rs, Cleveland I ndians, an d Bal timore Or ioles. Si l vestri , 51, who served as i nterim manager f or t he l ast three games of the 1967 season, will retu rn to his b~ll pen du ties. Uecker, 32, will have special assignments. Robinson, 47, has served as administrative assistant and farm director for the Athletics, during which time the A's have built up a farm system recognized as one of the finest in baseball. 111111 �ll October 16, 1967 ATLANTA STAD I UM ATLANTA, GA. 30312 AC 404- 522 - 7630 Dear Season Ticket Holder: I want to thank you for the magnificent support you once again gave the Braves during the 1967 season. We are now in the process of formulating our season ticket campaign and before beginning our sale to the general public, we want to offer you the opportunity to renew your tickets and to purchase season parking privileges for the 1968 season. Season parking permits will again be available only to Braves' season ticket holders. As a season ticket holder, you have an option on your seat locations for World Series and pre-season games played in Atlanta; Stadium Club membership at lower dues; Soccer season tickets at a reduced price, and charge account privileges for individual game tickets. Information regarding these will be sent to you shortly. Many companies have asked us to make arrangements for early payment of season tickets for their budgetary purposes. Therefore, when your order is renewed we will forward a statement immediately and it can be paid at any time prior to the beginning of the season. However, I would like to point out that there is a possibility that the Federal Admissions Tax will be reinstated for the 1968 season and consequently we would be required to add this amount to our ticket prices. Any season tickets bought prior to that time will not be subject to this tax if it is reinstated. Our public sale of season tickets will begin on November 1, 1967, so we would appreciate your advising us about reservations for your present tickets prior to that date. We intend to field a hustling and aggressive team in 1968. We expect considerable help from our top minor league team in Richmond, who won the International League Pennant this year, and we have made some trades which should strengthen our position. It is my hope that the Braves can jump back into contention and we are doing all in our power to make this possible. It has been a thrilling experience for our entire organization to have welcomed more than three million people to Braves games during our first two seasons in Atlanta. I hope that we can have the pleasure of including you among our season ticket holders again in 1968 . 1J:;;;::~ ( fi ~Jti William C. Bartholomay Chairman and President ~ �June 5, 1967 Mr . Russell C . Moore 5670 Kendall Drive Na hville, Tennessee· Dear Mr. Mooze : Thank you for your letter of May 24th and I certainly ppreeiate your upport of the Brave . I mu t gr that with little pitching e can cert inly win th pennant. I hope you ·u have n opportunity to com to Atlanta often to ee the Brav play. Sincerely your , Ivan Allen. Jr. Mayor IAJr/b:r �56?0 Kendall Drive Na shville, Tennessee 24 May 1967 F,Ionorable Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: I live in Nashville, Tennessee and I am a n avid Braves fan. Durin g the year of 1966 I was at Atlanta Sta dium for seven ball games and this year I have viewed five games there and hop e to be back soon. I am enclosing an a rticle from the Nashville Tennes s ean "Sports Scope " which I would appreciate very much you reviewing it, esp ecia lly the t wo par agraphs I have circl ed in ink. Mr. F . M. Williams I think is tak ing too much for gr anted when he says that the Braves ca nnot win t he National League pennant . I think his conclu s ions are premature a nd unjustified. In my own pe rsona l opinion I think the Brave s can win, and if they do I will be there watching t h em p lay. I t ho ught I wo uld pas s this a l ong to you and thanking you for your time, I am, Sincerely yours, Cf ~ c.m~ Russell C. Moore 0 �May 10 , 1967 Master Skipper Thompson 350 N. W. 54th Street Fort Lauderdale, Florida Dear Skipper: We understand that you are quite a baseball fan but are presently laid up in the hospital. All the Braves want to extend our very best wishes for a speedy recovery . You should be receiving a very special package in the very near future from us and we hope you will enjoy the contents. Just as soon as you get well, we would like to invite you and your family to come up and see us play in Atlanta. Have your dad contact Mr. Jerry Sachs at the above telephone number and he will be delighted to leave tickets for you. Stay in there pitching. Cordially, THE ATLANTA BRAVES BCC: v Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. Mrs. Donald B. Connell �r Ma 4 , 1967 Mr • Donald B . Connell Rout l William on, Georgia D r Mrs. C Plea if y011r plan incl thu •ummer f r bi.In to ee the Bra With t i• , lam Sincerely yOQra, I - n Aile , Jr. Mayor lAJr/br CC: Mr. Jerry S chs v1,·, y. �April 19, 1967 Mr. G . D . Houa r Arthur Andersen & Co. 34 P achtr e Street, N. W. Atlanta, Georgi 30303 D ar Mt' . Houser: I appr c:iate t Georgia T ch Economic Im ct r port about th · Br: ve . I bad een thi but ppreciate . Ying n ddditional copy~ With b st wishe • I m Sineer ly your • IvnAUn,Jr. Mayor lAJ:r/br �& Co. ARTHUR AN D ERSEN 34 PEACHTREE STREET, N. W. ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30303 April 17, 1967 Honorable Ivan Allen Mayor of the City of Atlanta City Hal l Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Al l en : Several months ago I wrote you and told you of Georgia Tech's study of the economic impact of the Braves on the City of Atlanta. With usual academic speed , it has j ust now been published and I thought it might be helpful to your staff . Durin g the early months of this study we were concerned that wh ile the Braves were having a s i gn i ficant impact on th e bus in ess co mm unity, their contribution to city revenue was relatively insignificant. Perhaps the ne wly proposed Bu s in ess Lic ense Tax will divert some of this money to the city. I wou ld lik e to take this opportunity to tell you how intensely pro ud I am to be a n Atlan tan; I nev e r miss a n opport unity to si n g the praises of o ur city. If I can ever be of any assistance to you or your staff, I wou ld be delighted to help sustain the progress which ha s characterized Atlanta during your admin istr ation . Wit h best wis h es, ~ l y ~ G. Enclosure D. Hous er �A BRAVES .ilOOCLUB OFFICERS April 11, 1967 PRESIDENT- STEVE SCHMIDT P. 0 . Box 72 (30301) BUSINESS HOME 522-8883 631,-7777 VICE-PRES IDENT-J . L. JERDEN 319 Te n Pryor St. Bldg. (30303) 523-650 4 237-2438 VICE-PRESIDENT- BILL BASS P.O. Dra we r 1734 (30301) 875-3411 938-6509 TREASURER- ED HARRIS 523 Wh;te holl St., S.W. (30303) 521-3366 344-5672 SECRETARY- ELMER MORROW 2494 Woodridge Dr., Decatur (30033) 443-9 120 fayor I van Allen Atlanta City Ha ll Atlanta , Geor gi a Dear Mayor Allen, 634-0703 Please j oin us at our f irst 1967 Braves DIRECTORS CHARLIE BROWN P. O. Box 30, Atlanta (30301) 761-8821 753-8680 ART COLLIER 1611 W. Pea chtree St. (30308) 8 72-114 1 938-8241 JOE GERSON 739 W. Peachtree St. (30308) 875-7396 355-71 27 BILLY GIBSON 2000 Fulton No t' I Bonk Bldg. (30303) 522-3865 237-3413 EDDIE GLENNON Atlanta Sta dium (303 12) 525-7636 252-1824 HUBERT JACKSON Peachtree 7th Bldg. (30323) 5 2lr5293 794-61 29 McCREADY JOHNSTON 710 Rhodes-Haverty Bldg. (30303) 237-2445 5 22-4771 GENE McDERMOTT 600 Worchester Dr., N .E. (30306) 873-19 16 633-1042 BOB MONTAG 1365 Peachtree St., N.E. (30305) 874-9762 252-1896 JOE PITTARD 853 Northcl;ff Dr., N.W. (30318) 875-6661 355-2366 SIDNEY SCARBOROUGH 4610 Club Te rrace, N.E. (30319) 237-2445 522-4771 AL THOMPSON and p143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST):_~d find copy of Head Table Guests "Jf/ We would like to call on y ou for t he fir s t ~ pit ch. At that t i me y ou and all head t able .oP gue sts will be gi ven a styro ph ome Ball and we 1f'Jt..f'oY will joi n you in t hrowing a ball into the V audience . y -J We a r e most pleased that you take such an a ctive part in t h e Braves 400 Club affairs. ive look forward to seeing you Friday at the Ma rriott. Sincerely, ~~ Peachtree Center Bldg. (30303) 526-6594 794-1874 F. JOE VINING 2 170 P;edmont Rd., N.E. (30324) 875-4541 636-3479 ARCHIE YAWN Southern Airways, President Atlanta Airport (30320) 761,-5321 -/4 400 l uncheon . 766-2829 SJ S/ as �BRAVES•.,00Cll OFFICERS PIISIDENT- STEVE SCHMIDT P. 0 . Box 972 (30301 ) IUSINESS HOME 522-$883 631>-7777 YICl-f'IESIDENT-J. l . JEIDEN 319 Ton Pryor S1. Bldg. (30303) 523-650• 237-2•38 YICE-PIESIDINT_.lll IASS P. 0 . Drow• • 173• (30301 ) 875-3• r1 938-6509 TIIASUllll-1D HAIIIIS 523 Wh;1eholl S1., 5.W. (30303) 521-3366 3'•-5672 SICfflAIIY--llMEll MOIIIOW 2,9, Woodridge Dr., Decolur (30033) 443-9120 634-0703 DIRECTORS CHAILII lllOWN P. 0 . Box 30, Atlonto (30301) 761-8821 753-8680 AllT COlllEI 1611 W. Peachtree s,. (30308) 872-11,1 93M2•1 JOI OlllSON 739 W. Pea chtre e S1. (30308) 875-7396 355-71 27 IIUY OIISON 2000 Fuhon No!'I 8onk Bldg. (30303) 522-3865 237-3,13 - • OUNNON A1lonta Stadium (30312) 525-7636 252-182' IIUNln JACKSON Peodlt' " 71h 81dg. (30323) 521>-5293 79•-61 29 McCIIIADY JOHNSTON 710 Rhode1-Hoverty Bldg. (30303) 522-477 1 237-24'5 - M d l llMOTT 600 Worc:he1ter Or., N.E. (30306) 873-19 16 633-10'2 -MONTAG 1365 Pooch1ree St., N.E. (30305) 87"-9762 252-1896 JOI PITTAID 853 Northcliff Dr., N.W. (303 18) 875-6661 355-2366 IIDNIY SCAI IOI OUOH '610 Club Terra ce, N.E. (303 19) 522-4n1 237-24'5 Al ntOMPSON Peod,t, - Con••• Bldg. (30303) 526-659• 79, . 187, f . JOI VINING 2170 Piedmonl Rd ., N.E. (3032') 875-15• 1 636-3'79 AKN• YAWN Southern Airways, · Atlanta Airport (30320} 766-5321 766-2829 Fr:..day April l /;, - ·-tari ot t I,Totor I nn 12 ; 1 5 Luncheon Pr ogram •f,Tect 1 tho il ev1 Dr ave s ' Head Table Guests Hayor I van .All en Bill Bar thol omay Bi lly Hitchc oclt Paul Ric ha r ds Eddie Glennon J oe Tor re Her man Frank s Hor ace Stonehar.i Steve Schmidt '\:Ji llie May s Bi ll Ba s s J t, L. Jerden Ed Ha rris Efmer IIorrow Dean Collins Dixie Bott ler Re presentat ive Program Si lent Pr ayer f or former members Jack Wi l l iams and Harvey Hester and ot her dec ea s ed members fo llowed by invocation bir Dean Collin s . First Pit ch by -Tayor All en Introduc e Head Ta ble Gue sts I nt r oduce Pr ess Radi o TV by Charlie Roberts Introduc e Lunche on Sponsor and hi s ~~e st s Braves f ront office by Bi l l Barthol om~ or Paul Ri c hards Billy Hitchc ock Int r oduce players, tell a bout nm·1 Erave s Present Billy !Ii t chcock v-li th Pi ct nre Glennon introduce Herman Franks Joe Torre prese nts trophy to Clay Carroll I ntroduce umpi r e s · J . L. Gerden membershi p chairman Conclude/--See you at the Ball GAme �February 13, 1967 Mr g Bill Bartholomay Atlanta. Braves AUanta Stadium Atlanta, Georgia D 30312 r Bill: Thank you fo-r the rticl by Al Kv.ettner which I had not e n. I am certainly looking forward to · eing you in W t Palm Bea.eh during Spr.i ng Tr ,tmng. Sincerely your , lvan Allen, Ir. M . yor l}Jr/br �ATLANTA STADIUM ATLANTA, GA . 30312 AC 404- 522 - 7630 MEMO TO: Mayor Ivan Allen FROM: Bill Bartholomay, Chairman & President February 8, 1967 Thought this article in the December issue of PACE magazine published in Los Angeles, California might be of interest to you. �I,.. PLAY BALL-Atlanta's Mayor Ivan Allan tosses out first ball with assist from Governor Carl Sanders. Brave New World By FURMAN BISHER Atlanta f oumal I T wasn't a good year, really. The manager was fi red. Some of the coaches got along like old hens clucking around the same rooster. The town hero, the player who stood as the symbol of the Braves, was traded like you trade a horse. As much ink was devoted to lawsuits and courtroom play, and to Grobschmidt and Roller, as to Alou and Aaron , Cloninger and Torre. People complained about (a) parking, (b) price of hot dogs, ( c) price of anything, ( d) salt on the peanuts, ( e) no salt on the peanuts, ( f) no tickets at the reservation window, (g) wrong tickets at the reservation window, (h) why there weren't more seats when Sandy Koufax pitched, and ( i) Bobby Bragan. Several people in places of authority picked the Braves to win the pennant, or to be up there in September. They finished fifth. They had to come fast out of the shadows to do this . For years, transient experts had been saying, "Atlanta is a major league city." Now we knew that Atlanta officially was a major league city. We had all the aches and pains that other major league cities had . We fired managers. We had dissension in the clubhouse. We had fans who groused like hell. We were picked high and finished among the average. We had everything you want in the major leagues, from the saddle sores to the satin. Dixie The reason we know it was fo r the good of all was that 1,540,000 came out to Atlanta Stadium to see what was going on. People who had never seen a baseball thrown caught the shuttle bus, or had brunch or dinner at the club and rode out on a charter. Baseball became "society" again in Atlanta. To be seen in a box seat, or on the club level, or in the Stadium Club was the thing. The night we knew it was "big" was the night that Sandy Koufax pitched against Denver Lemaster. That was the night that Billy Hitchcock succeeded Bobby Bragan as manager. At least 10,000 people were turned away, but that wasn 't point of proof that this was "b ig." In the middle of the game, rai n came, and it rained for two hours . People standing around the outfield fence huddled there for an hour before surrendering their places and find ing shelter. Over 40,000 of an original crowd of 54,000 wanted to see the finis h, which fina lly came at 12 : 3 5 a.m., when Ed Mathews, the symbolic Brave, knocked a home run over the rightfield fence on a 3-2 count with two men out in the ninth inning. No one event has had as much impact on the national image of Atlanta in 25 years as the building of the stadium and the arrival of the Braves. It brought business to the city and industry to the city and prestige to the city, and it was a thing of value to every facet of life in the city. There was a time of political crisis last fall when we had no Governor. We could do without one far more easily than we could do without the Braves. 69 �TWA u(§!j[}[J!J moaa DIRECi FLIGHTS TO BIS LEAGUE CITIES WIDE-SCREEN MOVIE,S ON THE WAY* As a reporter, you do a lot of traveling during the season. That's why you'll appreciate TWA's one-airline service to most major league cities, and top training camps in Arizona, California, Florida. And if you're crossing the country non-stop, TWA's wide-screen movies make your trip seem even shorter. Call the nearest TWA office or your travel agent. ,:,sy Nationwide Worldwide depend on lnflight Motion Pictures, Inc., on most coast-to-coast jets. Greetings From LEONARD J. SIMON FORT LAUDERDALE OF Training Home of the New York Yankees WESTON'S SHOPPERS CITY, INC. THE PLACE TO GO IN FLORIDA 70 J �January 30, 1967 Mr . Thomas A . Reynolds Winston, Strawn, Smith & Patterson 1400 First National Bank Building Chicago, Illinois 60603 Dear Tom: Thank you SQ :much for your letter nd the Suprerne Coul."t Deci ion. Looking forwa..l"d to Spring Training and hope to be able to accept yol.ll' invitation to cOine to Palm Bea.ch. Sine rely your , lvan Allen, Jr. Mayor lAJr/br �HAROLD A. S M ITH GRI E R D . PATT E RSON CHAR L ES J . CALDERINI G E ORGE 8 . C HR ISTENSEN A RTH UR 0. W ELTON~J R . TH OMAS A . RE YN O L DS BR"C E L. HA M I LTON REUBEN A . BORSCH ALBERT W. POTTS JAME S D.H E AO T H O M AS S . TY L ER DOUG LAS C . "'10 1R FRA N K B . G ILM E R ROB ERT M<;DO U GAL , JR G E RARD E. ~ RASHORN N E AL J.Mc;AULIFFE EDWARD J . WENDROW CHAR L ES F . MARQU I S A L EXANDER J - MOODY B . M ICHAE L PAL LASCH JO H N DO N OVAN BIX L ER CHARLES J . CALD E R I Nl,,JR . BRUC E L. BOWER FREDER I CK G .ACKER ROB ERT 8 . G O LDIN G G . BRADFO R D COOK RICHARD J.BR E NNAN M . FINLEY MAXSON ARTH U R I.GOU L D NORMAN WAI T E .JR B R U CE M . SM I T H CRANE C. H AUSER EARL A.JIN KINSON E DMUND J.KENNY CALV I N P. SAWY I ER J .ARDEN REARICK RICHARD J.FAL ETTI FRANK D.KENNEY F RED H.DAUGHERTY R .LAWR E NCE S T ORMS T H OMAS A.REYN O LDS . JR. DAVID C. KE EGA DON M . SOW ER S JAM E S L. PERK I NS EDWARD L. FOOTE DAVID J.HARDY RICHARD H . CAIN FRANKO . WETMORE IC RI CHARD W . AUSTIN WINSTON, STRAWN, SMITH & PATTERSON 1400 F I RST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING CHICAGO 60603 FREDERICK H. W I NSTON (1853-1886) FR EDERICK 5. W IN S TON (1878 - 1909) S I LAS H. S T RAWN (189 1-1946) ( 31 2) Fl N A N CIA L 6 ·3 600 CABLE ADD RE SS January 25, 1967 ROBERT G . LANE D . S IONEY CONDIT JOHN W.STACK JAMES J . NACK W ILLIAM 0.M ULLI KEN WA LTER L .CROWL EY GEORGE E . LEO N ARDfil FRANK L. BUTLER JOHN H.DAVIES S TANLEY A . WA LTON m Dear Ivan, I thought you would like Order of the Supreme Court of the ending the Braves litigatione It hard and expensive battle, but we some s olace fr om the fa ct t h at we a copy of the United States has been a can obtain won! The Alstons, Hodgsons , Alexanders , et al are all planning on spending a few da ys at Spr ing Tra ining th i s y ear, a nd I sincere l y hope that th e All e ns will f ind it conv e nient t o do l ikewise. We would lov e to h a v e y ou down a t Pa lm Beach any time a ft e r Feb r uary 2 4 th an d if you think you c a n make it , even on the shortest notic e, ple a se gi v e me or Bill a telephone call an d we 'll mee t you t here. Wit h warmes t perso na l regar ds. Honorab l e Ivan All en, Jr. Mayor o f the City of Atlanta City Hall Atlant a, Georgi a - -· W I NST ON C HIC AGO �OFFICE OF THE CLERK SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES WASH IN GTO N, D . C ., 20543 January 23, 1967 RE: WISCONSIN v. MILWAUKEE BR.AVES, INC., ET AL., No. 659, Oct. Term, 1966 Dear Sir: The Court today entered the following order in the above-entitled case: The petition for a rehearing is denied. Mr. Justice Fortas took no part in the consideration or decision of this petition. Very truly yours, / =t/ L-- · JOHN r. DAVIS, Clerk By I ssist;./ · !,I .(/.-L Earl A. Jinkinson, Esq. Winston, Strawn, Smith & Patters on 38 South Dearborn St. Chicago, Ill. AIRMAIL ..... - �.January 26, 1967 Honorable Fletcher Thompson Congre s of the United S tes House of Repre entatives Washington, D . C e De r Fletcher: Thank you for your letter and the positi<'.m you ha.ve taken regarding rganized ba ebaU Wlde.r the· Anti• Tru t A<:t. 1 am mo t grateful £or your effoz in Si.nc rely your , 1 n Allen, Jr. Mayor lAJr/br · matter. �1967 ATLANTA BRAVES ROSTER MANAGER 8 Hitchcock, Billy B T HT. WT. BORN BIRTHPLACE RESIDENCE 1966 CLUB R R 6-2 190 Jul y 31 , 1916 Inverness , Ala. Opelika, Ala. Atlanta R R L-R R R R R R 5-10 6-2 6-1 6-0 180 193 200 210 Oct, 10 , 1917 Aug. 18, 1920 May 3, 1916 ~ -t_:_1_~ 1907 Mobile, Ala. Chicago, I l l . Chicago, Ill. Kensington, Ga. Montg omery, Ala. Mesa, Ariz . Chicago, Ill. BuchanE,n, Ga. Richmond Albuquerque Atlanta Atlanta B T HT. WT. BORN BIRTHPLACE RESIDENCE 1966 CLUB Deming, N. M. Fresno, Calif. COACHES 9 4 3 5 Adair, Bill K8nned y, Bob Silvestri, Ken Wya t __!: _,_Whg_low PITC:HERS (17) Jfi Bl a s ingame, Wade L L 6-1 185 Nov. 22 , 1943 39 42 20 40 33 Britton, Jim Bruce, Bob Carroll, Clay Cl oninger, Tony Jarvis, Pat R R R R R R R R R R 6-4 6- 3 6-1 6-0 5-10 215 208 190 200 180 Mar. 25, 1944 May 16, 1933 May 2, 1941 Aug. 13, 1940 Mar. 18, 1941 47 Hernand2z, Ramon R L-L 5-11 165 Aug. 31, 1940 30 22 Johnson , Ken Kelley, Dick R R R L 6-4 6-0 222 175 June 16, 1933 Jan. 8, 1940 23 35 Lemaste r, Denver Niekro, Phil R R L R 6-1 6-1 185 180 Feb. 25, 1939 Apr. 1, 1939 38 Reed, Ron R R 6-6 216 Nov . 2, 19,": ~ 26 Ritchie, Jay R R 6-4 190 Nov. 30, 1936 37 Schwall , Don R R 6-6 200 Mar. 2, 1938 34 Upshaw, Cec il R R 6- 6 185 Oct. 22, 1942 25 Vaughan, Charles R L 6-1 175 Oct. 6 , 1947 49 Williams, Ear l R R 6-5 195 J uly 14, 1948 Atlanta Richmond Tonawanda, N. Y. Tonawanda, N.Y. Richmond Detroit, Mich. Livonia, Mich . Houston Clanton, Ala. Atlanta, Ga. Atlanta Lincoln, N.C. Iron Station,N.C. Atlanta Carlyle, Ill. Atlanta, Ga. Atlanta Richmond Carolina, P.R. Carolina, P.R. El Paso Seattle w. Palm Beach, Fla. w. Palm Beach,Fla. Atlanta Boston, Mass. Brighton, Mass. Atlanta Richmond Atlanta Caroria, Calif. Oxnard, Calif. Blaine, Ohio Lansing, Ohio Atlanta Richmond Atlanta LaPorte, Ind. LaPorte, Ind. Kinston Austin Richmond Atlanta Salisbury, N.C. Salisbury, N.C. Richmond Atlanta Wilkes-Barre, Pa. Pittsburgh, Pa. Pittsburgh Shreveport, La. Bossier City, La. Atlanta Richmond Austin Mercedes, Texas Atlanta Brownsville,Tex. Austin Newark, N.J. Montclair, N.J. Sara sota IP 67.2 2 90 130 144.1 257.2 62.1 102 121 12 215.2 81 143 171 50.1 54 8.1 51 30 87 35.1 73 45 . 1 41. 2 3 94 65 7 83.1 61 w 3 0 3 3 8 14 6 6 9 0 14 7 9 11 4 3 1 5 3 5 0 4 3 3 0 5 4 l 2 1 L BB so ERA 7 0 5 13 7 11 2 5 7 2 8 5 7 8 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 2 0 5 5 0 7 0 25 1 53 29 29 116 12 40 35 3 46 21 47 41 23 16 4 12 7 26 12 23 19 19 3 30 14 3 39 22 34 2 87 5 . 29 4.50 3.80 5 . 33 2.38 4.12 2.32 3.88 2.16 5.25 3.29 3.33 2.08 3.74 4.14 3.67 2.25 1. 76 1. 20 3.52 4.11 1. 73 3.31 2 . 18 0 . 00 2.87 2. 77 2. 57 2.92 3 . 10 71 67 178 41 94 94 8 105 50 123 139 17 36 6 39 22 68 33 62 27 24 2 53 55 6 71 32 �CATCHERS (2) B T HT . WT . BORN BIRTHPLACE -~-.-.--..·---- RE SIDENCE --·- - 1966 CLUB AB 12 15 R R R R 6- 2 6- 1 215 205 Mar. 22, 1935 July 18, 1940 Moline , I l l. Brookl yn, N. Y. Rock Island, I l l . Brooklyn N. Y. At l anta Atlan t a R 5- 9 150 Oct. 19 , 1943 Sal inas , P. R. Atla n ta Richmond Santo Domingo , P . R. At l anta Richmond Grove, Okla . Ne w York (A) Tulsa, Ok la. Barquisime to , Venz. Kinston Austin Oakland, Cal if. Atlanta At lanta , Ga. Denver Kansas City, Mo. Atlanta At lanta, Ga. Rio Piedras, P. R . Atlant a Richmond Amaril l o Ponce, Puerto Ri co Richmon d Webster Grove , Mo. Aust i n Cora l Gables , Fla . Atlan ta Oliver, Ge ne Torre, Joe H HR RBI AVG . 191 546 37 172 8 36 24 101 .194 .3 15 44 395 666 414 500 55 4 365 110 307 454 91 170 460 243 104 455 4 96 218 132 120 170 96 24 96 114 25 52 122 0 5 31 25 14 0 7 2 0 15 0 6 2 12 0 0 2 26 74 57 29 44 7 32 60 5 29 42 37 8 43 .0 91 . 243 . 327 .31 9 .240 .307 . 263 .218 . 313 .251 .275 .306 .265 .206 .250 .264 6 \. , ~ INFIELDERS (13) 16 Al omar , Santos R 29 28 6 11 Al ou, Felip e Beauchamp, Jim Boye r, Clete Camb ero, Al Connoll y , Bob de l a Hoz , Mike Mart i n ez, Or l and o Menke , De nis Mi llan, Felix R R 6- 1 R R 6- 2 R R 6- 0 R R 5- 10 R R 6-0 R R 5- 11 R L-R 6-1 R R 6- 0 R R 6- 1 195 205 183 165 185 175 17 5 182 1 72 May 12 , 1935 Aug. 21 , 1 939 Feb. 8, 1937 Aug. 2?- ' 1944 Jan . l. , 1945 Oc t . 2 :; 939 ? ', , 1941 Aug . ~J uly 21 , 1940 , Au g . -? .l' 1943 Ciudad, Tr ujillo Vinita, Okla. Cassville, Mo . Barquisimeto, Ven z. Oak land, Calif . Hav ana, Cuba Havana, Cu ba Bancroft , I owa Yabucoa , ? . R. 18 45 Pacheco, Ed Southworth, Bill R R 5-11 6- 2 155 205 De c . 24, 1944 Nov . 10 , 1945 Ponce, Puerto Rico Madison, Wis. so 51 7 46 19 14 Woodward, _Wo o!iY R R Sa l inas, P . R. R R 6- 2 18 5 Se p t. 23, 1942 Miami, Fl a.___ __ _ R c; Fe b. ~' 1934 J an. 31, 1946 Sep t . l.- ' 1939 Mob ile, Ala. Mequon, Wis. Los Angeles, Cal if . Lo s An ge l es , Cal if . San Ped ro De Mar co s i , San Pedro Puerto Ri co De Marcosi , P. R. Hampton , s . c. Cha rleston , s . C. so 26 120 77 OUTFIELDERS (8) 44 52 43 Aar on, Henr y Bashor e , Ted Car t y, Ri c o R L L 6- 0 5-ll R R 6- 2 180 185 19 0 27 C":line, Ty L L t- 0 168 june :i.5' 1939 53 Ga st on, Cl are nce R R 6- 4 19 5 Mar . ' ' 31 48 Ge i ger, Ga ry Jones, Ma ck Lum, Mike L L L R R L 6-0 6-1 5-11 170 180 180 Apr . ~' 1937 Nov. 6, 1938 Oct . 27 , 1945 l7 Trainer - Harvy Stone Equipm e nt Mana ger - Dave Pursley Team Phys i c ian - Dr . Charles Harrison Ground s keeper - Wa lly Hi ggins ..!. I ' ._944 San Antonio, Texas San An to ni o , Tex as Sand Ri dge, Ill. Atlanta, Ga. Honolulu ,yawaii _ _ Murphysboro, I l l . Atlanta, Ga. Honolulu, Hawaii Atlan t a Kinston 168 44 Ll 0::: 100 11 12 7 53 . 279 .24 7 Atlanta Atl a nta Richmond Bat avfr. Austin Atlanta Atlanta Austin 521 71 214 433 10 1 26 417 541 170 18 58 143 .J " 33 110 144 15 0 2 28 0 4 23 6 76 6 22 104 4 10 66 48 .3 26 .273 .2 71 . 330 .300 .2 62 .264 .266 �~ongrt~~ of tfJt Wntttb ~tatt~ J,oust of l\tprtsentatibts lllaB'bington, ]&.~. J anu a r y 1 0, 1967 Mr . Wi l liam Ba rtholomay At l anta Brave s Commerc e Bu i ld ing At l anta, Ge orgia De a r Bi ll: I n ot i c ed t h e enclosed a r t i l e fr om the Wash i n g t o n Post and rath e r than h a ve y ou wr i te me concerning i t , I thoug h t I wou ld wr i t e you and l et y o u know that I am comple t ely oppos ed to this p iec e o f leg i s la tion . With my v e r y be st r eg ards Since r el y yours, FLETCHER THOMPSON Member of Congre ss FT/lg cc : Mr . S i d Scarborough Manage r , Atl a nt a Stadium Iv an Al len , J r . Mayor , City of Atlan ta �Zabloekl Plans J.,eglslatl~n House Bill Would Strip Baseball of Exemptio~ Ai!-OClaTtd P'r ('U Rep. Clement J. Zablocki (D Wis.) said last night he will introduce legislation to strip nrgan izecl professional baseball f its· pl'esent exemptio n fro m the Nation 's antitrust Jaws . Za bl<><:ld and othe r me mbers of Congress from Wisconsin were strong ly o pposed to t he mo e of t he Milwaukee Brave! to Atlanta, which came in• - - pite of ef forts by t he stzte of Wisconsin to prevent the lie and Congressional opinior transfer. that base ball's "high-bandec "Now that t he Supreme flaunting of the public interr · Court has re/used to review the muSt be stopped." adve rse decision in t he Braves Passage o( his ·bill , Zablurk case," Zablocki said in a state- said. would not mean return 01 ment, "new legislation appear the Braves t~ Milwauk~e. How to be a lmost the only hope of ever. he said be believes r breaking the arbitr;iry power of would expedite the for mat ior baseball owne rs and restoring or a new major league or rapic th.e game to the fans." expansion of the p re s e n 1 Similar legi lation was intro 1 agues duced by Zal;llockl at the be- rr ba eba ll is stripped of it! ginning of the 89th Congre~s. prP ent exemption from anti 1The bill was sent to the lfot1se t r u t la\1 s, he aid, it is proba Judicia ry Committee , \l-h1ch ble that feat ures of the present took no action. v trm, such as territo ria i Stating he is hopeful of a·greement s and the reserV£ action on his p roposal 111 th!' ddl1'P binding a plc1yer to one 90th Congress, Zablo('ki -,11u hP learn until he is sold or re ~lieves there is gro\\ 1n ::: p11h- ll'asl·d. would be struck clown �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 8

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_008.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 8
  • Text: ll October 16, 1967 ATLANTA STAD I UM ATLANTA, GA. 30312 AC 404- 522 - 7630 Dear Season Ticket Holder: I want to thank you for the magnificent support you once again gave the Braves during the 1967 season. We are now in the process of formulating our season ticket campaign and before beginning our sale to the general public, we want to offer you the opportunity to renew your tickets and to purchase season parking privileges for the 1968 season. Season parking permits will again be available only to Braves' season ticket holders. As a season ticket holder, you have an option on your seat locations for World Series and pre-season games played in Atlanta; Stadium Club membership at lower dues; Soccer season tickets at a reduced price, and charge account privileges for individual game tickets. Information regarding these will be sent to you shortly. Many companies have asked us to make arrangements for early payment of season tickets for their budgetary purposes. Therefore, when your order is renewed we will forward a statement immediately and it can be paid at any time prior to the beginning of the season. However, I would like to point out that there is a possibility that the Federal Admissions Tax will be reinstated for the 1968 season and consequently we would be required to add this amount to our ticket prices. Any season tickets bought prior to that time will not be subject to this tax if it is reinstated. Our public sale of season tickets will begin on November 1, 1967, so we would appreciate your advising us about reservations for your present tickets prior to that date. We intend to field a hustling and aggressive team in 1968. We expect considerable help from our top minor league team in Richmond, who won the International League Pennant this year, and we have made some trades which should strengthen our position. It is my hope that the Braves can jump back into contention and we are doing all in our power to make this possible. It has been a thrilling experience for our entire organization to have welcomed more than three million people to Braves games during our first two seasons in Atlanta. I hope that we can have the pleasure of including you among our season ticket holders again in 1968 . 1J:;;;::~ ( fi ~Jti William C. Bartholomay Chairman and President ~ �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 10

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_010.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 10
  • Text: 56?0 Kendall Drive Na shville, Tennessee 24 May 1967 F,Ionorable Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. City Hall Atlanta, Georgia Dear Mayor Allen: I live in Nashville, Tennessee and I am a n avid Braves fan. Durin g the year of 1966 I was at Atlanta Sta dium for seven ball games and this year I have viewed five games there and hop e to be back soon. I am enclosing an a rticle from the Nashville Tennes s ean "Sports Scope " which I would appreciate very much you reviewing it, esp ecia lly the t wo par agraphs I have circl ed in ink. Mr. F . M. Williams I think is tak ing too much for gr anted when he says that the Braves ca nnot win t he National League pennant . I think his conclu s ions are premature a nd unjustified. In my own pe rsona l opinion I think the Brave s can win, and if they do I will be there watching t h em p lay. I t ho ught I wo uld pas s this a l ong to you and thanking you for your time, I am, Sincerely yours, Cf ~ c.m~ Russell C. Moore 0 �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 11

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_011.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 11
  • Text: May 10 , 1967 Master Skipper Thompson 350 N. W. 54th Street Fort Lauderdale, Florida Dear Skipper: We understand that you are quite a baseball fan but are presently laid up in the hospital. All the Braves want to extend our very best wishes for a speedy recovery . You should be receiving a very special package in the very near future from us and we hope you will enjoy the contents. Just as soon as you get well, we would like to invite you and your family to come up and see us play in Atlanta. Have your dad contact Mr. Jerry Sachs at the above telephone number and he will be delighted to leave tickets for you. Stay in there pitching. Cordially, THE ATLANTA BRAVES BCC: v Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr. Mrs. Donald B. Connell �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 13

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_013.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 13
  • Text: April 19, 1967 Mr. G . D . Houa r Arthur Andersen & Co. 34 P achtr e Street, N. W. Atlanta, Georgi 30303 D ar Mt' . Houser: I appr c:iate t Georgia T ch Economic Im ct r port about th · Br: ve . I bad een thi but ppreciate . Ying n ddditional copy~ With b st wishe • I m Sineer ly your • IvnAUn,Jr. Mayor lAJ:r/br �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_017.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 17
  • Text: February 13, 1967 Mr g Bill Bartholomay Atlanta. Braves AUanta Stadium Atlanta, Georgia D 30312 r Bill: Thank you fo-r the rticl by Al Kv.ettner which I had not e n. I am certainly looking forward to · eing you in W t Palm Bea.eh during Spr.i ng Tr ,tmng. Sincerely your , lvan Allen, Ir. M . yor l}Jr/br �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 18

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_018.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 18
  • Text: ATLANTA STADIUM ATLANTA, GA . 30312 AC 404- 522 - 7630 MEMO TO: Mayor Ivan Allen FROM: Bill Bartholomay, Chairman & President February 8, 1967 Thought this article in the December issue of PACE magazine published in Los Angeles, California might be of interest to you. �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 26

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_026.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 26
  • Text: Zabloekl Plans J.,eglslatl~n House Bill Would Strip Baseball of Exemptio~ Ai!-OClaTtd P'r ('U Rep. Clement J. Zablocki (D Wis.) said last night he will introduce legislation to strip nrgan izecl professional baseball f its· pl'esent exemptio n fro m the Nation 's antitrust Jaws . Za bl<><:ld and othe r me mbers of Congress from Wisconsin were strong ly o pposed to t he mo e of t he Milwaukee Brave! to Atlanta, which came in• - - pite of ef forts by t he stzte of Wisconsin to prevent the lie and Congressional opinior transfer. that base ball's "high-bandec "Now that t he Supreme flaunting of the public interr · Court has re/used to review the muSt be stopped." adve rse decision in t he Braves Passage o( his ·bill , Zablurk case," Zablocki said in a state- said. would not mean return 01 ment, "new legislation appear the Braves t~ Milwauk~e. How to be a lmost the only hope of ever. he said be believes r breaking the arbitr;iry power of would expedite the for mat ior baseball owne rs and restoring or a new major league or rapic th.e game to the fans." expansion of the p re s e n 1 Similar legi lation was intro 1 agues duced by Zal;llockl at the be- rr ba eba ll is stripped of it! ginning of the 89th Congre~s. prP ent exemption from anti 1The bill was sent to the lfot1se t r u t la\1 s, he aid, it is proba Judicia ry Committee , \l-h1ch ble that feat ures of the present took no action. v trm, such as territo ria i Stating he is hopeful of a·greement s and the reserV£ action on his p roposal 111 th!' ddl1'P binding a plc1yer to one 90th Congress, Zablo('ki -,11u hP learn until he is sold or re ~lieves there is gro\\ 1n ::: p11h- ll'asl·d. would be struck clown �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 1

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_001.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 1
  • Text: s;llfDc»lla..-s; . tS'eops W h e n H a n k Get s Riled, He Really H a mme r s 'Em A 'l143.215.248.55k~Ahl!1ap~~c:a~~ni~!u~~ ~~:~i:e143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)1gvi~li~~-.- I~~ baseball, b u t he h as a way of doing it tha t avoids per - sonalities. He is by far t h e mos t accessibl e of a ll t h e so-called Super Stars in baseb a ll. He has a keen sense o f hu m o.r, Jau.a-hs eas ily at his own expense, and is p os::;essed with so mu5,:h talent that al m ost everything h e d oes appears effortless, s on1etirnes lazy . There . are those who say h is -major league career is being prolonged by such firm. control of his emotions, and there are others who say lac1c of fire in Aaron's makeup deprives the Atlanta Braves of the . on-the-field leadership so vi tal to championship ath- letic teams. So it was w ilh somewh a t mixed fee lin·gs t h at peoff!JJ~!rfr~~t3d h\l~e c\1:,~ ~~;a~tpw~!~/hs~\n1!e~!'/m~~-t: made at a booster c lub banquet by Milo Hamilton , U1e Atlanta radio a nnouncer. MANAGER BILLY HITCHCO CK, rushing q u i ck ly to Aaron's defense, could not h elp but be s ecrelly happy over Urn contr o ver sy. In two ga,111es t h ereafte r , H a nk ~:r. s~r~;1 ~t!~ i1~./!i~: t143.215.248.55s ; ~ s howed 1n o re aggr essiveness t h a n anyon e in these parts h as ever seen h i m display. ft was in jest, but w'ith some semblance of truth, that a wag com-niented after Sunday's tremendous exhibition by Aaron that it would be a good investment to hire a h a nd to visit H enry each day with just one re?nark : « Robe-rto Clem.ente' s a b e tter outfie lder t/ian you are." Act u a lly, t h at is not w h at Hank Aaron Ham ilt o n said. nor w h ~t Aar on got angry a bou t . M ilo's remark was to the effect t h at l ast yea r·, in the All-St ar game. Aaorn was s h ifted lo left field to m ake room for Cl emente in right, i mplyin g that b aseba ll pl ayers f.ivorcd CJemente. AARON'S DISPLEASURE was in being broug h t into verbal testimonial to C le m e n te, in t he first place, and to Hamilton's ig norance of t h e facts. Aaron got n1a,,·e v ote;; for o utfielde r i n the A U-Star game than did Cle111e nte a .fear ago, and coutd h-avc -s-tactcd in right H h e had insist e d upon lt. He s hifted to Jeft at the r equest of Al l-Star Manager Walter Alston. Duroch er Set OfAi C o n trove rsy A year ago down here th e r e was a big c ontroversy going over whether Aar on was as good a n outfielder as Willie Mays. L eo Durocher s e t tha t o ne off, and coincidentally, h e d id it in a s peech at a nother Atlant a Booster n1eetin g. L e o took Mays , of course. c.Actually, I 'm flattered to be -nientioned with Willie Mays or Clernente when people get to talking about who's the b est outfielder playing today/' said Hank. '"I 'm.. perfectly wilting f or rny re cord to s p eak for rne . The record s p ea ks loudly . H e has a life t ime b atting average of .317 . To d ate h e has h it 453 h o n1.e runs, ha·s batted in 1 ,461 men . I-Ie is r egard e d , w ith Mays, as the very best base r u nne r in the Nat ion a l League, not becau se of the bases h e stea ls, b u t because h e- seld om ever gets th row n out t a k ing an extra base. He has a great arm , h e has 1nore tha n adequate speed. And w hen h e gets mad, h e's viciou s a t the right place-at h o me pl a te. w ith a base ball bat ln hi s han d. The 1,irob!.em ~s k;e ping hi m mad . It Takes Ho(l1ers To Draw Fans The Braves, w ho o pen a t hree-ga me series ~fa143.215.248.55t 2Jh3at!~ a\0h~:n;143.215.248.55tha~!e 1d:1w~0 143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)J2o 1~ evo~ pie. That's s ome 22.000 less than at a c orres pon d ing time d uring their firs.t season i n the South . Almost all the difference can be traced r igh t b a ck to o pe nit1g day. aron and Joe Torre are the main reasons that fans are flocking through the turnstiles in suc h great numbers . They h i t ho'm-e runs, Still the greatest at- · traction baseball has to o s 11 Torr nine Al'm.ost anyone who has ever seen a base all: game knows t hat Atlanta cannot win the National League pennant--yet i t is an interesting team an excitin espi e mJunes an 1 n esses a a epri ved him of his two best p itc h e1·s, Tony C loninger and Ken Johnson, for much of the ea r l y goin g, Manager Hitch- cock has the cJub p laying a t a 1nu c h be tte r pace t ha n a year ago . W ith a record of 18-16, t h e Braves a r e two games above the .500 m a rk. A year ago t h ey were two games under the break-eve n poi nt. .. Unpopular Walke r o n W ay O ut? Harr.v \Valker, the talkatiVe A l abaman man aging the P ittsburgh Pirates, is as unpopul a r w it h his players as was Bobby Bra_gan with t he Braves a year ago. Sources c lose to the Pirates say only a p e nna nt can save \.Valker's job 1 a nd they add, the penna nt will never be won with him as 1nanager. Admittedly, Walker is one of baseball's keenest stu6'ents especially in the art of hitting. His problem with the players , it seems, is that he never knows when to leave t h em, alone. I-I arn1 is a stickl er for per- h16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)~· 143.215.248.55 16:51, 29 December 2017 (EST)lk~oc:i~~1¢i7fatf::i c~~e~~=n~~y:vitntelZ,_~ t~0 at a time when the h?tter.<; sf10ulcl be practicing that, as well as their hitting. One report ci rcnl::t.ti.ng in t h e lobby of the hote l where the Pirates lived du r in g their fonr ga m es w it h the Braves h ad \.Valker e nforc ing a b e d check on V e rnon Law, a d eacon in t he Mormon Churc h a n d perhaps the most devout baseb a ll pl aye r i n the m ajor leagues. True or not, it m a kes the point of w h y hi s players do not like him. �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 3

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_021_018_003.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 3
  • Text: �T E L E P HONE 088 - 6838 GE ORGE DAVI D HOUSER A RTH UR .AND E R S E N & CO . 34 P EACHTREE STRE E T, N . W. • ATLANTA :J0 :303 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES ON ATLANTA: 1966 by William A. Schaffer· George D. Houser· Robert A. Weinberg FEBRUARY, 1967 Industrial Management Center GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Atlanta, Georgia �ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors wish to express their thanks to the many people who worked on this study, and particularly to the Atlanta Braves whose whole-hearted cooperation made this study possible. 3 ... �CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 3 LIST OF TABLES 5 LIST OF FIGURES 5 I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS II. PROCEDURES . Sampling, 9 Interviews, 10 Reliability, 10 Representativeness, 12 7 9 Ill. CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS General, 13 Local Fans, 16 Out-of-Town Fans, 17 · · · · . . . . . . . . . . 13 IV. ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES · · · · · · · . . . . . . . . . 20 Sources of Expenditures, 20 Expenditures of Local Fans, 22 Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 23 Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 25 Summary of Direct Expenditures, 25 V. THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT . . . . . VI. THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Questionnaire, 32 B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results, 33 C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries, 36 D. Estimation of Number of Different Persons Attending Games, 37 E. Confidence Limits of Sample, 38 F. Expenditures of Local Fans, 39 G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 40 H. Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 42 I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier, 42 4 . 27 . 31 . 32 �LIST OF TABLES 1. Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions 11 2. Comparison of Population and Sample 12 3. Makeup of Attendance at Games 14 4. Radio Following . . . 15 5. Mode of Transportation 15 6. Seat Preference . . . 16 7. Attendance Expectations of Local Fans 16 8. Estimated Distance Traveled by Local Fans 17 9. Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans 18 10. States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn . 18 11. Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game . 19 12. Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State . 19 13. Summary of Expenditures . . . . . . 22 14. Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans . 24 15. Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment Producing for Export, 1954 and 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 LIST OF FIGURES 1. Expenditures of Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2. Th e Mu ltiplier Effect for Braves Related Income in Atlanta . 28 0 5 �I I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS THE purpose of this study is to assess the economic impact of the Atlanta Braves baseball team on Atlanta. In addition, the study includes a variety of information, ranging from game starting times to hot dog expenditures, which will help the Braves management better understand their fans and provide Atlanta with a closer and more up-to-date look at the economic importance of major league baseball in Atlanta. A similar study is being conducted t o assess the impact of the Falcons on the city. The combined reports should serve to underline the contributions of professional sports to a growing Atlanta. The study is divided into six parts. A summary is provided in this section. Then the survey technique is briefly described. Third, the characteristics of the fans are outlined. Fourth, an analysis of expenditures made in connection with the Braves is presented, followed by an examination of the flow of income as these expenditures are spent and respent. Finally, the noneconomic impact of the Braves on Atlanta and Georgia is discussed. (A technical appendix is also provided to supplement findings summarized in the text.) In summary, the Braves had a significant economic impact on 7 �the city of Atlanta in 1966. Over 9 million dollars were spent in Atlanta in direct connection with the baseball season. As this money circulates, up to 30 million dollars in income for Atlantans will be generated. Two-thirds of the initial expenditures were made by the 174,000 different visitors to Atlanta who made up 41 per cent of the official attendance of 1,539,801. Over half of the expendit ures by out-of-towners went for food, entertainment and lodging, although significant amounts were also spent at the game itself, for gasoline, and on transportation. Attendance by an estimated 107,000 Atlantans reached over 905,000. In contrast to the pattern set by out-of-town fans, twothirds of the expenditures of local fans were made at the St adium itself, with food and entertainment, parking, gasoline, shuttle bus and other transportation expenditures following in importance. A hard core of baseball fans has been uncovered in Atlanta. The typical local fan expected to see 16 to 25 games while the out -oftown fan expected t o see four games over the season. While 82 per cent of season attendance was drawn from wit hin 150 miles of Atlanta, over half of the out-of-town fans came from 23 other states, primarily Alabama, Tennessee, South Carolina and N orth Carolina. A majority of the fans came with t heir families, although a large number of fans came in organized groups from as far as Los Angeles, Chicago, and Ottawa, Canada. And no matter where their homes, the Braves fans were loyal both in and out of the Stadium, with 73 per cent of all fans admitting to regularly following the Braves on t he radio. While the economic impact has been substantial, the noneconomic contribution of the Braves to Atlanta is no less important. Some partial indicators of this contribution are available. Thus, Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 times in daily newspapers, four games were televised nationally from Atlanta, 20 games were t elevised over the Southeast, and 39 regional radio stations carried regular broadcasts of the Braves. If other teams have similar networks, then t he Atlanta Braves played before millions across the nation every week of the season. Further, Braves personnel appeared over 395 times as speakers throughout the state and made preseason visits to 24 major cities in the Southeast. Finally, the Braves have contributed substantially to programs at schools in the neighborhood of the Stadium. 8 �II / PROCEDURES THIS study describes the characteristics of Atlanta Braves fans through the application of standard sampling procedures. The analysis of a small, carefully selected segment of a population will yield information almost as accurately as if the entire population had been studied. The technique used is outlined here; details are presented in the Appendix. Sampling THE population for this study is defined as all persons who attended an ~tlanta Braves game in the Atlanta Stadium. Since seating by section appeared to be proportionately stable from game to game, the proportional method of sampling was chosen. That is, the size of the sample for each section was proportional to its population. These proportions, initially based on the first 13 home games, were adjusted as necessary later in the summer. Within each section of the stadium the sampling was random. Each member of the population in a section had an equal chance of being interviewed. Locations for interviews were based on a mathematical formula and the interviewers were not permitted to make decisions based on their own desires and observations. This insured a reasonable objectivit y in the survey results. The sample games were selected to include each team, day of 9 �the week and starting time and were played over a three-month period from mid-May to mid-August. The sample itself consisted of a total of 1479 fans interviewed at 16 games. 1 Interviews APPROXIMATELY 90 to 100 interviews were conducted at each sample game by carefully trained students and members of the faculty of Georgia Tech. Each interviewer carried an identification card indicating the purpose of the interview and authorizing his presence in the Stadium. The interviews were conducted according to a preset format and usually could be completed in less than two minutes each. Interviews were begun 30 minutes before game time and stopped before play commenced. As a technique for data collection, personal interviewing yields good results. It allows the respondent to relax, requires a minimum of effort in answering questions and provides a larger proportion of usable replies than other methods. The interview form was carefully constructed to avoid bias, and each question was selected for a specific purpose. 2 The questions did not probe into the personal background of the respondents; as a result, there was little or no reluctance in answering them. Several interviews were conducted wit h t he quest ionnaire in a rough-draft form to insure that each question was easily answerable. Once the format was established, t he questions and answers were number-coded so that responses could be keypunched directly from the questionnaire. This facilitated analysis of the results through the Rich Electronic Computer Center at Georgia Tech. Many questions were eliminated prior to the start of the study because of the availability of information from other sources; were it not for access to t hese sources, the time involved would have become excessive and both fans and interviewers would have suffered unnecessarily. Throughout the survey, the cooperation and willingness of fans to participate in the study greatly simplified the interview task. Reliabil ity W HILE the nature of the questionnaire prevents the determination of a degree of accuracy for the questionnaire as a whole, an 1 2 The schedule of games sampled is presented in sectum C of the appendix. The interview questionnaire is reproduced in section A of the appendix. 10 �expected error can be stated for selected questions. Computations based on standard statistical techniques indicate that there is 95 per cent probability that the population means will lie within the intervals shown in Table 1.3 Where only a yes or no answer is involved (i.e., where the distribution is binomial), the per cent of the population possessing the characteristic in question is expected to differ no more than 4 per cent from the corresponding per cent of the sample. Where the answer is subject to more variation ( e.g., distance from Stadium, expenditures, length of stay, etc.), the maximum expected error rises, particularly when the number of observations is small. Thus, the mean entertainment expenditure of all out-of-town parties may vary from the mean based on our sample by as much as $6.61. In general, the usual cautions in the interpretation of survey results apply, but estimates based on this sample should reasonably approximate the characteristics of fans of the Atlanta Braves m 1966. Table 1: Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions Maximum expected error Topic of question Confidence interval Lower limit Upper limit Asked of everyone: Desirability of starting t ime (proportion) Number in party . . . . . . . . . Loca l or out-of-town resi dent (proportion) .01 .48 .03 .90 4.29 .56 ,92 5.25 .62 .37 .03 .61 1.34 8.00 .27 4.64 22.53 8.74 .33 5.86 25.21 11.02 .04 6.61 .04 .50 .04 .54 .15 .81 150.00 .37 27.71 .43 2.47 .49 6.68 1.48 7.11 172.00 .41 40.93 .51 3.47 .57 7.76 1.78 Asked of local fans: Distance of home from Stadium (miles) Game-connected entertainment (proportion) Entertainment expenditure (dollars) Number of games expect t o see . . . Asked of out-of-town fans: Distance of home from Atlanta (miles) Game-connected entertainment (proportion) Entertainment expenditu re (dollars) . . . Overnight visit (proportion) . . . . . . . Number of nights stayed . . . . . . . Gas and oil purchase in Atlanta (proportion) Gas and oil expenditure (dollars) Games expect t o see this trip . Games expect t o see for season 3 See sectwn E of the appendix. 11 8.73 �Representativeness To demonstrate its representativeness, the sample is compared with the population in several key areas in Table 2. The sample and population proportions according to these classifications are very close. Most of the relatively high differences in attendance proportions in the population and sample for the various teams played can be explained by an inability to adjust the survey schedule to account for changes in the popularity of teams as the season progressed. But even these are slight enough to be disregarded. Thus, the survey appears to be adequate in size and composition to yield reasonably accurate results. Table 2: Comparison of Popu lation and Sam pl e Classification Attendance, by day of week Week game . Weekend game Attendance, by opposing team Los Angeles Philadelphia New York Cincinnati Houston St. Louis . San Francisco Chicago Pittsburgh Attendance, by section of Stadiums General admission Field level Loge Pavilion Upper level Games scheduled, by day of weekb Weekday afternoon Weekday evening Friday evening Saturday aftern oon Saturday evening Sunday afternoon Per cent of populatio n Pe r cent of sampl e 56 57 44 43 21 20 8 11 8 8 8 7 11 6 18 7 12 13 13 14 11 4 21 24 34 3 39 5 7 35 28 1 45 17 11 4 0 44 19 12 9 6 17 19 Not es : a. The po pul ation percenta ges in secti o ns of t he Stad i um a re based o n actua l attendance f or t he first 13 hom e games. b. Doub le head ers are counted as o ne game. 12 �Ill/ CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS AN expected outcome of any survey of baseball fans would be a description of the average fan. Unfortunately, much of the information required to draw a good fan profile is confidential (age, income, education, etc.) and a direct query into these topics is likely to be answered in an exaggerated or biased manner. To protect answers more pertinent to the central purpose of the study, questions of this type were eliminated during the initial testing of the questionnaire. But several items of general interest were compiled and are presented below. The next two sections then provide discussions of the characteristics of local and out-oftown fans. General A'ITENDANCE. There is little doubt that the 1966 baseball season has been highly successful. Official season attendance was 1,539,801, and the highest for the Braves since 1959. Playing in the smallest metropolitan area with a National League team and spending most of the season in the lower division, the team still ranked sixth in total attendance ahead of Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and Chicago. Attendance at home games appears to have depended in part on the standing of opponents, 13 �with Los Angeles (first place) drawing over 330,000 followed by San Francisco (second place) with over 270,000 and Pittsburgh (third place) with over 200,000. This stands in contrast with attendance of less than 100,000 for games with Chicago (tenth place) and 111,000 with Cincinnati (seventh place). Average attendance also varied by month, with games played in July and August drawing large crowds. While those are vacation months, school, football and other activities tend to reduce baseball attendance in May and September.4 According to the survey, roughly two out of every five fans were from out of town and accounted for a total attendance of Table 3: Makeup of Attendance at Games Type of game Week . . . Weekend Total Per cent local fans Per cent out-of-town fans in Atlanta for: Ball game Other reasons 62 27 55 59 11 6 9 39 32 634,398. Table 3 shows that most out-of-town fans (78 per cent) were in Atlanta primarily to see a game and attended more games on weekends than otherwise.5 Per cent of total: August 10 Survey A ugust 8 A uto registration ( or home) Other states Other Georgia counties Metropolitan Atlanta Counties (Fulton Co.) (DeKalb Co.) ( Cobb, Clayton, Gwinnett Cos.) 24 14 62 (37) (16) ( 9) 19 16 65 (33) 22 16 62 (21 ) ( 11) The tag counts did not include fans arriving by shuttle bus; our interviewers (when asked) defined A tlanta as within 15 miles of downtown. If these differences counterbalance each other, the results are virtually identical. •See section C of the appendix for details. 5 Our results are remarkably close to those of surveys conducted by the R esearch Department of the A tlanta Chamber of Commerce. While their complete study is not y et available, they have provided preliminary results of two counts of automobile license plates in the Stadium parking lots. B oth counts were conducted on week nights with the Los A ngeles Dodgers as the opposing team. The first (1,814 cars) was on August 8 and the second (4,967 cars) on August 10. Compared with our survey, the results are as follows: 14 �As evidenced by the interest with which fans follow the Braves on radio, baseball is not just a sport of passing fancy. One of the questions asked of fans was designed to determine whether they followed the Braves by radio regularly, occasionally, or not at all. As Table 4 indicates, a large proportion of fans follows the Braves regularly. While most of the regular RADIO FOLLOWING. Table 4: Radio Following Type of fan Per cent of attendance following radio broadcasts: Regularly Occasionally Never 82 59 73 Local fans Out-of-town fans . All fans 12 22 19 16 11 6 listeners are local fans, the out-of-town following is still substantial (81 per cent) and is probably closely associated with the 78 per cent of out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a ball game. PARKING. Anyone who attended a game during the 1966 season was reminded of Atlanta's parking problems and expressway traffic jams. The Atlanta Transit Company established a convenient shuttle bus service from downtown to the Stadium to supplement the limited number of parking spaces at the Stadium. Nevertheless, as shown in Table 5, 81 per cent of the fans inter- Table 5: Mode of Transportation Mode Per cent of attendance 81 1 7 1 Drove car to Stadium . . . . Drove car t o t own and walked . Drove car t o town and took bus Drove car t o other and took bus Took bus on ly Charter bus 4 2 2 2 Taxi . . Walked viewed chose to drive their cars and either park in the Stadium lots or use one of the bootleg parking facilities which have sprung up around the Stadium. Some 12 per cent of the fans elected to use t he shuttle bus service; this figure was generally lower during 15 �games with smaller attendance and increased markedly as attendance approached sellout proportions. 6 SEAT PREFERENCE. One of the interviewers' tasks was to code each questionnaire according to section of the Stadium and type of fan (local or out-of-town). This was done as an interest item to determine out-of-town seat preferences. As Table 6 indicates, there were no sharply drawn preferences, with the exception that Table 6: Seat Preference Section of Stadium Loge . . . . . Upper level . . General admission Field level Pavilion . . . . Per cent local fans Per cent out· of-town fa ns 50 50 40 30 48 32 60 70 52 68 70 per cent of the general admission tickets was sold to local fans and that the out-of-town fans, in general, tended to gravitate toward the more expensive reserved seats. All it ever took during the season was a glance at ·the grandstand area with its "Hammering Hank" and "Go Joe" banners to know that the hard-core baseball fan was firmly entrenched in the grandstands. Local Fans ATTENDANCE. Baseball is not just a novelty for Atlanta fans: the typical fan expected to see 16 to 25 games, and 16 per cent of the local fans planned to see 40 or more games before the season was over. Attendance expectations are presented in Table 7. If Table 7: Attendance Expectations of Local Fans Number of games Pe r cent Less than 3 3 to 6 6 to 11 11 to 16 16 to 26 26 to 41 41 or more 6 4 10 19 15 22 14 16 While offici,al figures are not available from the Atlanta Transit Com-pany, their estimates parallel ours. 16 �these expectations held true, over 107,000 different Atlantans had attended a game by the end of the season for a local season attendance of over 905,000.7 RESIDENCE. While 40 per cent of local fans live in the Northeast section of the city, the remainder are drawn fairly evenly from the other quadrants of·the city (20 per cent from the Northwest, 19 per cent from the Southeast, and 21 per cent from the Southwest) . The average distance traveled from home to Stadium was 8.4 miles. As Table 8 shows, this average is heavily weighted by Table 8: Estjmated Distance Traveled by Local Fans Miles traveled (one way) Per cent of local fans 18 Less than 4 4 7 10 13 23 to 7 to 10 . to 13 . 26 or more 20 14 the large proportion of fans traveling ten miles or more. The most frequently estimated distance traveled was 10 to 13 miles. GROUP COMPOSITION. Baseball is a family sport in Atlanta. 52 per cent of the local fans attended games with their families, 30 per cent with friends, 16 per cent by themselves, and 2 per cent with an organized group. The average group size was four. Out-of-Town Fans ATIENDANCE. In measuring t he impact of the out -of-town fan, this study has directed its attention to the out-of-town fan who was in Atlanta primarily t o see a ball game. 78 per cent of the out -oftown fans (or 32 per cent of all fans ) interviewed were in this category. As shown in Table 9, the remainder were in town for a variety of different reasons and simply selected the ball game as one form of entertainment. By t he time the season ended approximately 634,000 out-of-town visitors had been to a Braves game. This total includes a number of fans who came to several 7 For computation, see section D of the appendix. 17 �Table 9: Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans Per cent of out-of-town f ans Reason 78 To see a baseball game On business On vacation . . . . Visiting friends . . Just passing through Conventioneering . Other . . . . . . 7 6 4 1 1 3 different games (the average out-of-town fan planned to see four games during the season). On a non-repeat basis, approximately 174,000 different out-of-towners were drawn to Atlant a by the Braves.8 STATES REPRESENTED. Of this 174,000 total, 75,000 came from other towns and cities in Georgia, and the remaining 99,000 came from 23 other states. While the greatest number of out-of-state fans came from Alabama and Tennessee, it was quite common t o encounter fans from Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina. Table 10 shows the attendance breakdown for the major contributing states.9 Table 10: States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn State Per cent of out-of-town fa ns Georgia Alabama Tennessee . . South Carolina North Carolina Florida Other . . . . 43 13 11 9 9 5 10 DISTANCE TRAVELED. Although more t han half of the out-of-town fans live within 150 miles, the average one-way distance traveled by out-of-town fans in Atlant a primarily to see a game was 161 miles. According to Table 11, the median dist ance traveled is 100 to 150 miles. 92 per cent of these fans traveled by car, 5 per cent BFor computation, see sectwn D of the appendix. 9 The 17 other states from which fans interviewed came were (in order of frequency ) Mississippi, Ohw, Texas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, Indiana, Louisiana, South Dakota, Maryland, Illinois, California, Minnesota, New Jersey, Nebraska, and Missouri. 18 �Table 11: Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game Distance Per cent of out-of-town fans Less than 50 miles 50 to 100 miles 100 to 150 miles 150 to 200 miles 200 to 300 miles 300 miles or more 16 21 18 12 16 12 by bus, 1 per cent by airplane, and the remaining 2 per cent used some other means of travel. (One fan insisted that he had driven from Alabama in the family truck and flatly refused to have it classified as anything but "other.") Baseball for the out-of-town fan is also a family occasion: 55 per cent of the fans interviewed were with their families, 33 per cent were with friends, 7 per cent were by themselves, and 6 per cent were with organized groups. A tabulation of group ticket sales provides an interesting aside, in addition to confirming our survey results. Table 12 shows that, GROUP COMPOSITION. Table 12: Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State State Cities Geor.gia Alabama South Carolina Tenn essee North Carolina Fl orida Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi Ohio California Illinois Ontario (Canada) Total 95 46 30 24 23 6 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 235 Number of Groups 246 152 91 86 77 15 5 2 4 2 1 1 2 684 Fans 17,546 9,420 4,375 3,388 6,507 441 539 68 293 800 50 130 33 43,590 excluding groups from Metropolitan Atlanta, a total of 684 groups from 235 cities ordered tickets to games this season, representing 6.9 per cent of estimated out-of-town attendance. This compares favorably with survey results (6 per cent), even though the distribution among states is not the same as for all out-of-town fans. T he average organized group size was 64. 19 �IV/ ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES THE study now turns to the monetary impact of the Braves on Atlanta. The discussion will show the effect of the Braves on funds flowing through Atlanta's economy, the sources of these funds and where, specifically, they entered Atlanta's economic stream. In addition to new funds from other areas, locally-held funds spent due to the presence of the Braves will be considered. Sources of Expenditures LET us first consider new money introduced into the economy 20 �from outside of Atlanta. There are several possible sources of these funds: 1. Money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets to games; 2. Money spent by out-of-town fans (in Atlanta for the specific purpose of seeing the Braves) on transportation, food, entertainment, lodging, shopping, parking, concessions, etc.; 3. Money earned by the Braves outside of Atlanta (The Braves receive remuneration for playing in other cities based on attendance.) ; 4. Money spent by other baseball teams in Atlanta; 5. Money spent by baseball scouts, reporters and other support personnel in Atlanta. All money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets and at the games represents an inflow to the economy of Atlant a directly attributable t o the Braves. But it is reasonable to consider any other expenditures made by out-of-town fans attributable to t he Braves only if the out-of-town fan was in Atlanta primarily t o see a game. The enumeration of induced local expenditures is more difficult. Local expenditures are simply the sum of local ticket expenditures, local moneys spent prior to or following games on meals or entertainment, and moneys spent at games on concessions, programs, etc. But would this direct spending on entertainment have existed without the Braves? If t he Braves were not in Atlanta, would the local fan have selected a movie or local theater group to provide his entert ainment for the evening? This issue cannot be resolved with complete satisfaction. The questionnaire was designed, in so far as possible, t o limit the measurement of local expenditures to those directly attributable to the Braves. Since it is a purpose of this section to point out the tremendous pmchasing power of one and a half million fans, we have assumed that local expenditures made in connection with baseball were induced by the presence of the Braves. While some error might be involved, we feel that the exclusion of local expenditures would be even more erroneous. Table 13 delineates sources of expenditures and indicates their points of entry into the economic stream. The following comments briefly explain the summary amounts provided in the table. 21 �Expenditures of Local Fans As pointed out earlier, over 107,000 Atlantans attended games at the Stadium more than 905,000 times. These local fans introduced funds directly into Atlanta's economic stream through their ticket purchases and expenditures on food and entertainment before and after games, on concessions, on transportation, and on parking.10 Table 13: Summary of Expenditures Source of expenditure Object of expenditure Game (tickets) Food and entertainment Concessions Gasoline Parking Buses Taxis Lodging Other Total . Local fans Out•Of• town fans . $1,576,000 $1,195,000 202,000 905,000 56,000 115,000 54,000 35,000 2,276,000 634,000 473,000 63,000 38,000 9,000 1,479,000 2,943,000 6,167,000 Visiting teams Visiting scouts Total $2,771,000 41,000 8 ,000 14,000 31,000 41,000 127,000 5,000 4,000 17,000 2,527,000 1,539,000 529,000 178,000 106,000 44,000 1,515,000 45,000 9,254,000 While Atlantans spent over $2,078,000 for admission to games, only $1,576,000 has been included in the tabulation of direct expenditures. 11 This is the share of expenditures of the Braves which is attributable to local attendance. About 24 per cent of ticket revenue leaves Atlanta in partial support of the farm system (four clubs, each of which requires a substantial subsidy) , spring training, and other activities. TICKETS. FOOD AND ENTERTAINMENT. 30 per cent of all local fans attending a game stopped on their way to or from the game for food and entertainment. Specifically, 4.5 per cent of these fans attended the games by themselves and spent an average of $3.63 per person, 14.1 per cent were with their families (average size of 3) and spent a total of $5.41, and 11.4 per cent attended the games with Most of the calculations for this section are reproduced in section F of the appendix. 11 This statement is based on our estimate of ticket sales. The Braves provided a summary of their expenditures in Atlanta which has been prorated on the basis of the proportion of local fans. 10 22 �friends and spent an average of $5.73 on two persons. The total food and entertainment expenditures (not including concessions) of local fans for the season is estimated at over $202,000. CONCESSIONS. According to Automatic Retailers of America, the concessionaires at the Stadium, the typical fan spent about $1 per game on refreshments for a total of $905,000 from local fans. GASOLINE, PARKING AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. The sample indicates that the local fan lived an average distance from the Stadium of 8.4 miles. Further, 89 per cent of those interviewed drove t o the Stadium or parked in town and took a bus. As a result, over 2,400,000 miles were driven by local fans in connection with a game. Ignoring depreciation, oil consumption, tire wear and other measurable (but important) expenses and using informat ion supplied by the American Petroleum Institute, the total expenditure by local fans on gasoline alone is estimated at over $56,000. 89 per cent of the Atlanta fans parked either downtown or at the Stadium with an average of 3.5 fans per car. Assuming a fee of $0.50 per car, over $115,000 was spent by local fans for parking. 12 per cent of the local fans used a bus at some point in their trip to the Stadium. At $0.50 per round trip, the Atlanta Transit Company took in over $54,000 due to the presence of the Braves in Atlanta. 2 per cent of the fans arrived at the Stadium by taxi. Assuming an average of 3.5 fans in each party traveling 8 miles ( oneway) and using rates of $0.50 for the first ¾ miles and $0.10 per addit ional ¼ mile, the expenditure for taxis by Atlantans was over $35,000. Expendit ures of Out-of-Town Fans THE 174,000 different out-of-t own fans attending Braves games in Atlanta introduced new money into the local economy in several different ways. But expenditures of these fans on such things as food and entertainment and gasoline may properly be, and are, attributed to the Braves only when the out-of-town fans came to Atlanta primarily to see a game (78 per cent of outof-town attendance, or 494,830, were in that category) . TICKETS. By our estimates, out-of-town fans spent over $1,576,000 23 �for tickets to games. But, as explained for local fans, only $1,195,000 should be included as first-round spending. This is the portion of direct expenditures by the Braves in Atlanta attributable to out-of-town fans. FooD AND ENTERTAIN:MENT. 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans here to see a game spent money on food and entertainment. Of this group, 4 per cent were by themselves and spent an average of $13.75 each, 55 per cent were with their families (average size of 4) and spent $35.97 per family, and 41 per cent were with friends and spent an average of $33.84 on two people. These figures include all food and entertainment expenses (excluding concessions) for the entire length of an out-of-town fan's visit. For the season, out-of-town fans spent over $2,276,000 on food and entertainment in Atlanta. CONCESSIONS. With an average expendit ure of $1.00 per fan, outof town fans spent over $634,000 on concessions. LODGING. A large number of visitors stayed overnight. Many came for several days or a weekend to see more than one game. Specifically, 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans stayed overnight; the average visit extended over two nights and the average size of party was five. As shown in Table 14, visitors most frequently stayed downtown. Using rates provided by the Georgia HotelTable 14: Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans Location Per ce nt Downtown hotel or motel . . . . Motel in outlying or suburban areas Home of friend or relative . . . . Elsewhere (campers, etc.) . . . . 51 6 41 2 Motel Association (downtown-$13.00 for double and $10.00 for single room; suburban area-$11.00 for double and $8.50 for single room), out-of-town fans here to see a game spent about $1,479,000 for lodging. GASOLINE, PARKING, AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. 53 per cent of out-of-town fans in Atlanta to see a game spent money on gasoline. The average amount spent per party of four was $7.22 for a 24 �season total of over $473,000. While this amount may seem high, it should be remembered that many fans stayed in Atlanta for more than a single day and may have purchased gasoline on several occasions. 89 per cent of all out-of-town fans paid parking fees in connection with a game. With an average of 4.5 persons per car, over $63,000 was shared by the downtown parking lots and the Atlanta Stadium Authority. 12 per cent of all out-of-town fans traveled to the Stadium by bus at $0.50 per round trip for a total of $38,000. 2 per cent of all out-of-town fans arrived at the Stadium by taxi. Assuming their trips started in the downtown area and were $1.40, one way, out-of-town fans spent about $9,000 for taxi transportation. Expenditures of Baseball Teams DIRECT expenditures were made in Atlanta not only by fans and the Braves but also by visiting teams and scouts. The total firstround spending by baseball clubs (including the Braves) is estimated at $2,914,000. This figure is based on estimates provided by members of the staff of the Atlanta Braves. The Braves spent about $2,771,000 in Atlanta for such items as salaries and wages, utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and equipment , the Stadium Club, travel, aI1d rent. Visiting teams are estimated to have spent about $127,000 for lodging, food, entertainment, transportation, miscellaneous personal items, and tips for clubhouse personnel. Visiting baseball scouts spent about $17,000 for similar items. Summary of Direct Expenditures FIGURE 1 contrasts the spending patterns of local and out-of-town fans. The local fan clearly spends most of his money at the Stadium itself, while the out-of-town fan spends substantial amounts in other parts of the city for food, entertainment and lodging. A total of $9,254,000 in first-round expenditures may be credited to the presence of the Braves in Atlanta. Of this amount, 68 per cent was new money introduced into Atlanta's economy by sources outside of the city, and 32 per cent was induced local spending attributable to the presence of the Braves. But to say 25 �that total first-round spending represents t he economic impact of the Braves on Atlanta is not entirely correct. To det ermine the total impact, consideration must be given to the multiplier effect which occurs as this money is spent and respent. Figure t Expenditures of Fans EXPENDITURES OF LOCAL FANS Concessions $905,000 31 % $2,943,000 Food and Entertainment $202,000 7% Game $1,576,000 53% EXPENDITUR ES BY OUT-OF-TOWN FANS Lodging $1,515,000 24% Game $1,195,000 19% Food and Entertainment $2,325,000 36% �V / THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT A commonly-held theory of urban growth states that a city must export goods and services if it is to prosper economically. Called economic base theory, it depends on a division of the city's economy into two sectors, the export ( or basic) sector and the local (or support) sector.12 Exporters such as automobile and aircraft manufacturers, hotels, restaurants, service stations, department stores and recreation centers obtain income from customers outside the city. This export income then enters the local economy in the form of wages and salaries, purchases of materials, dividends, etc., and becomes income to other local citizens. But unless t he economy is entirely self-sufficient, a portion of this circulating income leaks out of the local economy with each transaction in payment for other goods, supplies and services which are imported. Wit h each round of expenditures, local incomes increase in a continuing but diminishing chain. The impact of the original export sale tends to decrease with each successive round of expenditures as leakages cont inue. The series of events following the initial injection of income is known as the "multiplier effect" and traces the indirect effects of the injection. A crude estimate of this effect can be made by calculating the local and export employment ( income figures would be better HFor details of economic base studies, see Charles M. Tiebout, The Community Economic Base Study (Washington: Committee for E conomic Development, 1962), and W alter Isard, Methods of R egional Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science (New Y ork : John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960), chapter 6. E conomic base multipliers have been replaced in recent years by more sophisticated, and more costly, inputoutput studies and can be justified " ... only when crude, hurried research is required . .." (ibid., p.221). The multiplier computed here is of the crude and hurried sort. More detailed work is in progress and will be included in the study of the economic impact of the Falcons. But a more sophisticated multiplier for the Atlanta area is not available and awaits adequate funding. 27 �Figure 2-The Multiplier Effect for Braves-Related Income in Atlanta $9.25 M $6.31 M $6.42 M Outoftown fans t--.:) 00 $4.46 M $4.37 M $3.10 M $3.03 M I $2.15 M $2.10 M $2.94 $1.49 M Local fans $1.46M $1.03 M $2.05 M $1.43 M 2 3 $1.01 M $1.00 M 4 $0.72 M $0.70 M $0.69 M 5 Rounds of Spending ' $0.48 M 6 7 j'+ . . . = $30.5 ,4 $0.49 M 0 total �but are :riot available) in the city and using them to determine the proportions in which support and export activities tend to exist. Table 15 shows the proportion of Metropolitan Atlanta's employment in 1964 and in 1954 which may be considered exportoriented. The estimates are based on the assumption that employees of Atlanta industries which are concentrated here in heavier proportions than are employees in either Georgia or Atlanta are employed in the production of goods or services for export to state or national markets. 13 In 1964 Atlanta relied heavily on the transportation equipment, wholesale trade, printing and publishing, and finance, insurance and real estate industries for its export income. Approximately 3 out of every 10 workers were employed in export production. In 1954 the primary metals and other durable industries were also prominent in the city's export base but have declined in importance. But the proportion of workers producing for export was about the same. With these data, the economic base multiplier ie computed as follows: Multiplier, 1964 = Multiplier, 1954 = Total employment Basic employment 445.3 = 3.4 131.9 --- Total employment 303.3 = - - = 3.4 88.5 Basic employment . . Change in total employment 142.0 Change Multiplier, 1954-64 = Ch . b . t = 43 4 = 3.3 1 ange m as1c emp oymen . If the multiplier ratio tends to remain constant (as it apparently has) and if it applies to income as well as employment, then a one unit increase in export activities will tend to increase total activities 3.3 times as successive rounds of expenditures are made and the Atlanta economy adjusts to accommodate the additional expenditures. This means that about 70 per cent of each dollar spent is retained within the economy to be recirculated, with 30 per cent immediately leaving the local area. Figure 2 illustrates this process. 13 The computations are roughly based on a method described in Gerald E . Thompson, "An Investigation of the Local Employment Multiplier," Review of Economics and Statistics, XLI (1959), pp. 61-7. For details, see section I of the appendix. 29 �Table 15: Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment Producing for Export, 1954 and 1964 (in thousands) 1 954 Total employment Industry . 16.0 Contract construction 2.9 4.2 1.0 2.7 Lumber Furniture and fixtures Stone, clay, and glass products Primary metal industries Fabricated metal products Machinery, except electrical Transportation equipment Other durables 2.5 2.5 . 22.1 3.7 Food and kindred products Textile mill products Apparel and other textile products Paper and allied products . 10.9 8.3 7.4 3.0 Printing and publishing Chemicals and allied products Leather and leather products other nondurables 1964 Export employment .32 Total employm ent 29.3 Export employment 7.56 2.37 2.2 3.5 3.8 2.6 .87 .94 .31 21.19 2.16 4.2 3.9 28.3 5.1 .44 24.28 .46 13.1 6.1 8 .0 5.9 .91 2.70 1.84 4.8 2.9 .4 .2 1.92 .29 . 32.0 .88 6.6 3.5 2.1 1.0 3.96 12.99 4 1.4 18.26 81.1 22.46 48.2 69.3 34.37 4.85 Finance, insurance, and real estate . 21.4 13.87 32.3 16.83 Service, miscellaneous, and mining . . 37.8 5.14 62.4 13.85 2 1.2 41.3 3.54 445.3 131.90 Transportation and public utilities Wholesale trade Retail trade Federal government State and local government . 35.5 Total . . 303.3 88.50 .84 The additional income brought into Atlanta by t he Braves in 1966 has been estimated at $9,254,000. As this income is spent and respent, the total income accruing t o citizens in the Metropolitan Atlanta area should approach 3.3 times this amount, or $30,538,000.14 1 4/f only expenditures by out-of-town fans were included in the "new money" category, their expenditures of $6,311,000 would mean up to $20,826,000 in additional incomes for Atlantans. 30 �VI/ THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES WHILE this study is specifically devoted to an examination of the impact of the Braves on Atlanta in terms of measurable monetary outlays, it would be remiss if some of the noneconomic :impact of the Braves were not included. The :impact of the Braves in terms of public relations is perhaps more :important than that measured in terms of dollars and cents. In 1966 there were over 1,750 daily newspapers in the United States. If these papers reported scores for baseball games, then Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 t:imes during the course of the season. The Braves TV Network, composed of 21 stations in the Southeast, telecasted 20 games during the season and 4 home games were carried on the NBC network. Further, 39 radio stations in the Southeast regularly carried Braves games. And as the Braves traveled to other parts of the nation, an undetermined number of stations broadcasted their games. Braves personnel from both the front office and the playing field appeared on over 395 occasions as speakers at service clubs, church groups, athletic banquets, etc. The majority of these functions took place in the state of Georgia. In addition, many personal visits by players were made to hospitals, children's homes and other charitable institutions. In February a Caravan of Braves personnel traveled throughout the Southeast. In each city, with the help of local people, a press luncheon, a sports night, and visits to children's and veterans' hospitals were conducted. Cities visited included: Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga in Tennessee; Asheville, Greensboro, Charlotte, Salisbury, D urham, and Gastonia in North Carolina; Charleston, Columbia, Greenville, and Anderson in South Carolina; Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery in Alabama; Jacksonville, Florida; and Augusta, Savannah, Dalton, Athens, Columbus, Albany, and Rome in Georgia. It is apparent that this aspect of the Braves' presence is :important but cannot clearly be quantified. 31 �- - - - - - -- - - - - -- APPENDICES A. Questionnaire Questions for Out-of-Towners What state are you from? 01-Georgia, 02-Alabama; 03-Tennessee, 04-South Carolina, 05-North Carolina, 06-Flor. ida. Other stat es-see Instructions. How far do you live from Atlanta (miles)? 0001-less than 50, 0002-50100, 0003-100-150, 0004-150-200, 0005200-300. Over 300 enter actual distance. How did you travel to Atlanta? 1-car, 2-airplane, 3-bus, 4-train, 5-other Are you in Atla nta primarily to 1-see a ball game, 2-vacation, 3-passing through, 4-business, 5-convention, 6shopping, 7-visiting friends, 8-other Do you plan to t ake advantage of any other forms of entertainment while in the Atlanta area? 1-yes, 2-no If yes, can you estimate your anticipated expenditures? 1-0-5, 2-$5-$10, 3$10-$15, 4-$15-$20, 5-$20-$50, 6-$50 or m ore, 7-no estimate Do you intend to stay overnight? lyes, 2-no If yes, how many nights? If yes, are you staying in I-downtown hotel or motel ; 2-su burban hotel or motel; 3-with friends or relatives; 4other Questions for Everyone Do you follow the Braves on radio? I -regularly, 2-occasionally, 3-seldom Are you pleased with the starting time for this game? 1-yes, 2-should start earlier, 3-should start later With whom did you come to the game? I-yourself, 2-friends, I-family, 4-organized group How many are in your party? How did you get to the stadium? 1-car, parked at stadium; 2-car to town, shuttle bus; 3-car to town, walked; 4-car to other, bus; 5-taxi; 6-charter bus; 7-busses only; 8-walked Do you live within the greater Atla nta area (within a 15-mile radius of town)? 1-yes, 2-no Questions for Locals How far do you live from the stadium (in miles)? (00-less than one mile ) In what quadra nt of the city do you live? 1-NE, 2-NW, 3-SE, 4-SW Did you stop for food or some form of entertainment on the way to the stadium or do you expect to after the game? 1-yes, on way to game; 2-yes, after game; 3-yes on way to and after game; 4-no Do you think you 'll need to buy gas and oil while in town: 1-yes, 2-no If yes, can you give u s some idea of how much you expect to spend, not including what you will spend a t the stadium? 1-0-$5; 2-$5-$10; 3-$10-$15; 4-$15-$20; 5-$20 or more; 6-no estimate How many games do you expect to see in total this season? 32 If yes, can you estimate how much you will spend? 1-0-$3, 2-$3-$6, 3-$6$9, 4-$9-$15, 5-$15 and over, 6-no estimate How many games do you expect to see this trip? (00-no estimate) How many games in total do you expect to see this season? (00-no estimate) �B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results 1. Out-of-town fans are fro!Il the fol- lowing states: Georgia . ... . ... .. ... .. , 262 Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53 North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53 Other Out-of-town fans .. 59% Local fans .... .... 82% All fans . . . . . . . . . . 73% 3. Starting time: Night Game Starting time okay Local fans . . . ....... .. . .. .. . . 460 88% Out-of-town fans .......... . . 298 93% Should start earlier Local fans ...... .. .......... . 55 11% Out-of-town fans ..... . .. .. . . 22 7% S hould start late r Local fans . . . ............. . . 8 2% Out-of-town fans . . ... . ... . . . 2 1% 4. Group composition: Self Drove to stadium .. ... ..... . . 81 % Drove car to town and took bus 7 % Drove car to town and walked . . 1 % Drove car to other and took bus 1 % Took taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 % Charter bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% Took bus only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4% Walked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2% local fans live 10% 22% 12% 16% Day Game Sun DH 195 92% 65 88% 199 97% 34 92% 19% 6% 11% Sat Ngt. 55 89% 44 98% 9 3 4% 1% 5 2 7% 5% 7 1 11% 2% 0 0% 1% 4 1 5% 3% 0 0 0% 0% ~ Fans came to e-ame withFriends Family Org. Gp. 34 19 6% 2% 7. Draw from qu adrants of the Northeast . . ..... .. . .. .... . ... Northwest . . . . .. . . ....... . .. . Southeast . .. . . .............. . Southwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . city : 40% 20% 19% 22% 7% 16% 5. Modes of transportation : 6. Distances stadium: 63 2. Frequency with which fans follow Braves on radio: Reg. 0cc. Never 43% 5% 13% 11% 9% 9% Out-of-town fans . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Local fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 .................. 198 260 33% 30% 335 453 55% 52% 8. Number of games local fans expect to see : Less than 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4% 3 to 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 10% 6 to 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 19% 11 t o 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 15% 16 to 25 .. . ........ _ . . 188 22% 26 to 40 .......... . ... .. 125 14% More than 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 16% (Average number of games a local fan expects to see is 24. ) from Less than one mile 16 2 % One mile . . . ............ . 13 1% Two miles .......... ... . . 50 6% Three miles .. . ... . . . .. . . . 74 9% Four miles . . ..... . . . .... . 57 7 % 9. Distances out-of-town fans traveled Five miles .... . .... . . . . . . 75 9% primarily to see a game: Six miles ... . . . ..... . .. . . 57 7% Less than 50 miles ........ 74 16% Seven miles .. . .... . . ... . 47 5% Eight miles .. . ... . . . . .. . . 71 8% · 50 to 99 miles .......... 99 21 % 100 to 149 miles ........ 87 18% Nine mil!iS ...... . . . . .. . . 11 1% 150 to 199 miles . . . . . . . . . . 57 12% Ten miles .. . .... . ..... . . 128 15% 200 to 300 miles . . ...... 74 16% Eleven miles . .. .. . ... . . . 14 2% More than 300 miles . . . . . . 58 12% Twelve miles .. . .. ...... . 81 9% (Average distance traveled by an outThirteen miles . ... . . . .. . . . 20 2% of-town fan primarily to see a game is Fourteen miles .. ..... . . . 10 1% 161 miles.) Fifteen miles ... . ... . 146 17% 33 �13. Number of games out-of-town fans primarily in Atlanta to see a game expect to see: Games This Trip F or Season 1 297 62% 40 8% 2 95 20% 39 8% 3 50 11% 41 9% 4~7 31 7% 177 37% 8-15 l 0% 115 24% 16-25 1 0% 42 9% 26-50 1 0% 15 3% Over 50 0 0% 7 1% 10. Out -of-town fans interviewed were m Atlanta for the following reasons : To see a game . . . . . . . . . . 476 78% On vacation . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 6% Passing through . . . . . . . . 4 1% On business . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 7% For a convention . . . . . . 5 1% On a shopping t rip . . . . . . 1 0% 4% Visiting friends . . . . . . . . . . 22 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 4% 11. Out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game traveled by the following means to Atlanta: Car . .... . ... ...... . .... 440 Bu s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 14. Number of games out-of-town fans not primarily in Atlanta to see a game expect to see : Games This Trip F or Season 1 69 52% 28 21% 20% 2 27 25 19% 3 12 9% 11 8% 4-7 23 17% 48 36% 8-15 2 2% 16 12% 16-25 0 0% 2 2% 26-50 0 0% 1 1% Over50 0 0% 2 2% 92% 5% 1% 0% 1% 12. Of the out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game, 253 or 53% spent an average of $7.22 on gas and oil. This accounted for a party of average size = 4. 15. Makeup of attendance at games : Out-of-Town Fans in Atla nta To For Local S ee Ot her Game Fans Game R e ason Week, .. .. . . . 62% 27% 11% W eekend .... 55% 39% 6% A rough breakdown of these expenditures is as follows : $0 to $3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4% $3 to $6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 46% $6 to $9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 28 % $9 to $15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 11% $15 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 11 % 16. Per cent of ou t-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game, classified by lodging p reference, length of stay and section of stadiwn Length of stay (in nights) One Two Three Stadium Section More Total DOWNT OWN HOTEL OR MOTEL 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 0 13 7 26 1 47 0% 38% 19% 28% 50% 27% 0 6 5 13 1 25 0% 18% 14% 14% 50% 14% 1 3 1 5 0 10 11% 9% 3% 5% 0% 6% 1 0 1 5 0 7 11% 0% 3% 5% 0% 4% 2 22 14 49 2 89 22% 65% 39% 53% 100% 51% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 2 1 22% 3% 6% 5% 0% 6% SU BURBAN HOTEL OR MOTEL 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 1 1 2 3 0 7 11% 3% 6% 3% 0% 4% 1 0 0 0 0 0 11% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 34 0 0 0 1 0 0 0% 0% 0% 1% 0% 0% 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 5 0 10 �H OME 0 F FRIEND OR RELATIVE 1 3 4 5 TOTAL l 7 7 20 0 35 11% 21% 19% 22% 0% 20% 2 2 5 11 0 20 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL 0 0 3 0 0 3 0% 0% 8% 0% 0% 2% 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 22% 6% 14% 12% 0% 11% 0 0 2 6 0 8 ELSEWHERE 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0 0% 0% 0% 6% 6% 0% 5% 2 1 3 2 0 8 22% 3% 8% 2% 0% 5% 5 71 56% 29% 47% 42% 0% 41% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 1 0 0 0 1 0% 3% 0% 0% 0% 1% 0 1 3 0 0 4 0% 3% 8% 0% 0% 2% 10 17 39 0 (302 or 63 per cent of those in Atlanta primarily to see a game did not stay overnight.) 17. Average number of persons in parties interviewed Organized Friends Family Group Local fans . . . . . . . . 3.50 3.43 27.63 Out-of-town fans here to see game 6.88 3.93 33.39 Out-of-town fans here to see game and staying overnight . . . . . . . 5.50 3.96 32.25 Out-of-town fans here for other reasons .. .. . . ... 4.75 3.98 56.50 (Of those who came to see a game and stayed overnight, 7% were by themselves.) 18. Overnight stays in connection with a game: 37% of the people here to see a game stayed overnight. The average length of time stayed was 2 nights. This accounted for a party of average size = 5. 19. Food and entertainment expenditures of local fans: 30% of the local fans spent money on 35 the way to or from the game on food and entertainment. T he average amount spent was $5.25. 15% of these people were by themselves and spent an average of $3.63. 47% of these people were with family and spent an average of $5.41. T his accounted for a party of a verage size = 3. 37% of these people were with friends or a group and spent an average of $5.73. This accounted for a party of average size= 2. 20. Food and entertainment expenditures of out-of-town fans : 37% of the out-of-town fans here to see a game spent money on other entertainment in the Atlanta area. The average amount spent was $34.32. 3% of these people were by themselves and spent an average of $13.75. 55% of thse people were with family and spent an average of $35.97. This accounted for a party of average size = 4. 41 % of these people were with friends or a group and spent an average of $33.84. This accounted for a party of average size = 2. �21. Standard error of the mean for selected questions: Mean or Standard ProporError of tion the mean GENERAL QUESTION 3. 6. 8. 9. 12. 13. 14. 15. 17. 18. 19. 20. Starting time okay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 Distance traveled, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.37 Number of games, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.87 Distance, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.00 Stopped for gas and oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 gas and oil expenditure . . .. . .. . . . .... .. .. .. . .. . . . . . 7.22 Number of games this trip .. ......... .. . . . . .. .. . . . 1.63 Number of gamea for season, out-of-town fan ... .. .. . 7.92 Local residence . . ........ .. . .. . . . ... . ... .. .. ... ... . .59 Number in party .. .. ....... . . ........ . ..... . ... . 4.77 Stayed overnight [all fans] .. . ....... . . .. .. . . ..... . .47 number of nights ... . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. ..... . . . . . .. . . 2.97 Stopped for entertainment, local fan . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 entertainment expenditure, local fan ... ... . . . . . .... . 5.25 Stopped for entertainment, out-of-town fan .. . .. . . . .36 entertainment expenditure, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . 34.32 .007 .191 .682 5.620 .021 .276 .074 .411 .013 .245 .021 .258 .016 .312 .020 3.367 C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries 1. Interview schedule D a te May 22 May 31 June 4 June 15 June 16 June 19 June 26 June 'X7 J uly 15 July 16 J uly 17 July 26 J uly 29 J uly 30 Au g. 10 Au g. 12 Day Opposing te am Sunday Tuesday Sa turday evening W ednesday Thursday Sunday Sunday M onday Friday Saturday a fternoon Sunday Tuesday Friday Saturday afternoon W ed nesday Friday Chicago Los Angeles S t. Louis N ew York N ew York P ittsbu rgh Los Angeles Chicago Houston Houston Cincinnati St. Louis San Francisco San Francisco Los An geles Philadelphia 1. G ame played September 2. Attendance : 9,145 . 2. Game played A ugust 13. Attendance: 27,770. 36 Attendance! 24,302 27,310 11,298 14,842 15,514 17,758 51,632 10,517 (Rain) 1 14,208 37,782 18,101 31,716 30,365 28,824 (Rain) 2 �2. Average game attendance, by month 4. Attendance at home games for Na- tional League teams, 1966 Month Average att. April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,464 May ... .. .... .. . ........... 17,077 June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,204 July .. . ... . ... ... .... . . .. . . 25,167 August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,503 September ..... .. .. . ..... . : .. 16,242 City 3. Attendance at Braves games, by opposing team Attendance In On Opp. team Atlanta road Chicago (10th).... 99,162 57,739 Cincinnati (7th) . . 110,999 58,769 Houston (8th) . . . . 120,181 209,818 Los Angeles (1st).. 332,483 263,225 New York (9th) ... 160,897 211,705 Philadelphia (4th). 118,917 119,908 Pittsburgh (3rd) . . . 200,081 107,679 St. Louis (6th) . . . 124,606 197,034 San Francisco (2nd) 272,475 172,491 T otal ..... . . . 1,539,801 1,398,368 D. Att. Met. Aree pop. , 1960 Los Angeles 2,617,029 6,038,771 New York 1,932,693 10,694,633 Houston ..... 1,872,108 1,243,158 St. Louis .... 1,712,980 2,104,669 San Francisco 1,657,192 2,648,762 ...... 1,539,801 1,017,188 . .. 1,196,618 2,405,435 Philadelphia . . 1,108,201 4,342,897 ... . .. . . 742,958 1,268,479 635,891 6,220,913 Atlanta Pittsburgh Cincinnati Chicago 5. Miscellaneous Season ticket sales: 3,000 Children's tickets: 41,716 Passes (press, clergy, teachers, police, and other special nights): 105,665 Estimation of Number of Different Perso ns Attend ing Games and Average Number of Games Seen To begin, several summary figures are computed based on survey r esult s: Total number of Atlantans at games .588 (1,539,801) = 905,403 = Total out-o f- town fans at games .412 (1,539,801) = 634,398 = Calculation of the number of different persons seeing a game over the season is best explained with an example. Suppose a team plays before 10,000 fan s at each of 4 games and 30 per cent of those attending see all 4 games, 50 per cent see 2 games, and 20 per cent see just 1 game. Then 3,000 hardcore fans will see each game, 10,000 different fans will see 2 games, and 8,000 will see only 1 game, for a total of 21,000 different fans. A pictorial representation is as follows: Out-o f-town fans in Atlanta to see game = .78(634,398) = 494,830 Average attendance by Atlantans 905,403/78 = 11,608 = Average attendance by out-of-town fans = 634,398/78 = 8,133 Pe r cent of attendance 100 80 new at each g ame 2,000 I 2,000 2, 000 I 2,000 10,000 10,000 30 0 I 3,000 I I Ga me I Game II Game Ill Ga me IV 37 �Number of different Georgia (other than Atlanta) fans = 74,881 [ = .43 (174,143)] Thus, the number of different fans attending games can be computed as average attendance times the sum of the per cent of attendance in each category multiplied by the number of games at which the category was new. Using this method, proportions from section A, and midpoints for each of the attendance categories, the number of different Atlantans and out-oftown fans attending games can be estimated: W e should note t hat these estimates are based upon the plans of fans. If the fans were optimistic in their responses to our questions, then the numbers of different persons attending games should be greater t han our estimates. The number of games seen by the t y pical out-of-town fan is approximated by the weighted average of their expectations as 8.3 games [ .11(1) + .09(3) +.37(6) + .22(11) + .07 (20) + .03 (38) + .01 (50) ]. Number of different Atlantans attending a game = 107,561 [ = 11,608[.04 (78) + .10(19.5) + .19(9.75) + .15(6) + .22(3.9) + .14(2.36) + .16(1.60)]] Number of different out-of-town fans attending a game = 174,143 [= 8.133 [.11 (78) + .10(39) + .09 (26) + .37 (13) + .22(6.5) + .07(3.9) + .03(2.1) + .01(1.6)] ] The number of games seen by the t y pical Atlanta fan is estimated in section B. E. Confidence Limits of Sample The confidence intervals for statistics in this study are based on standard statistical procedures. W e assume that the amount of bias in the sample is so small as to have a n egligible effect on the precision of the sample and that the sampled population is distributed about its arithmic:tic m ean in an approxil;nately normal m anner. The assumption of normality is safe wh ere prop ortions are involved, since the binomial distribution approaches a normal form as sample size increases. For items su ch as distance traveled or entertainment expenditures, the distributions may be skewed, but this deviation from n ormality should not seriously affect our r esults. In the case of proportions, the stan dard error of the proportion is computed as s.=t;[ , wh ere p is the propor tion of item s in the sample possessing the characteristic in question, q is the proportion not possessing the. cha racteristic, and N is t h e numof i tem s in the sample. In the case of va riables which m ay take on several values, the standard error of t h e sample mean is com pu ted 5 x-/f, as , wh ere V is the sample variance. F or continuous variables, V = (~x2 - N x.0 ) I (N - 1): for grouped data, V = [~ (x"f ) - N x' ] / (N - 1), where x is the class midpoint, f is the number of obser vations in each class, a nd x is a simple weighted m ean. When a class inte rval is not closed , we h ave arbitrarily assigned a mid point. Thus, we h ave assu m ed that expenditures for gas a n d oil in excess of $15 a verage $17.50, that entertainment exp endit u res by local fans in excess of $20 average $35, and that entertainmen t exp enditures by ou t-of-town fans in excess of $50 average $60. For distances t raveled by ou t-of-town fans in excess of 300 miles, the actual m ean for the category is used . The confidence limits for a confidence coefficient of 95 per cent are t h e sample mean plus or minus 1.96 times the standard error of the sample mean. These limits are reported in Table 1 of the text and are interpreted 38 �to mean that, for a large number of samples, the chances are that the true mean will be within the stated interval 95 per cent of the time. For example, the survey indicates that 59 per cent of the fans are Atlantans, but if a large number of similar samples had been taken, we would expect their conclusions to range between 56 and 62 F. per cent for 95 per cent of the samples. References: Ferber, Robert. Statistical Techniques in Market Research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949, chapter 6. Tintner, Gerhard. Mathematics and Statistics for Economists. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1953, pp. 245-51. Expenditures of Local Fans 1. Estimate of ticket purchases 3 In the following, the first figure is the per cent of those in a section who were Atlantans, the second is the per cent of total attendance sitting in the section, the third is total attendance (excluding children's admissions, which are listed separately), and the fourth is the price of a seat in the section. Field level: 52 X 34.3 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 Loge level : 50 X 2.4 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 $ 961,236 64,672 Upper level: 60 X 36.2 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 668,455 P avilion: 68 X 7.1 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 148,683 General admission: 69 X 21.0 X 1,539,801 X $1.00 41 ,716 X $0.50 39 X 100. X Children: Total expenditure by local fans on tickets 223,117 12,360 $2,078,523 a game. Using this and the proportions reported in the text, the following calculations show expenditures on food and entertainment by local fans: 2. Food and entertainment 271,621, or 30 per cent of local attendance, spen t money on food and entertainment while t raveling to or from Individuals: .045 X 271,621 X $3.63 Families : .141 X 271,621 X $5.41 / 3 .114 X 271,621 X $5.73 I 2 Friends: Tot al food and en tertainment expenditure by local fans $ 44,369 68,937 89,024 $202,330 4. Gasoline, parking and other transportation According to the survey, 89 per cent of local fans either drove to the Stadium or parked downtown and arrived at th e game by foot, bus or taxi. Further , local fans lived an average of 8.37 miles from the St adium and the average number of people per car was 3. This resulted in 2,248,206 driven 3. Concessions The estimate of $1.00 per person in concession expenditures used in the text was provided by M r . Ray Carr of Automatic Ret ailers of America. 3. We asked the Atlanta Braves staff to provide only summary expen ditu re fig ures for our use and avoided requests for revenue figures which might be of confi dential nature. 39 �Gasoline prices in Atlanta area (1965): premium, $0.379 per gallon; regular, $0.339, and sub-regular, $0.319. miles [.89 x (905,403 local attendance / 3 fans per car) x 8.37 miles per car] in direct connection with the Braves. Mr. John E. Hodges, Director, Department of Statistics, American Petroleum Institute, provided the following statistics: 4 Average gasoline consumption (1964): 14.34 miles per gallon Premium-grade sales in Atlanta as proportion of total sales: .54 On the basis of averages provided by the regional offices of several oil companies, we have assumed that 30 per cent of local sales were of r egular grade and 16 per cent of sub-regular grade. Gasoline expenditures for local fans are computed as follows: Premium grade: .54 x $0.379 x 2,248,806 I 14.34 = Regular grade: .30 x $0.339 x 2,248,806 I 14.34 Sub-regular: .16 X $0.319 X 2,248,806 / 14.34 = Total gasoline expenditure by local fans With the average taxi fare in Atlanta set at $0.50 for the first ¾ mile and $0.10 for each additional ¼ mile, and with the average local fan living 8 miles from the Stadium, we have estimated his round trip taxi fare at $6.80. If 2 per cent of local fans were transported by taxi in parties of average size of 3.5, taxi expenditures in connection with games should equal $35,325 [ = .02 x 905,403 x $6.80 / 3.5]. 12 per cent of local fans used a bus at some point in their journey to the $32,095 15,949 8,004 $56,048 Stadium. With one-wa y fare at $0.25, expenditures by local fans for bus transportation should amount to $54,335 [ = .12 X 905,403 X $0.50). 89 per cent of fans had to pay for parking facilities either downtown or at the Stadium. Assuming a uniform rate of $0.50 per car with an average of 3.5 fans per car, parking fees should total $115,239 [ = .89 x 905,403 x $0.50 I 3.5]. 4. In a personal letter dated August 12, 1966. G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans 1. Estimate of ticket purchases As in section F.l, ticket purchases of out-of-town fans can be estimated as follows: Field level: Loge level: Upper level: Pavilion: .48 X .345 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 .50 X .024 X 1,539,801 X $3.50 .40 X .362 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 445,949 .32 X .071 X 1,539,801 X $2.00 69,969 = General admission: .31 x .21 x 1,539,801 x $1.00 Children: .41 X 1.00 X 1,539,801 X $0.50 Total expenditure by out-of-town fans for tickets 40 $ 887,295 64,672 100,241 8,551 = $1,576,676 �2. Food and entertainment 183,087, or 37 per cent of out-of-town attendance, spent money on food and entertainment. Proceeding as in section F .2, their expenditures are estimated as follows: · Individuals: .04 X 183,087 X $13.75 Families: .55 x 183,087 x $35.97 I 4 .41 X 183,087 X $33.84 / 2 Friends: Total food and entertainment expenditure by out-of-town fans 3. Concessions (As in section F .3) .51 X 183,087 Downtown: .06 X 183,087 Suburban: Total lodging expenditure and 1,270,112 $2,276,336 of the Georgia Hotel-Motel Association, we assume that the average rate for a double room in the downtown area is $13.00 and in a suburban area is $11.00, and that the average rate for a single room is $10.00 in the downtown area and $8.50 in a suburban area. Thus for a party of five, the cost of lodging for two days (average length of stay) is $72.00 in the downtown area and $61.00 in a suburban area. Estimates of expenditures are as follows: 4. Lodging Several assumptions are necessary to estimate lodging expenditures of out-of-town fans. Since the average size of parties staying overnight was 5, we assume that each party occupied two double rooms and one single. On the basis of several inquiries of hotels and motels which are members 5. Gasoline, parking transportation $ 100,698 905,526 X X $72.00 / 5 $61.00 / 5 $1,344,592 134,020 $1,478,612 Using the same percentages as in the computation of the expenditures of local fans for bus and taxi service (separate percentages for out-of-town fans were not calculated), these expenditures for out-of-town fans are computed, along with parking costs, as follows: other With 53 per cent of out-of-town attendance spending for gasoline a total of $7.22 for a party of four, their total expenditure amounts to $473,379 [ = .53 X 494,830 X $7.22 / 4 ] . Bus: .12 X 634,398 X $0.50 $38,064 Taxi: .02 X 634,398 X $2.80 / 4 $ 8,882 Parking: .89 X 634,398 X $0.50 / 4.5 $62,735 (The average taxi fare from a downtown hotel or motel to the Stadium is assumed to be $1.40 each way) 41 �H. Expenditures of Baseball Teams 1. The Atlanta Braves utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and equipment, Stadium Club, and Stadium rental. Since the details are not necessary for a study of this level, they were not requested. According to a statement provided by the Atlanta Braves, their expenditures in Atlanta over the baseball season will exceed $2,771,000. This total includes salaries and wages, 2. Visiting teams Estimates by members of the Braves staff indicate that visiting t eams should spend the following in Atlanta: Hotel (26 rooms/day at $16/ day for 75 days) Meals (40 men/day at $12/ day for 75 days) Miscellaneous personal expenditures (40 men/ day at $10/day for 75 days) Transportation for baggage, equipment and t eam ($500/trip for 27 trips) Miscellaneous entertainment expenditures ($200/ trip for 27 trips) Tips for clubhouse personnel ($400/ trip for 27 trips) $ 31,200 36,000 Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting teams $126,900 30,000 13,500 5,400 10,800 3. Visiting scouts Similar estimates for visiting scouts are as follows : Hotel (5 rooms/ day at $14/ day for 75 days) M eals and entertainment (5 scouts at $20/ d ay for 75 days) Miscellaneous p ersonal expenditures (5 scouts at $10/ day for 75 days) Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting scouts $ 5,250 7,500 3,750 $16,500 I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier The m ethod used to compute the economic base multiplier for this study roughly corresponds to the m ethod described in G. E. Thom pson, "An Investigation of the Local Employm ent Multiplier," R eview of E conom ics and S tatistics, vol. X L I (1959) , p p. 61-7. T h e m ethod is also outlined in the M onthly R eview, F ederal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, M arch, 1960, and m ay be called the " prim ary market area" m ethod. We describe below the st eps involved in constructing T able 15. 42 1. Employment in 1954 and 1964 in each industry for Atlanta, Georgia less Atlanta, and t he continental United S ta tes less Atlanta is obtained from U .S. D epartment of Labor, B ureau of L abor Statistics, Employm ent and Earnings Statistics for State& and A reas, 1939-65, BLS Bulletin No. 1370-3, and Employ ment and Earnings Statistics for the United States, 1909-65, BLS Bulletin N o. 1312-3. 2. Location quotients for each of the industries are compu ted as follows: �Location quotient Industry employment as per cent of total in Atlanta Industry employment as per cent of total in primary market area candidate The primary market area candidate is defined first for Georgia less Atlanta and t h en for the U.S. minus Atlanta. 3. Loca tion quotients are c0mpared. If t he location quotient for either prima ry market area candidate is greater than one, the industry is considered to have some export employm ent and the area with the largest location quotient is designated the benchmark economy. 4. The specialization ratio for each export industry is then computed using the location quotient for the benchmark economy as : Specialization r atio = 1 - I/location quotient . This ratio indicates the proportion of employment in the industry in Atlant a producing for export. 5. Employment in each export ind ustry in Atlanta is multiplied by its specialization ratio and summed. The resulting figure is export employment in Atlanta. As indicated in t he text, this method yields an estimate of the economic base multiplier fo r Atlanta of 3.3. Other variations on t his m ethod show different results. One variation (used by Thompson) computes t he location quotients with the benchmark economies including the subject a reas (in this case, simply Georgia and the U.S.). This approach leads to a multiplier of 5.03 for Atlanta and m eans that 80 per cent of each dollar spent would remain in the area for recirculation. Another variation uses the United States as the benchmark economy in each case, and results in a multiplier of 4.2. In this case the propensity to spend locally would be 76 per cent. But the primary market area approach, with a propensity to spend locally of less than 70 per cent, not 43 only appears to be the most appropriate of this techniques-it also yields a multiplier in keeping with estimates for other cities. Thus, quoting from various sources, Isard and Czamanski report the following multipliers as typical of economic base studies: 0 City Year Multiplier New York Chicago Detroit Pittsburgh New York 1944 1950 1950 1950 1950 3.2 2.99 3 .16 3 .55 3.91 1950 1950 1950 1950 1950 3 .93 3.97 4.16 4.18 4.35 1950 1950 1952 1961 1963 4.89 5.47 2.60 2.80 2.50 .. ... .. San Francisco Cleveland Boston Los Angeles Balti more .. .. St. Louis Philadelphia Wichita Los Angeles Wilmington .. While the above multipliers are taken from a variety of sources and may be computed in completely different ways from ours, they still indicate reasonable limits for our conclusions. For a discussion of the conceptual basis, application, limitations and criticisms of the economic base multipliers, the interested reader is referred to Charles M. Tiebout, The Community Economic Base Study (Washington : Committee for Economic Development, 1962 ) and Walter Isard, Me thods of R egional Analysis: an Introduction to R egional S cience (New Yor k : J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1960) . 5. Walter I sard and Stanislaw Czamanski, " Techniq ues for Estimating Local and Regional Multiplier Effects of C hanges in the L evel of Major Governmenta l P rograms," Peace Research Society, Papers, vol. III (I 965 ), p. 22. �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
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Box 21, Folder 18, Document 12

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  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 12
  • Text: r Ma 4 , 1967 Mr • Donald B . Connell Rout l William on, Georgia D r Mrs. C Plea if y011r plan incl thu •ummer f r bi.In to ee the Bra With t i• , lam Sincerely yOQra, I - n Aile , Jr. Mayor lAJr/br CC: Mr. Jerry S chs v1,·, y. �
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Box 21, Folder 18, Document 15

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  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 15
  • Text: A BRAVES .ilOOCLUB OFFICERS April 11, 1967 PRESIDENT- STEVE SCHMIDT P. 0 . Box 72 (30301) BUSINESS HOME 522-8883 631,-7777 VICE-PRES IDENT-J . L. JERDEN 319 Te n Pryor St. Bldg. (30303) 523-650 4 237-2438 VICE-PRESIDENT- BILL BASS P.O. Dra we r 1734 (30301) 875-3411 938-6509 TREASURER- ED HARRIS 523 Wh;te holl St., S.W. (30303) 521-3366 344-5672 SECRETARY- ELMER MORROW 2494 Woodridge Dr., Decatur (30033) 443-9 120 fayor I van Allen Atlanta City Ha ll Atlanta , Geor gi a Dear Mayor Allen, 634-0703 Please j oin us at our f irst 1967 Braves DIRECTORS CHARLIE BROWN P. O. Box 30, Atlanta (30301) 761-8821 753-8680 ART COLLIER 1611 W. Pea chtree St. (30308) 8 72-114 1 938-8241 JOE GERSON 739 W. Peachtree St. (30308) 875-7396 355-71 27 BILLY GIBSON 2000 Fulton No t' I Bonk Bldg. (30303) 522-3865 237-3413 EDDIE GLENNON Atlanta Sta dium (303 12) 525-7636 252-1824 HUBERT JACKSON Peachtree 7th Bldg. (30323) 5 2lr5293 794-61 29 McCREADY JOHNSTON 710 Rhodes-Haverty Bldg. (30303) 237-2445 5 22-4771 GENE McDERMOTT 600 Worchester Dr., N .E. (30306) 873-19 16 633-1042 BOB MONTAG 1365 Peachtree St., N.E. (30305) 874-9762 252-1896 JOE PITTARD 853 Northcl;ff Dr., N.W. (30318) 875-6661 355-2366 SIDNEY SCARBOROUGH 4610 Club Te rrace, N.E. (30319) 237-2445 522-4771 AL THOMPSON and p143.215.248.55 16:55, 29 December 2017 (EST):_~d find copy of Head Table Guests "Jf/ We would like to call on y ou for t he fir s t ~ pit ch. At that t i me y ou and all head t able .oP gue sts will be gi ven a styro ph ome Ball and we 1f'Jt..f'oY will joi n you in t hrowing a ball into the V audience . y -J We a r e most pleased that you take such an a ctive part in t h e Braves 400 Club affairs. ive look forward to seeing you Friday at the Ma rriott. Sincerely, ~~ Peachtree Center Bldg. (30303) 526-6594 794-1874 F. JOE VINING 2 170 P;edmont Rd., N.E. (30324) 875-4541 636-3479 ARCHIE YAWN Southern Airways, President Atlanta Airport (30320) 761,-5321 -/4 400 l uncheon . 766-2829 SJ S/ as �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
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  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 19

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  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 19
  • Text: I,.. PLAY BALL-Atlanta's Mayor Ivan Allan tosses out first ball with assist from Governor Carl Sanders. Brave New World By FURMAN BISHER Atlanta f oumal I T wasn't a good year, really. The manager was fi red. Some of the coaches got along like old hens clucking around the same rooster. The town hero, the player who stood as the symbol of the Braves, was traded like you trade a horse. As much ink was devoted to lawsuits and courtroom play, and to Grobschmidt and Roller, as to Alou and Aaron , Cloninger and Torre. People complained about (a) parking, (b) price of hot dogs, ( c) price of anything, ( d) salt on the peanuts, ( e) no salt on the peanuts, ( f) no tickets at the reservation window, (g) wrong tickets at the reservation window, (h) why there weren't more seats when Sandy Koufax pitched, and ( i) Bobby Bragan. Several people in places of authority picked the Braves to win the pennant, or to be up there in September. They finished fifth. They had to come fast out of the shadows to do this . For years, transient experts had been saying, "Atlanta is a major league city." Now we knew that Atlanta officially was a major league city. We had all the aches and pains that other major league cities had . We fired managers. We had dissension in the clubhouse. We had fans who groused like hell. We were picked high and finished among the average. We had everything you want in the major leagues, from the saddle sores to the satin. Dixie The reason we know it was fo r the good of all was that 1,540,000 came out to Atlanta Stadium to see what was going on. People who had never seen a baseball thrown caught the shuttle bus, or had brunch or dinner at the club and rode out on a charter. Baseball became "society" again in Atlanta. To be seen in a box seat, or on the club level, or in the Stadium Club was the thing. The night we knew it was "big" was the night that Sandy Koufax pitched against Denver Lemaster. That was the night that Billy Hitchcock succeeded Bobby Bragan as manager. At least 10,000 people were turned away, but that wasn 't point of proof that this was "b ig." In the middle of the game, rai n came, and it rained for two hours . People standing around the outfield fence huddled there for an hour before surrendering their places and find ing shelter. Over 40,000 of an original crowd of 54,000 wanted to see the finis h, which fina lly came at 12 : 3 5 a.m., when Ed Mathews, the symbolic Brave, knocked a home run over the rightfield fence on a 3-2 count with two men out in the ninth inning. No one event has had as much impact on the national image of Atlanta in 25 years as the building of the stadium and the arrival of the Braves. It brought business to the city and industry to the city and prestige to the city, and it was a thing of value to every facet of life in the city. There was a time of political crisis last fall when we had no Governor. We could do without one far more easily than we could do without the Braves. 69 �TWA u(§!j[}[J!J moaa DIRECi FLIGHTS TO BIS LEAGUE CITIES WIDE-SCREEN MOVIE,S ON THE WAY* As a reporter, you do a lot of traveling during the season. That's why you'll appreciate TWA's one-airline service to most major league cities, and top training camps in Arizona, California, Florida. And if you're crossing the country non-stop, TWA's wide-screen movies make your trip seem even shorter. Call the nearest TWA office or your travel agent. ,:,sy Nationwide Worldwide depend on lnflight Motion Pictures, Inc., on most coast-to-coast jets. Greetings From LEONARD J. SIMON FORT LAUDERDALE OF Training Home of the New York Yankees WESTON'S SHOPPERS CITY, INC. THE PLACE TO GO IN FLORIDA 70 J �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 20

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  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 20
  • Text: January 30, 1967 Mr . Thomas A . Reynolds Winston, Strawn, Smith & Patterson 1400 First National Bank Building Chicago, Illinois 60603 Dear Tom: Thank you SQ :much for your letter nd the Suprerne Coul."t Deci ion. Looking forwa..l"d to Spring Training and hope to be able to accept yol.ll' invitation to cOine to Palm Bea.ch. Sine rely your , lvan Allen, Jr. Mayor lAJr/br �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 21, Folder 18, Document 21

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  • Result Type: Item
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  • Title: Box 21, Folder 18, Document 21
  • Text: HAROLD A. S M ITH GRI E R D . PATT E RSON CHAR L ES J . CALDERINI G E ORGE 8 . C HR ISTENSEN A RTH UR 0. W ELTON~J R . TH OMAS A . RE YN O L DS BR"C E L. HA M I LTON REUBEN A . BORSCH ALBERT W. POTTS JAME S D.H E AO T H O M AS S . TY L ER DOUG LAS C . "'10 1R FRA N K B . G ILM E R ROB ERT M<;DO U GAL , JR G E RARD E. ~ RASHORN N E AL J.Mc;AULIFFE EDWARD J . WENDROW CHAR L ES F . MARQU I S A L EXANDER J - MOODY B . M ICHAE L PAL LASCH JO H N DO N OVAN BIX L ER CHARLES J . CALD E R I Nl,,JR . BRUC E L. BOWER FREDER I CK G .ACKER ROB ERT 8 . G O LDIN G G . BRADFO R D COOK RICHARD J.BR E NNAN M . FINLEY MAXSON ARTH U R I.GOU L D NORMAN WAI T E .JR B R U CE M . SM I T H CRANE C. H AUSER EARL A.JIN KINSON E DMUND J.KENNY CALV I N P. SAWY I ER J .ARDEN REARICK RICHARD J.FAL ETTI FRANK D.KENNEY F RED H.DAUGHERTY R .LAWR E NCE S T ORMS T H OMAS A.REYN O LDS . JR. DAVID C. KE EGA DON M . SOW ER S JAM E S L. PERK I NS EDWARD L. FOOTE DAVID J.HARDY RICHARD H . CAIN FRANKO . WETMORE IC RI CHARD W . AUSTIN WINSTON, STRAWN, SMITH & PATTERSON 1400 F I RST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING CHICAGO 60603 FREDERICK H. W I NSTON (1853-1886) FR EDERICK 5. W IN S TON (1878 - 1909) S I LAS H. S T RAWN (189 1-1946) ( 31 2) Fl N A N CIA L 6 ·3 600 CABLE ADD RE SS January 25, 1967 ROBERT G . LANE D . S IONEY CONDIT JOHN W.STACK JAMES J . NACK W ILLIAM 0.M ULLI KEN WA LTER L .CROWL EY GEORGE E . LEO N ARDfil FRANK L. BUTLER JOHN H.DAVIES S TANLEY A . WA LTON m Dear Ivan, I thought you would like Order of the Supreme Court of the ending the Braves litigatione It hard and expensive battle, but we some s olace fr om the fa ct t h at we a copy of the United States has been a can obtain won! The Alstons, Hodgsons , Alexanders , et al are all planning on spending a few da ys at Spr ing Tra ining th i s y ear, a nd I sincere l y hope that th e All e ns will f ind it conv e nient t o do l ikewise. We would lov e to h a v e y ou down a t Pa lm Beach any time a ft e r Feb r uary 2 4 th an d if you think you c a n make it , even on the shortest notic e, ple a se gi v e me or Bill a telephone call an d we 'll mee t you t here. Wit h warmes t perso na l regar ds. Honorab l e Ivan All en, Jr. Mayor o f the City of Atlanta City Hall Atlant a, Georgi a - -· W I NST ON C HIC AGO �
  • Tags: Box 21, Box 21 Folder 18, Folder topic: Atlanta Braves | 1967
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017