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Box 22, Folder 18, Document 1

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_001.pdf
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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 1
  • Text: "· The Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Office of Economic Opportunity CONFER ENCE ON HOUSING FOR, THE POOR Ma y 23-24, 1966 Wa s hington Hil ton Hotel Washington, D.C. �., ti Agenda for CONFLmENCE ON HOUSING FOR TIii~ POUR Department of Housing and Urban Development and Office of Economic Opportunity May 23-24, 1966 Washington, D. C. Purpose: The purpose of this Conference is to evaluate the feasibility of providing several million additional standard housing units within the next five years, at prices the poor can afford. We are seeking from this Conference (1) a summary of what we do and do not know about how the poor are housed, in physical, economic and social terms; and (2) identification of alternative programs or combinations of programs and implementation strategies, that might make decent housing available for the several million poor households that would otherwise occupy substandard or overcrowded units by 1970. Program Monday, May 23, 1966 9:00 a.m. Opening Remarks Sargent Shriver, Director Office of Economic Opportunity Robert C. Wood, Under Secretary Dept. Housing & Urban Develop. 9:15 a.m. Conference Procedures Dr. Morton J. Schussheim Director, Office of Program Polky Dept. Housing & Urban Develop. Mr. Alvin L. Schorr, Deputy Chief, Research & Plans Office of Economic Opportunity 9 :,30 a .m. Statement of Problems and Its Dimensions Professor Charles Abrams Columbia University (The number of units and poor people in need of better housing; the extent to which rehabilitation and/or clearance are required; the costs involved; present locations of substandard units; composition of occupants by race, age, size and family composition; the national goal.) 11 :00 a .m. Social Issues Pr o fessor Nathan Glazer University of California (The questions of deghettoizing the poor and particularly the nonwhite poor; the supplemental educational, counseling and back - up services required; the problems of a means test and establishing priority criteria; the attitudes of poor and non - poor to this housing; the difficulties and oppor - t un ities of relocation . Should standards be reduced , e . g . no air conditioning ; room sharing; smaller room size ; etc • . . ) 1:00 p . m. WNCH �2 Monday, May 23, 1966 (Cont'd) Technological and Land Use Issues 2:30 - 5:00 Richard J. Canavan National Association of Homebuilders (The ~ype of housing required and its location; the availability of land; architectural and city planning concerns, the technological problems and opportunities of a large-scale building and rebu i lding program; the abilities of existing or proposed institutions to implement the program; prospects f or cost reducti on.) Tuesday, May 24, 1966 9:30 a.m. Economic Issues Pro fessor Chester Rapkin Uni versity o f Pennsylvania \ (Alt e rn a tive mean s of fi nancing the pr ogr am; the effect on the economy o f a multi-b i llion do llar program; the effect on the total housing industry and constr uction costs; a c ceptable standards of space and quality; the effect on the values and cond i t ion of e xisting housi n g a nd n ei ghborhoods; e ff ici encies that mi ght r esult from a r eeva lu a ti on of the e conomics of the hous ing i ndust r y.) 12 : 00 2: 00 - 4: 00 LUNCH Program Issu es Dr. Lou i s Winnick Pub li c Affairs Program The Ford Foundation (The t ypes of programs to me et the objec t ive ; possi b le expan sion or red ire ct ion of exi s t ing programs and t he inv ention of n ew kind s of programs; possible number of units to be dev eloped; ~he phasing and possible mix of programs over a several-year period.) �List of Invited Particip~nts Conference on Housing for the Poor Mr. Charles Abrams Professor of City Planning Columbia University Mr. Nathaniel Keith Consultant , Mr~. Ruth Atkins Community Representatives Advisory Council Office of Economic Opportunity Mr. Saul Director National Mutual Mr. Richard J ; Canavan Staff Vice President Builder Services Division National Association of Homebuilders Honorable Sherman Maisel Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Dr. Robert Dentler Center f or Urban Education Honorable Arthur Okun, Member Council of Economic Advisers , Mr. John Eberhardt National Bureau of Standards Professor Chester Rapkin Institute for Environmental Studies University of Pennsylvania Professor Bernard Frieden Departmen t of City and Regional Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mr. Nathaniel H. Rogg Executive Vice President National Association of Homebuilders , Mr. Robert Gladstone, President Robert Gladstone and Associates ' Dr . William G. Grigsby Institute for Environmental Studies University of Pennsylvania Klaman of Research Association of Savings Banks Mr. Arthur Levin Potomac Institute Mr. Albert M. Cole President, Reynolds Metals Development Corporation , Professor Nathan Glazer University of California Dean Burnham Kelly College of Architecture Cornell University ' Dr. John R. Seeley Chairman, Department of Sociology Brandeis University Mr. Miles Stanley National Advisory Council Office of Economic Opportunity Dr . Louis Winnick Public Affairs Program The Ford Foundation �~ Housing Poor Families The Problem. A program to house all the nation's poor in decent housing at rents they can afford contains two distinguishable elements: i) how to improve the housing conditions of those presently living in sub- • standard quarters; and 2) how to lessen the.financial burden of those who live in standard quarters at the price of devoting an excessive burden of · their income for housing. OEO has e.stimated that upwards of 4 mi·llion poor families and poor unrelated individuals in 1964 lived in housing that was dilapidated, lacked ~lumbing facilities, or was overcrowded •.!:/ The number · who overpay for standard housing is harder to estimate but is large. For example, in 1960 rent-income ratios were computed for 5.7 million families with incomes under $3,000 . 4.4 million of them were paying 25 percent of their income or more for rent. An ad ditional .5 million were paying be- tween 20 and 25 percent of their incomes. In theory, housing needs of poor people should decline because of anticipated declines in the proportion of families who are poor and because o·f continued upgrading of the total housing stock. Between 1950 and 1960, however, poor families received only 2.5 million standard units out of a ~t overall increase of 19 million . That is, families representing 30 per- cent of the total in 1950 and 20 percent in 1960 showed 13 percent of the 1/ The incidence of housing characteristics in 1960 was applied to 1964 data about the poor population, producing a total of 4.1 million in such units in 1964. If one proceeds alternatively from the housing stock itself .and the rate at which improved housing stock reaches poor families, an estimate as high as 5 million poor families in substandard housing would be produced. �,, I 2 net ove_rall increase. Moreover·, in some' places and for some groups' "natural forces" may exacerbate the problem in the years just ahead. Low ! income f families presently living in substandard housing are less mobile and have more deviant characteristics than thoae who were able to take advantage of • the filtering process during the 1950s. And such forces as zoning and sub- division controls are likely to present new impediments to the distribution 1 · downward of _standard housing. That . the current welfare system --- an ex.am.~le ~ of the pure income approach to housing --- has not produced larger results :is another argument for seeking substantial approach to the supply side of _theI equation. Obviously, some improvement will occur naturally and one must assume ( too that cash income maintenance programs wi ll meet i ncreasing portions of _/ family income de ficit s. Reasoning fr om 4 mi llion families and indiv iduals in s ubstandard housing in 1964 and add i t i onal millions pay ing more than the y c an affor d for st andard hous ing, one may e stimate the object ive more or less a t wi ll . OEO has es t imat ed that the ob ject i ve should be pi t ched I J to the expec t a tion tha t the me di an i ncome of families who should be reache d would be $3, 000 ( f or a f ami ly of fo ur ) . From th is base, one must de t er- mi ne an overall objective within t he target date of five or six years. Developing a Program. In a pproaching the developmen t of a program it is necessary to judge what may be built and what may be reclaimed. Such { an approach represents.more than simple economy. It allows room for famiU.es that may wish not to give up thei r homes and provides a pattern for contintled •• I · • I> I II I ( 11 •,' �.- .t 3 maintenance of the housing supply. In the decade from 1950 to 1960, some- thing less than one-fourth of the net increase in standard dwellings represented rehabilitated units. On one hand, there has been considerable reduction in the stock of housing that lacks plumbing facilities and is comparatively easily rehabilitated. On the other hand, new aids are available for rehabilitation and new effort is to be invested in it. tt is, in any event, necessary to make some assumption about the proportion of standard housing that would be secured by rehabilitation and the proportion that would be built new. Similarly, it is necessary to make judgments about the geographic distribution of additional standard housing. Although substandard housing is disproportionately distributed in rural areas, some number of the people now using it wi 11 be seeking housing i n urban areas. Finally, plans for a substantial program should include consideration of staging a buildup of the construction industry. For example, a net increase of 1 million units a y0ar might be built up to at the rate of 200,000 or 300,000 each year for several years. The supply of housing for low-income families can be increased either through government incentives to "the private sector or through direct construction by public housing authorities. Incentives to the private sector include -subsidization of land costs and reduction in the cost of bon:owing building capital (low interest loans or subsidized interest rates). I'. , .. ,. · 11 · • Use of �., 4 these aids provides an attractive incentive to private builders (and rehabilitation contractors) while permitting some control over the allocation of benefits and rentals or sales prices. However, these forms of assistance are not sufficient to produce housing in the $50 a month range. poor fam:1,.lies must also be subsidized. To do this; A program of the JJ1,B.gnitude being described might be fashioned entirely out of two elements rental or purchas.e assistance and interest and land subsidization. The obverse side of these assistances are conditions as to beneficiaries and uses. Obviously, Jll,S.ny variants of the two elements are possible and alternative programs may be fashioned as well. Related questions that would arise include the uses and place of code enforcement, the type of research that might be most productive, the special ne.eds of rural areas, the niethods. of assuring desegregation, and related needs for providing public and social services. l' ' �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 13

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_013.pdf
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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 13
  • Text: I h' THE WASHINGTON POST - 11- 30-66 By Andrew J . Glass \Vashi:anon Post Staff Writer ..... . Sen. Abraham A. Ribicoff capacity as chairman of the (D-Conn.) yesterday disclosed Executive Reorgan ization subthat he intends to subm it a committee of the Senate Govbroad legislative package t o ernment Operations 'Comthe new Congr ess dealing with mittee. what he called "the problems Sen. Robe1-t F . Kennedy (D·o f rebuilding urban America." N.Y.) is expected t o attend the " We're off on our own," t he session . Senator said in an interview. The Ribicoff panel held He thus made it clear that he three weeks of hearings last plans to champion the cause summer on "the crisis· in the of t he cities on Capiitol Hill cities." They produced several nex;t year whether or not he abrasive encounters between receives backing fro m the Kennedy and witnesses, who Johns·on Administration. wer e drawn mainly from men "One of t he great ·prob- holding elective or appointive IT ems," Ribicoff went on, "is posts. the tendency of the Execu tive The current hearing list, rebranch to r un t he whole leased for · publication today, leans heavily toward non-govshow." While Ribicoff, a former ernmental witnesses. They Cabinet member' in the Ken- come from such diverse fields nedy Administration, did n ot as private finance .and psysay \SO, it was nevertheless un- chiatry. derstood that the 'W hite House Tuesday's w·1nesses will be has offered him virtually no David Rockefe er, president support for his urban legisla- of New York's Chase Mantive drive. hatt:an Bank, and Richard 3 Weeks of Hearings Scammon, vice president of The Ribicoff proposals will the Governmental Affairs Inbe shaped, in large measur e, &titute and a former director through ,a series of public of the Census Bureau. hearings encompassing all The hearings will conclude phases of urban life that will Dec. 15 with testimony from begin on Tuesday and con- the Rev. Dr. M-artin LutJ1er tinue for _three weeks. Kin.g Jr., president of the Nearly 50 witnesses will ap- Southern Christian Leaderpear before Ribicoff in the ship Conference. Ribicoff said Senate Caucus room-and on this will mark the first tim~ television. The hearings prom- that Dr. King has ever testiise to serve as the sole legis- fied before a congressional lative -a ctivity of any conse- group. quence ito · occur 'before the Virtually the entire roster new Congress convenes next of the Nation's Negro leaders January. also will appear before the Nearly 50 witnesses wm ap- panel. They include Roy Wilpear before Ribicoff in his kins, executive director of the _ _ __ __ __ _ __ __ National Association for the · Advancement of Colored Peoples; A. Philip Randolph, president of the · Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, AF LCIO; Floyd McKissick, national director of the Congress of Racial Equality, and Whitney M. Young Jr., executive director of the Urban League. Other leading witnesses at the hearings include Walter Reuther, president of the United Auto Workers, "AFLCIO, -and McGeorge Bundy, president of the Ford Foundation ,and a former Special Assistant to President Johnson. = ==-- - - - - ·- --·-- - - �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 14

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_014.pdf
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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 14
  • Text: THE I\lEW YORK TI.MES - November 27, l 966 oi rntcrc~t the White House ap parcr,tly put it aside. R epresentative Henry S. Reuss, Democrat of Wisconsin, has also , suggested it ln the House. Mr. Goodell said h!s pl an dit. fered from Mr. Heller's in makRep . Good ell Asks All otting ing a specific allotment o! tax of 3 % of Income Tax receipts to local communities. The plan calls for. distributing · 50 ner· cent of the f unds' for WASI~N~TON, Nov. . 26 stat~ purposes, with 45 per cent . (AP) - -- House Republican to be r edistributed by the states leader has a!ready draft;d _ a to iocal governments, a..-1.d lS per plan for sharmg Federal r.axes cent t o strengthen the executive with st~te an_d loca,l govern- and management fWJ.ctions of ments tnat will be a come stone of Republican policy in st ates. • _ , the next Congress. The stace _and 10cal . gove:n· The plan calls for turning mcnts would nave full discretion back 3 p er cent of Federal in- ?Ver how the money was used, come tax receipts to states and out each: state would ?e required localities to use as t hey see fit. to submit its pl n for allocatmg The amount would rise gradu- ~he ~10_ney and :make an annual r eport on how it was spent. ally to 5 p er cent. Offered by Representative Treasury Post Planned Charles E . Goode:!, Repub lican The office or administrator of ?! upstate New York, the plan general aid would .be established 1s the fi rst concr~tc proposal by in the T reasury Deparbnent to the House Republican leadership assume Federal -esponsibilities since the Republican election u..~der the plan. • trmmphs of Nov. 8. · , "This proposal seeks to pro- . M1:, G_oo!ell s plan calls :for , vlde for the great public needs d1str1but!n 0 90 per cent _of the , of the 1960's a nd l970'.'l by Federal mcome tax dlstr1but1on J equipping state and local gov- to the state;; on a b':s1s of popernments to meet these needs " ulat1on. The rema mmg ;o per 1 vrr. Goodell aid. "It 1s an a'i- cent would be used to raise the . t ernat ive to the philosophy of per ~ap1ta ,_allotment in the 17 : the Great Society " he added . poor-est staces. • ' . Using estimated lncome tax .1'.ot Replacing Anything payments fo r 1967, Mr. Goodell Mr. Goodell, chairman of the said that Sl.8-billion would be Republican Planning and Re- available for distribution. The search Committee, said in a average basic allocation would statement that tax-sharing be S8.50 per person, with the would provide needed general equalizing funds raising the aid funds without reducing poorer states by as much as S6. state and local governments to Although the. Federal Govern-' administrative subdivisions of ment would have no control over! Washington. how the states and localities It is not being offered, at u~ed the money, Mr. Goodell least originally, as a substitute said, such use would have to for any existing programs, he comply with Federal law, includsaid, although in time ,i t m ay ing the Civil Rights Act ban on , permit s ome of them to be cut using money for programs in ; back. which there is. racial discrim- : A tax-sharing plan was pro- ination. · posed in 1964 by Walter W. He!- Mr. Goodell v,,ould also require : !er, then chairman of the a review and possible revision : President's CoWJ.cil of Economic of the program by Congress Advisers, but after a brief flurry after four years. T XSHA I G Lil1 F~ERE G. �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 17

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_017.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 17
  • Text: , THE i'J"EW YOKC TIMES - 11- 30- 66 61/ '.J.:,-f ,,-· ,,__ __ 0 _ _ Sen te Panel Endorses Bid for · eavy Inv stnient By IWBERT B. SEi.\fPLE Jr. SpcCJ,11 ·to The 1,:cw Yor · Times ...... . WASHINGTON, Nov: 29 - ~po~::,ls aime~t._;,ttr~1;; h v,;·e su ms oi_J,,r(,va,t<> r.llJ2.! tal into sl um rehabilitation received i,f?ong endorsc,nc~~Ltoday as the . Sc:nate Govc::·nmen t Operations s ubcom mittee began · a second r ound ... qfl, ca1:in;;s on what has be:en _, ;1llcd, . U,e,. ' c_i:isi,( ~n _t]1e . ci ties..': .·. . , ; .':·· :· ··....i :·;:., · , ._.;~ ·: ~:-11· Sena'tor\Jacr;b K _J a vit~. 'N°cwf. Yorl, Republican , ~ subcommi t- , tee member, said he was '.'encouraged by 1:ecent reports that the J ohnson Administration had such a plan under study.· Senator Abrnham A. Ribicoff, t he subcommittee chairman, decla red tha t the task cf providing decent housing , in slums was "not going · to be solved ·by Government-alone.", · He indicated that ··he would listen sympathetically to any proposal involving- a joint pu blic-private assault , on g hetto h ousi,ng. . · ·· · ' ·.. · A Tc1itati ·c Proposal Th~ Adn1inis t r ation's Lci1 tativc ' proposa l, developed over t he/ l;i.s t six months and re fined by til e Dcparlmenf of H ow-:ing and Urban Developmen t, calls fo r , creation of a na ti ona l, nonprof-1 it, semi-public _~.!1-Df'vel_Qp.Jlli;nt Corpornt1ll11 lha t, its sponsor~ hope, would attract heavy I private irwestmcnt · in t o ~!um r ehabilitation by p roviding . variet y of F ederal incentives and guarantees. . 'I11c substance of the plan was 1 disclosed in The New York Times on Sunday. ·· ' E ven thoug h ., no member of the s ubcommittee ·would comm it himself to · it specific approach, today's hearings indicated ·a lively interes t in the / pla n on the par t of ·!Irr . Ribicoff , and Mr. J a vits, a s well as t he 1 committee·s ·lcad witnes., , Da, ·id ! R ockefeller, New York fi na ncier Mr. Rockefeller, p resident of t he Chase ?v!anhattan Bank, decla red tha t . " urilan r ehbiilita tion is primarily a t ask for p r i~ vate enterpris e." But,- in rcspon to sustained r1ucstionin g ·from 1fr. J a vits, he conceded tha t ·business would be r eluctant to make heavy_ capita l· .otttlays j n slum a reas ··beca us e the · ris k' was grca.t a nd the prof/t re-, turns poor , ._. ,_ al .r.olc a s Cont_ractor , However , the Xew Yllr!, ' ba nker also decla r ed t h:i.~ busi- l n r..ss would nrobably be abl e to provide substa n t ia l clp as a ··contrncto,·:' acting fo · the Govern men t-which is one of t he roles f or bus inc.s s envisioned the propos;1,l · P. OW under study in the Adminis tration . U nder th e pla n, the ,Ur;;an Dcvclopmcn_t Corpora.Lion would /• h elp acquire rundown hou~in;;u sing money from pr l\·atc sou r- I c:cs such as ban ,s a nd fnunda-1 lions as .well a:-; Governm ent fun ds-and Lhen invite i:1dustr y to rcha.bi ifate it · chea ply and efficiently . ·· · · In this wa y, the r cpc,rt describing the p·lan wasy, the cor poration would "fuse the presently fra;;mcntcd purchasing p·ower" of the Government with t e nrnnagcrial a nd technol o~ical capacity of "Amen. ca n industrial or;;anization." The progra11's sponsors have said tha t n either n ew appropriat ions ·nor new le;:;islation oould be imincdiately requir ed. T he plan, in its fin ai form , r ecommends as a first step the purchase and rehabilita ti o~ - of · 30 000 units in se,·era l c1L1cs, requii·ing about _ HOO -million. E arlier versions of t he pla_n predicted that · ih 10_ · years . it· could providc..,...assummg 1mt1al success-5 mil lioa· ·cha bilitat cd or newly b..:il t. s um un its at ,an aggregate . cost of S?0-billion. Appear s ' Pessimistic ?11:r: R ibicoff urged :).1:r. Rocke feller·, who .at t imes app ear ed pessii11istic a bout a,i"akeningbusiness enthusiasm ·for la rgescale. investment in slum s on anything other than a contractual b?.sis, to examine not the obsta'c lcs to redevelopment but the "hopes and the possibilit ies.'_' · . H e ., u;;;:;e.:;tccl U1a t busmes s, especially ·t he construct1on · 111dus try , woul d find in sl um re h abil itat ion J n enormous mar ket for suppiies 1·a n,:;in;:: from floorin "' m aterial to dis posal uni ts. Mr. Rcickcfcllcr a lso h ad kind words fo r loca l · r r.development pla ns such as tha t envisioned by S enator Robert F. Kennedy in t he Bed,or cl-Stuyvesant a rea of Brooklyn. The Kennedy plan ca lls 'for t he establishment of a n onprofit corporat ion t o engineer the· r ehabilita tion of Bedfo rd-S tuyvesant · housing. Th. New York banker described th e approach as "mo t hopeful." He a lso exprc-ssed considerable interc,-t in ll[r . J avits',, sugg estion that the Go".ernmcnt h elp industry fon11 a technological consortium similar to the supel'sonic transport pro::ram . The New York R epublican pointed out that t he Governm ent wa.<; currently pou ring lar;:;e sums of money into the aircraft industry in Lile quest for a successful super~onic line. He ,q1;::r:estecl. Rlld ~rr. Roc-kefeller ag1:;,ed. that some k ind of " broad - scRle m a nagement group mi~ht be established . with Go\'emm01,t. help a nd - put.. to work d,~,·bing a nswers to iltE; - . , - ··-. - ~ ....-.....- ., ,. · .:, . 0 · · �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 23

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_023.pdf
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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 23
  • Text: Dictated but not read A PILOT P (X;R.A.t\.l TO P RO::-lOTI..: HO:-IEG:E-.:ERSllIP .1~- iO:'-!G SLUl'-I RESIDS:;:-ns by Anthony Dmvns The desire to own n home is a bas ic par t of our tra dition. Today 62% of Amer ican f amilies h ave ach i eved tha t des ire. Yet the re are still millions of f ami lies who wou ld J. il~e to own the ir m-Tn h omes~. but c annot. arr angements. They are too poor to do so und er present financing J\t l eas t, ha lf a million such househo ld s now r ent sub standard h ou s ing in our metropolitan area s. A chance to mm a de cent home of their m-m mi ght hav e a profound effect up on their att i tuc es towards soci e ty. Instead o f f ee li no like fru strat e d and he l pless transi e nts floa t ing a l ong in th e po re rty and filth of t he slums , they c ou l d b g in deve loping a chanc e o_f contro l ove r . the ir a;-717_ destiny. The y cou l d gradual l y build a stake in the ir commun it i es , alld wou l d l earn how t o u se ar'.d b enef it fro:n l ega l and politic a l i nstit uti ons they no 7 rega rd with hos tility. Furthermore, providing th e l m-r- income h ou sehold with h ome-owner hip assistance would no, be g iving them the same advnntage we a l r eady ext end t o mil li ons o f middle-income and up per- income households. These h ous ehol ds now r eceive a l arge subs icly i n the form of f ederel income tax deduction for the int er es t and pr operty t axes pa id on the ir home s . Thi s subsidy amounts to at l east $1. 7 bilU on per year for j ust the wea lth iest 20% i n the form of al l public h ousing pnymcnts, we l fare payme nts ~ and t ax deductions c ombined. Cl e ar l y, t ax de ductions aren ' t much he lp t o f amili e s �2 with littl e or no t axab l e inc o~e . Sc simple j ustic e demands tha t we encourc1ge h ome owners hip fo r th em in some oth e r way mor e suit ab l e to the i r n eeds, Th ere fore, we r ecomme nd ena ctment o f a pi l ot program of aid to l ow-income famili es to h e lp th em achieve home owne rship. This program should conc entra t e up on slum dwe ll er.s because the y nou h ave at l east an opportunity to mm de c ent h omes, and bec auf;e it Hou l d h e l p i mprove s l um l iving cond itions in genera l . The pr og ram shou ld ass i s t s l um r es id ents either to move out of slums by buying h o:nes e l sewh ere s or to ac qu ire ownership of new l y r eha bilitated ui1its in ne i ghb orho ods whoch will be u p-gr aded t hr ough a wid e variety of oth er progr ams to o -- as in the ~Jode l Citi es Program. This h ome- m,mer hip program wo uld he lp l m-:~lncome famil i es buy sing l e-family ·houscs s · individua l unit s in multi- fam ily c ond om i niums , or apartment bu il dings ,~1 i ch th ey op er ated as r es i de nt l and lord s - - r ep lacing absentee l and l ords , ~10 had neg l e c ted t he i r prop-rties. Seve r a l types of aid would b e i nvo l ved in thi s program . First , th e slum hou s i ng units i nvo l ved would be su bstandard one s r ehab ili tated by a pub l ic agency or a non-pro fi t group be fore be i ng so l d t o n ew owne rs. Second, b e l ow-market- r ate l oans shou ld be us ed to fina nce owners on a n o-down payment bas i s. Third, potentia l ·o·,mers should reciev e advanced t r a ini ng in th e sk ill s of minor ma i ntenances f inanc ing , and oth e r r esponsib ilities of owne rshipo Fourth, new owners from t he l owest- i ncome groups would need a monthly h ous i ng supp l ement sim i lar to the rent supplement but app lic a ble to owne rship payment s. Fifth, so;ne t enant s i n r es id ent- l andlord bu ildings t-:ou ld receive r ent supj_::-le.;nents. Sixth, owners should receive follow-on couns e li ng about financin 6 , and repairs. '-·· �3 Seventh~ th e publ i c agency r unni n g the prog r a:11 would agr ee to buy b a ck the housing invo lved duri ng a fi xed pe riod in c as e the owne rs c ould not car ry the r e quir e d burdens. In our opinion ~ thj s i s a program s o lidly in the Ame ri c an t radition, and we ll worth trying. '- - �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 27

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_027.pdf
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  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 27
  • Text: CONFIDENTIAL 6/2/67 DRAFT L\1TRODUCTION America and its conuntmities are changing with tmsettling rapidity. t~st of this change has been healthy; and most of the problems it has caused tend to evoke their mm solutions. This country - despite its transitional strains and its freely-voiced compla:ints - has an i.rnmense capacity for self-correction. There is always a temptation - and a pressure - to over-react: to give equal ear to every complaint, to chase off after every problem, and to wind up with congeries of programs ,~hich may slow up rather than _ accelerate the nation's natural and long-run capacity for self-correction. Evidence is accumulating that such has already happened in the federal govenunent' s response to urban problems over the past twenty years. These have been years of improvisation, and probing. have been constructive. On balance, they But neither in scale nor impact have they caught up with the dimensions and force of the nation's urban trends and developing problems. The time has come to move from improvisation over a wide front, and in sorretirnes contrary directions, to an effort a) lvhich is aimed at selected problems of transcending ir.Jportance; b) which 1s of a scale large enough to make a difference; c) which is not dissipated by conflictD1g policies and administrative arrangements; �. 2 d) which offer powerful incentives to state, local and private initiative, ancl thereby move toward a "steady state" of continuous problem-solving; e) which begin to erase the public's skepticism -- its growing feeling that public programs are not to be taken seriously, that 111ore is promised than will ever be delivered. The Task Force believes that the first priorities for public action m urban An,erica are related to the grmving disparity between city and suburb. -· A disparity which is expressed in the segregation between white and black, the gap between income in central city and in suburb, the uneven economic growth in our metropolitan areas, and in our capacity for response to the problems of central cities. Today too many of our central cities have become the political jurisdictions and geographic areas in which accident, design and even progress have housed an inordinately high proportion of our problem people and an outsized share of our problerrLc; of public policy. The Task Force on cities decided early in its deliberations to focus on these urban disparities. W e have identified t wo major approaches. The first is a straight- fonvard discussion of urban segregation by r ace and income and some recommendations intended to alleviate its ef f ects . The second involves a s eries of re commendations - some modest, some sweeping - intended to increase sharpl y our abilit y to deal with urban prob l ems creativel y, rez!X'ns ivel y, and on a l arger scal e t han i s presently possible. �... 3 We also have found it convenient to acld three smaller sections to our report; on :innovation, the model cities program, and an agenda for future study. While we recolillnend that Federal action in these areas be altered, refocused and expande
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 3

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_003.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 3
  • Text: ,• .·• " ' .. .:..J -~. .;..,,....,~ -~ --'--L_ · - -~~ - - - -- i =·- ' 1_ __. ' Subcommittee on Exe cutive Reorganization of the Senate Committee on Government Operations Afternoon session - November 29, 1966 . Witness~ Richard M. Scammon , Vice - President, Governmental Affairs Institute , Washi ngton . 1 th' . Scarnmon testified on the need for a mid- decade Census, or an inter - censal urban Census. He said that although the 1960 Census is out - of- date, obviously the 197q census count won 1 t be ·available for five years. A big factor in the obsole scence of data is the increased mobility of the population . According to . Ya- . Scammon, there is a great need for area data rather than figures from a city as a whole . I n the questi oning by Senator Ribicoff this point was elabo:::-ated upon and it was stated that if information had been available concerning the situation in the Watts area of Los Angel es , the riots could have been avoided . Senator Ribi coff said t hat when a census was taken of Los Angeles the bad figures from such areas as Watts were offset by the figures f:::-om more affluent areas . Senator Ribicoff pointed out that Yir . Cohen from the Department of ~:EW had used figures which dated back to 1961 when he testified before the com.~~ t te e and that government agencies cannot cure social ills without up- to - date statistics which point definitively to the location of those 'ills . Senator Rib i coff and lfir . Scammon both agreed that a mid- decade census is ne cess ary . Senator Ribicoff mentioned that the Office of Eco nomic Opport u.,."li ty is planning to take a special census in 1968 in st andard metropolitan ar ea s to complile pertinent data on such statistics as the median family income . - Vir . Sca.m.~on laid the blame for the fact that a census is taken only every ten years on the Budget Bureau . He said that the costs involved are so tremendous that the Budget Bureau would not agree to a more frequent census. ' Method of t aking the ce nsus Senator Ribicoff asked whether or not the method of ta..~ing the census is important. He pointed out that a census was conducted in Watt s where questionnaires were mailed to the 1·esidents. He questioned whether or not people at these levels would be interested enough to return the complete d forms. Lack of data on adult male Negroes Senator Rib ico ff also pointed out that i n the last censu s betwe en 15% and ~.r. Sc a~.mon rep lied t hat there was a slippage in less afflue nt areas of cities, but he did not know whether Senator Ribicoff's percentages were entirely correct. 2Cf/o of adult male Negroes were mi ssed entirely. ) I· �d-~--=·__________ u_ · --·--~~-;'_______ . -'---- - ;~ _.,_\,.;. ,; L?16:58, 29 December 2017 (EST) __________ . --- ---· ·--- : ... 2 Advantages of a five-year census . Senator Ribicoff said that abnost all grant programs are based on the number of people and their needs . He claimed that we must wei gh t he advantage s of a five -year survey in relation to these programs . He said that a · f i ye-year census would be better for decision ma.~ing by such administrat ors as the Secretary of h'UD . Central location for statist ics. Senator Ribicoff also asked whether there should be a central place for t he gathering and keeping of statistics, rathe1· than allowing each Department to have operations of its own . ifi r . Scammon sai d that a task forc e heaaed by Congr essman Gallagher r ecommended s et t ing up a cent r al ban.~ for statistics, but that a big concern of the Task Force was the right of privacy of individuals in responding to questionnaires. Senator Ribicoff contended that where the information was merged, th~ pr.oblem of confidentiality was lost. Problems Senator Ribicoff to get people to forei gn areas of in orde~ to gain said that the problem of taking an urban census has been do the work . It was also poi nted out that in problem or a city, t he census takers must be famili ar with the area . the confidence of the people who are interviewed. Spending in.cities Senator Kennedy asked through the _Chainnan whether it is possible to determine .how much the government is spending i n ea ch city to rebuild . He wants to know how we can get better figures . Mr . Scam..'llon said that this information should be available from the Census Bureau or through the Subcommittee. Senators P_!esent: Ribicoff Javits �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 7

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_007.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 7
  • Text: ------··~ -! ---..~ ~-~ ~-~---------<-- Subcommittee on Exe2utive R~orga.~i z aticn o f the Ser.ate Co~mittee on Government Operatio~s Afternoon s ession : De c ember 5) 1966 Witne ss: Walter P. Reuther Subj e ct: Problems of the Citie s Mr. Reuther was accompanied by Jack 'I'. Conway former Deputy Di1·ector of the Housing and Ho;:;;e Fi nance Agency and OEO . Mr . Re utrse:::- c.e2..i ver2c: h is statement on behalf of t he six ar..d one-half millicn industrial workers re:presented by t h e I ndustrial Ur,io:1 Depart ment of the A.FL-CIO and the millioYJ. and one -ha lf we:nbers of t he United Automobile , P.eros~13..2e and Agricultural I :Ylp1,.ement Workers of P.neric a. He advocated a weaving of all the el ements, h ousing, fu"lti - pollution control and others , in co~oating urban blight . He s ai d that these efforts must entail the n;ost participation possibl e by eve-:::yone affected {3-:nd there must be a ma..xi mum coordir:.ation of effort . · He also said that t he problen:s of cit_ies are b eyond the e conor::ic c a:pf,::.::..li ti es of the loc a l gcvernr!lents . However, h e feels t hat the real drive and U"lr 'J.st rr.ust come fr or.i the l ocal level . [ !fir . Reuthe r proposed the creation of a I~ional Non:pro:;:i t ~-I0J~ng Coruorat.."!_.on consistin g of the be st :ni:1cs fro::i7.a"oo::i.· ,- L:.na:-,c"e } i!:o.ust ·,y, education, etc . He prefers t ,1is nongovernme ntal type oi' cor~)o1·at i o0. b ecause sucn ari organiza.ticn would r:.ot be entrenched i::i. t:ic bm·e:c..uc :::-2.'.:, ic p atte rns which are to be found in the governr.1ent . He also -chi::i:~s t:1...1., thi s type of orga.vi.iz ation would not involve in- fighting i·:hici"l is sometimes prevalent _in governr:1ent oi ga.n iz ation s . In h is o::_:iinion } a private orga..."lization would b e much m-::ire :flexible . Jl"u" . Reu'cher , in suggestinG tnat the taslt cf r etuilding t::.e city be done by the tot al co~11!Lunity ) de sc-:::ited the Detroit iiat t ::1e:·e wouid necessa1·il:,· be ex-.9e1·ts 2.v:1.ila-ole o:c on call. He said that the key t o t he ·,,l-wle p:c-oblen; of ,r,:oviding lo,.; i n c o:ne housing is to demonstr2.te the p ra".!t ic al c 2.:p3.bili ty 0£' sa.'-< :in~ public plmming compatible with :9r :!.sate plannine; a:1d builo.i::J.G · ' . ' Kr. Reuther s aid that h e is very e!1thl,siastic a':)out the Demcnstrat i ons Ci t ie s Bill. .However ) he criticized Congr ess ' attitude to-.,·a rn ·ct Le appro:;iriation o:;: n,oney for don;est i c programs . He thinks ti~a t these prograo,s s hould be fu..rided a...½.ead of tic:2e ; so that the :Oe:92.rtrne:ot::; ,-,ill k n ow what mone y is available and have the money in tb1e to pl a.., 2.::e::c.ci . He thinks long term c ommi tt:n2nts should be mao.e for c.or,11:: sti c proc1·a::is as ,,e l l as for mili t_ary progra:ns ar;d i'or,=i g n aid. While c ri ticiz ine; pre s ent practices of 12nd use in cities ; suggested that a l ar.d b2.nk should b e c reated to help l oc.3.l p r ovi d e· l a,nd for low and r.1oderate inco,:.e housing . :-re s a id could. l earn a lot from Great Eri tain . He also pointed. out no slu~s in Swe e.e n . 1·~ Reuther con:::,u::1i tie. 3 thc:t the U . S . th~t t her e &:-·::; Mr . Reutl:.e r · c ont ended t hat the only way to r ed1_;_ce the cost of ouj_lcling hou ses is to appl y modern ; advar::ced t ec:hriolo~y 2.s i.t h e.s b een e.:ppl i ed t o such .fields as space ex-plo::.·atio::1 . Ee believes t ::-,2.t a ho·.1s-:: uorth $16 ; 000 according to present standards could b e developed. an-:: 3old ::·o::: $8, 000 if i ndustry i s sccn-m how to do i t b y research ins'ciG2,tcd by t h e gove r nment or a private :::i.on - profi t cor·::;ioratio;1 . [ 11.r . Reuther was h igi1ly c ritical of t he present s~rstems of r.~s s t~ ... ,,sus :r'c.?,:~j_c,:1 in this country. rie s ai d that t he _c ar i ndustry ':iill e ver;tuaJ.ly uffe:c fn:;:.1 self- s tra.'1gul at ion o n the high,-rays . Fie thinks it i s ri diculous for a p erscn to c arry a ton and. a h a l f of rcetal with nir,1 to wcrli: everyds.y . Ma in que stions r a i se d by Subcorm;ii ttee : 1. Fa1~t icii;>ati on by private inc1.11str:y in r eOuilC.ir..f- ci ti.es . l-1r . Ri b ::.coff 2.s~ed i-!D.lter Beuther whe:::. ratio \-:culo. b e de s i :rE..ble :o:cp art ici.p:i.tion by private indus t r y 2.:.1tl go\rey_~:.!e P-t i :r1 r ebuilf~inG 2i t i er, . Mr . ~e utr..er replied that he t hcc:::;_lt the mi:-i. irau:1 ratio s h ould oo $1 o::: gove:rr.i~G2nt mo!1e:>' for e--..rer:/ ·~5 of private fu.r. c~.s used . ·I 1his \·.:-a s the r 2.-:.i.0 p r oposed by Davi d Rockefeller. 2. Tee.chin;::; mi c r s.,, ts t o live in the c:i.ty . The Cnairt,1EL'1 aske d w:io t eaches the farm p e o::;ile h ow to live i:1 c.itio s 21c. how to e:void tur-ning hrn.l :::- ins into slu'.'1 ~2ss . He c laice d thi s i s o;t.:::::, the gli ght of public housing in r.-.2.r!y cities . r-:r . Re uther :;aic. t nat t:--,:: w1fort-..1r).ate thi.Dg is th a"c most new city d,,•ellers leE..l'[", i'l'O",. tt:.e :;::,20::_:iL, ,. -:: .::Xnv·.-i tic l ec.. st. abou"~ l:r_;·.., to li\~8 ~n a . : . : ~~y . __. . :::. :.(~ "'.:11.::.J.:, : .::c·:22;.-- : :1:.:~ .-::)_·;~, b e cr6aniz e d from the slutT!s to co ba c~ into the sJ.u~~s e.2:.d st':.O\·! -.9co~l.e >o-·:· �.. -..c--- .. - --~ - -: __ __: J .... c. ........... _ ..a~~':.l ;~~-·--- - ---- --- ---- -· ..... - J': . ~ ~ ..,.., to live £j_nd ta..~e ce.r-e of rel12..bi.litated fu""'ld nei,.;:- housing. [ Senator Ribicofi' seid t11at ~atc :r Oil .,_, i;1 vne he r~r ings will becomes a. 3. Se:nator RibiGoff a·skecl ho·w i s the govern:nent org.:Lu.ized to tc..~:e caJ."~ ot the pro1)lems of urban -~~r.-1·2 ric 2.. . t·T . Co::P,-ts_:_y.. said t!-:at t !1.e so --1e!·1:r~er!.lc 1 s r ead::r for a ne\; Eoover Cc:.1~·;1ission . }Ie m2.de t 11e :£'oll0'".-.ring su3ge st :=-.0:1:: Y(n.ich wo"'..lld in his opinio:1 str~::Gthen the go-,.:""e:!."'nt1ent ' e. c.bi l i t~.- to de cJ_ ·with tl1e urba!:t crisis: 1 b. Group functions together as was done in t.he D:!fer1se :r2r, urt~n·:::rrt a~1.Q Coordinate from above:: . cutting of pro ::::rai:13 Con':! by the Burer·.u of the I,~d ge t . would pl(lll &:c.d de·-;elop :;:>rogrc.:.1s f:c-0:1 •,·/ hi cl1 _t-ll·.-: i>::--c s!.d/:~n t cov.1. ,:: select the rcost useful . T.he a.dv~tr.\ced. I>lennj_ng futh~·t.ion of t ~:,~ execut:L-:1,~ br:~nch s hould :1ot. co6e u n d\-::j_... ~~he Eu.re au o f th e 5-J d{: :·: ~~ bec au.se it s}1ould be done o·J.t front nn1 n.\')t t e l1ii1d clc st.:d Cl.Oi..:i ~·s . 4 d. , }'u.r1d a.'1ead so t hat. tl1e a,;encies vron 1 t have to b es for r::or~~\ Y 2s.c h ,rea.r . e. Create a rnecha!1:i.st;t ( su.c~1 a s a l oc2.l coordinat o2.. ) i.Ihicll -:: sx! .Jv.-::.~u:: all the tool=· avails.Ole and fit thern t O th2 !le eds o f ~.oc2.l. corrll--nuni t i es J:"CrtC..er than --~:"ice v e:csa . a genius at i.:.he loc a l 1 evel federal pro grc~c.s . ... J, no1.; to k110\\i how -c. o t ak e ad·..- ::. .:i.1 tn~_; ,-- of 1 R.ole of l abor i.n r e\ri sio!"l cf t:1e c:Lt~--- . Ee :::.aicl t b..: .:.t eleven · \.1..ni cr:i s c..r c ~)2r tici~)2.ti:) .~~ . .:.::-::l cre a .J(:. e Q a cotins.il 2.::-id have do:·~e cu~:-i e.x citi nc; t l1in[;s e. s hoJ.O.i.n-~ .::! l sr_;:::-:·- 2 2uJ.d build i ng p l ayt; ::'ol:;.n ds . Se nato:t Ke:--~11eCy wl;.:.o .·tas not present ask8d t h.~cu_-.30.. · -L~e Che.i 1·tt~2.n -..:~ ::;t:.};e; ~· !1:r. F:-~ ut~er \-.1:1.s in favor of Co:·:~~rJ..;] :i.ty· DeveJ.o~:tn8nt Cor i:. or-2..tions c.t "Lt .~: 1 �. . ---- --~~---- - .. --- ---·- - - - -------·- -----' ~ ~ -~--'--·- -1. . c ~---~ r-.._,_-- -:1 ('"3~ . 4 l ocal level . ff:Y . Reut:1.er said he is very much in fa,,-or of theL'l . :S:e ,:e..,ts a N2:tional Corporation to work with the total probler.! and t o 02 bc:.c~ed u p by local corpo2:·at io!1s . 6. National Nor.:profit Housing Corp orc.tion . Senator Ri.oicoff said that the only person· he could think of ".,ho would be capable of a ssemblins the r.ecess ary leve l of representation fror, foun c.ations , u__--i.i versi ties , l abor , fin2.nce , ir::dustry and ot::ie:::- fields to participate i:1 t he n2.tional c or pora .:.ion 1 would be t he Pre side nt . The Senator said t!lat he h opes t he President will consider ti:-1is :_;;ropc s2.l . 0 7. Ho':-r to avoid continua tion of c. ,,.;e lfare sta te . J Consres s ma..11 J ames Scheuer ( D - N. Y . ) who was present at th:; h e ari ngs asked Mr . Reuther hm; third genera tion. wel::'Etre famil ies 8Ld :9:.·ec.ictc.':)2..e drop - outs c 8.J.'1 "be avoi ded . l/,r . Rc1.:the r said that tne recc:r:8 2nci.at icns made by tr..e ~ e s idec1t ' s Cow:1i. s s i er:. 0:1 .114cr..2.t i 5m s:1ould be i tr:_pl e,~,entcc,. "'1 - e pror:-"""" S' 7 E: '·'n e - r,-,on l- ..:...~n.:.!."l:, -s C.~~a" ... ,...o•,-.. - Sa '-:- d. . -'-hat ,,c,, H • C • -;--.1.:0".UJ.. _ ':'~C.. . ,r. J,..:,,... o• ---~ e ,.., e ,.....~1-,,... c. :_:.-, ,.0. ~~ • ••c,. W.: • d;., _.v -o :..- :_··.~, ince n::c i ve s 1 sucn as e arning out. s i de mon e y . He t.!1.lD:~s tna t a re c i :,ne:Tc s:-,01:.:..d. be allowe d to do this without loosin8 his welfare ::;:,ayment so tha t the person will aspire to living on a hit:;her pla.ri.e . · l., ! . J.. ~ •• l.,~ _ \".~ l., • TI Mr . Re uther said thc.t a.ri.other wa y to avoid a welf are state 8..."ld put people to work is to have a s t.,_nd2.rdi zed c o::-;:;,'J.t. e:::-' z ed e;n:::,7 o·-::::cr.,. n.:- · At p re sent 1 Mr . Re ut h e r clair:12d 1 ttie :.:"i 1· c,y e;1 c,rei:criect s--ca--:, 2 syste:,,s 2.·'.·-= obstacles t o the setting up o f efficie r:.t c ctT::_:iut ers ,:hich c ould m2."'.:.ch :.::-.. une,·a:;,loyed p e r son to a job withi n a r.:att er o -: r:,i nutes . i,'..r . R2u t h e r s aid t hat the whole p e :!: son 1 his hobbi es a s we ll 2.s h i s ski lls , is n o".; ta:~e n i nto account u..r1 c.er the p r e s e nt S'.:. at e systecns . 8. Missin p; e l ement in the s J.uc:-1s . Conbressr.1an S~heuer asked what i s ti-!e missi;:r.t3 element that has no-r, ce .:::n u sed to h e lp the cit y and ,-:heth e:..- this ele,:1e ::1t i s r.10:ce suLoidiz e c1 :10L,s :.:-.f/ ' Mr . Conwa y s a id ti1at on e r e a s on the gov e r nrr.8:1'-:, h as not h e l p e d · enou gh 5.:.. subsidi zing h ousing i s that in t he. o e:;i.nnin c; EBJ,'A was a f i n2.11e:ial i r. st~.tt·.~-:'..r.,.'.:. macle avai l abl e fo r p riv at e i r.dust,:y . He said that the A;;,e,~cy '.-ia s n ot :;,0oj:::. , o r i ented. Change in Witness s che dule : An t hony De cha".lt , Presid ent , ::-Io.t icna.J_ Fc.rrr.e:r:s lin ic::-i '., i l l not t e stify c ::-. Tuesday Deceuber 6 . D~-. ;-/ill iac!l Dcebele , Gre.c:.u 2.te School of D:::sie;n , Harvard Un i versi t y w2.s shLfted f r o:n \·lcdr:esda y t o 'I \ .:.esd.8.:f L:,s-'.:.e.s.d . I,Ie l vin Thom1 Ne.ti o r.al I ndian Youth Council n B.s been 2.dcle d. ·co tbe li s t fo:::Monci.ay , December 12 . M<::r:i'.)e rs pre sent: Senator Ribie:off Coc~ressr:!a..'1 J ames H. Scheuer , ( D-:'TY ) �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 12

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_012.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 12
  • Text: I TI-i::E i:JE\-7 YORK THlES - Decemb er . 1, 1 966 V1 LKINS DEPL RES /}~r.??.~~r~~ AYUR- Af ]DCUT[[ '· '/ • Tells S0nators Such Savings Ji Would Be 'Criminal' Sprci al to The :-;c ~ Tor~ Times •I ·; ;- WASHINGTON, 1\ov. 30 (, . · -Roy 'W ilkins asserted befo re I:··,\,, : '. • a Senate subcommittee toda y (i.,.ij,: L that it would be "crimin al" fo r \ \'., ~- ' .'; either Congress or the Admin·- ·. ·, . ,. · .I -, . . -· is tration to cut back budget ., . .· -·- ·. , . .::,, expenditures on social a nd ur-1\ · ban programs. . . /' The executiYe dire ctor of th e . • ·, ( -~'-·· 1 N ~tional Association · for ti1c ( ~ft fl~·,,·· '· /,./: ~ Aa\'ancement of Colored Pcoplc jt \ t /A ,, :·, m a de this pomt a day a lter L-·---- ·-·'--' "---~·-· -'~•-'·· Uil lt"rl ?re- ;:;, Intr mat1ot1J.! T cl e,1hnrn." j President J ohnson a nnounced, a t a news conferen ce in Texas, H an-,Y Go l
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 18

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_018.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 18
  • Text: Poirt lo r .i-D /U ll to Ponder The co nt roversy bct\reen _,M,ont m nic ry C'.J.ll.Ult.Y an the Department o, Housing and Ur ba n Developme 1t h olcl s a much broader interest than the rezonin g of three squ:-ire miles in the Wash ingi on suburbs. We clo not, of course, wish to minimize the importa nce of nullifying the butchery of planning by the old Montgomery County Council in its lame-cluck r ampage . But this is an in teresting test case which is certain to have an important b ea ring on the r elations between HUD and local governments in all parts of the country. HUD must necessarily invest its matching funds for the purch ase of park land and the protection of open space in accord with the standards that Congress and the agency have prescrib ed. It cannot be, exp 1-cted t o assist a county which makes a farce of planning and ~ou,i_ug protection. At the same time, however, HUD must avoid usurpation of the powers of local government and the use of pr essur e in deciding local issues. In the case at hand, we think HUD went over the line in applying pressure at a moment when the unfortunate situation in Rockville seemed to be righting itself. Unquestionably its intentions \\·ere good . But unless its pressure can be relaxed, the result may be to defeat its own purpose. Senator Brewster and numerous local officials have pointed out to HUD that the net effect of .its pressure on the new County Council to cancel its predecessor's last-minute r ezoning decisions may be to throw the entire controversy into court on the issue of intimi dation . A significant precedent for su9h suits is r eadily at hand. The grant of a n exception to the Soviet Union to per mit the construction of an embassychancery in Chevy Chase wa s upset in court some months ago because the State Department had , brought pressure on t he District's Board of Zoning Adjustment. HUD officials should realize that any specific zoning change which they impose upon un willin g local zoning authorities is highly vulnerable to legal attack. HUD needs to have assu ra nce that the reckless zone-busting policies of the old Council in Montgomery County have been abandoned . It needs assurance that proper safeguards will be ad hered to in areas for which Federal aid is sought. But these assurances appear to have been given not only by statements from the new Council but also by its vigorous action to wipe out the effects of the r ezoning spree, so far as that is possible. The grand jury investigation into possible irregularities and abuses affor ds~ further evidence of the new atmosphere in Rockville. In view of these vigorous efforts to undo the wrongs of the past and to adopt sound new p oli, cies, we think HUD should withdraw its freeze of Federal funds for the Maryland suburbs before the Council decides the rezoning cases' which it has reopened . HUD could again suspend the matching fLi'nds if the final policy which emerges should prove to be unsatisfactory. But if it insists on turning the thumb-screw whi1e the Council is sitting on these controversial cases it may defeat its own purpose and greatly embarrass the cause of proper development of the National Capital suburbs. The Washi ngton Post - Nov . :2-S, 1966 �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 21

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 21
  • Text: l, 1tJO . -. , ~ );.'k@,-1. •· --~ ~-=-·· . i.-,..~ l , .l_e i_.;· _____ _ ---'--==··-=··..;~ , ' . _···- ...... -143.215.248.55 -~ -- -=-=•= ~---~-···' ' ~- ·-...._.,.,___ _ __ ~j _ . -··.. - .,, ' ·, I - ,,. li4 S,:~i3e1 KrI ~I 1\ t'i ii- ir/1 ,,r,;/ ·Ql. R~oJ i!'<-'i 1..,\iJ1·r.s APT S 1·z;:: -SR. . 0 .' Le N :ii"'f-:J~·r, c/J C' -:}TA 9-:r'l:j) : F"if<.,;·, BviJ.."J>11uc:;-- Goi~'\Pi-r.:ri:.:j) ~s-n MAT ii)> JJi~oJ'2c.:r l/i:-5' \ w/0~- .--, 61( 1·;>,v •if I,\I , ·- I ANJ> oec.-uP;L?"J) - - (30 i I\ B To 'J)/\TG' .. , l;. i ,-j ',(; ':')- 5((- loMPJ..l='flDAf . . ·') ·, - BR 't!. ~i'-'1PlGT£j) I ~, I '1( I; /,t 1 ') /~IJ.'i) .'-lv. :;;-: lJNJ r-.:.. . ,/ ·r +; ·7 II I \~t:IJ' ~ 1\ )-; ('. ,_,-- ~ ,: I I .i I' < ' - -~. J '6 .'T T..;.. : . ·r ~S'6 i" ,:,' ' ,1 ~i ,: It_; ./ ?,) 4 l-. "'i ! <·;. 1f ) /Ci ! ,, ~qq ;- 'f 1u: f) ?' I ' . j ~ !U-.:.- ti) I to · Ri)1,.·i">; )J<.;.c, - iort -~;) ;() , J,v i,S LL ,. . R ' :' ' Tc'iAL AVe. '(A.G ;!! ~ r I I.! C·~ i D'2 vG1~0 r Mf1v·r Cosr' S, r..vi:-11 t· ti Ai lci-Jr~1,i·rc\'~s 1-i::i1 Ar-.r..1HTEC rs (,'~!( AMOV,V'T T16M C.,c,}l O r ::r: A·1, AJ r. ji q':!D/b1 ·7 '1) . 'j 1 i.dl I '640 I'{;£: 'Zo9, o~t5 : F"t21; ,t . .. iI 4ib LE~AL.. I le,, coo 246 L...Atvj) i (r~·d:;.,L,i Riio~1,;,9 r..-r/i L ~ '1 {j I. q43 {)('() p4i3}1b t::ss: ,Vr'.C./l-Nq /1L1.v.:J1i!JC.:.1.: -Z )L~-i ~f.5"l t4ls',34-9 OR~AN l-ZATION K.c.JJTJ1l. T;.;,:,,;,vti: ~+t -~;,\Jl"tNi'..,/ N r!: /IN.'!> Ct:?.f.. i IN.(; (\Ny St11izJ).;;.c:y 8,y:-:> ,: ,_:, 01 . It ,_ r) J L..,N._t..:. r 1 . i , l'l'ti .~Cc 13. i.J.11 ' 11li1!e& ...
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 26

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 26
  • Text: June 2, 1967 MEMORANDUM To: Members of Task Force From: Richard C. Leone The attached papers are not ·meant to be improvements on the Ylvisaker draft of May 15~ 1967 . They are simply attempts to include more material fo·r discussion on June 8. Work on other proposals is going forward. Mike Danielson and I are working on a revised structure (really two parts race and income segregation and a related section of fiscal and institutional capacity). We hope to have most of these in detailed outline form at the next meeting. The enclosed, of course , are confidential. d l ecut ive Se cre t ary �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 29

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 29
  • Text: DRAFT:6/2/67 RECOMMENDATIONS The Task Force recommends a number of specific proposals designed to offer incentives for the integration of Negroes with whites, to r a is e the leve l of socia l services to the poor within the central city or to create a more stable middle-class society within the city. Naturally there is a great deal of overlap between the obj ec t ives of each of th es e r e commendation s. None o f them are pure "integration" or "up-lift" or "civiliza_tion" programs. We have made some judgments on the practica lity of each of thes e recommendations . They a r e divided into t h os e which might be poss i bl e under present social circumstance s and those which de pend on more fundament a l changes in the attitude s of the Ame rican people. Empl oyment is the mos t meaningfu l, d i r ec t and permanent means of providi ng the poor Amer ic an with a n opportun ity f or f ull participation in soc i ety . The following r ecommenda tions r egarding employment ar e int end ed f or the short run, say the next f ive y ears. 1. The major prob l em with fed era l ly supported manpower programs is fr agmenta tion bet ween Cabine t agencies and within Departments . Th is pro li ferati on of manpowe r programs , oft en with a spec i a l t arge t group for each program, only compounds the difficulty of any city or agency has i n de s igning and impl ementing a compreh ens i ve a nd comprehensible employment and tra ining effort. The Task Force recommends the consolidation of present l y s e parated manpowe r progr ams into a sing l e compreh e nsive manpower grant. This move would a llow deve lopment of sufficient loca l �2 manpower programs tmder the aegis of a single agency to absorb the important functions of recruitment, selection and processing, training, placement and follow-up of the poor. A first step would be the consolidation of those programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor including institutional training, on-the-job training, neighborhood youth corps, concentrated employment program, and the employment service. Strong incentives for cooperation with vocational rehabilitation, and OEO employment operations should be explicit in the lceislation. 2. Tn the absence of sigpi f"ic:ant consolid~ri on ma.nnower _programs, the T~sk Force recorrnnends an e).TJ,msion and n ~focusinr; of the on-th~-i ob traininQ_oro r.r am tn Drovi de higher subsidies to privat e inclustrv to under- take the traini.nQ of the poor. It has become clear that without the close cooperation anJ participation of privat e industry t hat permanent and meaningful employment will not r esult from even excessive employment ·and training e:x11endi turcs. Reimbursement for training cost should be doubled and perhaps quadrupl ed and the 2Ci \\'eeks presently allowed should be expanded to a f ull year. OJT should provide for a gr eat er s t aff for job devclopnent and for counsel ing and follow-up aft er placement in a j ob training pos ition. 3. O.Jr i s r.1os t r el evant in the devel opr.1cn t of cornrncrc i al Md manu- facturing jobs for t he poor in the area of the centr al city. In order to cor:ipcnsat e for t he decline of these jobs in t he city t he Task Force reco1:nnends an e:x.-pansion in public enployment - the Task Force r ecommen
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 30

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 30
  • Text: ,, ·----Jtme 2, 1967 MHDMNDUM I - To: Task Force Members From: Richard C. Leone Downs, Macinnes, Frederic and I had a long anc.l rambling session with As sistant Secretary of HUD Charles Ilaar and his deputy. The following t wo portions of our discussion may be of interest to the Task Force. 1. It's quite clear that the metropolitan development plans of HUD Jo not t ake t he ghetto an
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 10

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 10
  • Text: /j//1,, I •I (,,' , I ,.-, -1 . t.,,:...<> (., _ I , ;:· /,< (, -· v (/ }-7.c'.\.?J:l·:GS :S:220?2 T::..:; SU~:8C:.: .J:'='.!:';:';::':: on K{ECU?IVE PEORG.-~IIZATIO:,J OF '.!'EE sr:=·~.\'I'~ c c:.:-=:TI':Z::: o~r GO'JERI'J-ZJW OP'.a.::R6.TIOHS ' ,,.- Afternoon Session : -~ BRUC6 P. F.AYDEH; Vice ?:resident; ::ort 6ase 2.nd Real Estate J?epart.ment, i Colli'1ecticut Gene:r3.l Life Insurance Company Mr. Hayden defined the c onditi on.sunder which life ·insurance corporations _and other bus inesses could increase their participation in the urban r edevelop:nent process. The ex.te~1sion of Gove r!l.ment financial assistance programs to profit ventures as. well as nonprofit organi zations and the effective exercise of t h e planning and coordinating function on the part of Gover.ruaent were des cribed as necessarJ to the achieve;:;ient of greater business involvement in t h e reouildir..g of the cities. The main poim;s ·rais e d in his testiraony and during the questioning period were the follo wing : 1 l. The Weakne s s of :n orrnrofi t Ventures Hr. Hayden testified that d eveloprnent efforts unde rtaken by nonprofit conc erns u sually r esu.l t in f a ilure due to P. J a ck of knowledg e and experi ence . The tendency to l init Gover Th7ent fi"'anc i a l support to nonprofit organizati ons is thus m1desirable . 2. The Gathering of Housing Costs }Ir. Hayden stressed the importance of r ~.?~e?in~ the divergence between housing construction costs and gene:r2.l price levels which force s builders to t olerate lmr quality work . The contimstion of r eli ance upon ea s i er fina ncing arrangements will p revent a soluti on of t he costs probl em . 3. The Or ganization of tl"e Attack uuo!1 Urron Problems Mr. Hayden sta t ed t hat an agency should b e c reated with the r espons ibility for mak:Lng a tota l systems approach to tbe problems of urban housing. Such an agency could b e orga nize d along the lines of either NASA or COl-.SAT . JAMES W~ ROUSE; President; The Rouse Company irr. Rouse descri bed the steps taken to plan and f inance the Col umbia project which involves the de velopment of an entire new city within the next l 2 years in an_area midway b etween Washj_p.gton and Bal t imcre . Tbe expe rience of t he Rouse Corpor ation and the Co;:1ne cticut Gener"--1 Life Insurance Ccnpany with r egard to Columbia can b e applied to the reconstruction of t he c entral c ities ac cording to 1-il' · Rouse. The ma j_n points raised i n hi s testimony and during the questioning period were the following: ,,. �l. 'I , The Need for Concentratic~ of Financial Resources upon a Single City Mr. Rouse suggested that all urban ·renewal and -demonstration city funds should be utili zed to accomplish the total and successful renewal of a single l arge American city. The country needs to be convinced that urban problems are capable of solution. 2, The Place of Profit Consicerations in Urban Redevelopment. Mr. Rouse declare d that the construction of new cities and the reconstruction of old ones so that the real needs of their people are satisfied will b e a profitable enterprise. Once the market success of well -planned development projects is established, the solution of the nation's urban problems will be possible. <, �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 15

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 15
  • Text: IvJI .4l F8_Il lfi ltfJW IE fvII !E fiJ. 1 § o 0 0 is here 1o stay and.' make it a deeent place to live," Foli:y protested. i.ubtu·bs '? The meeting, as often happens in g1.1v-e1-n. ment, didn't settle anything. It is, however, a dramatic illustration of tile painful but secret process now going on inside the White House as the adm.ini'>i:rat\on prepares for L°ti7. f:f .: · .' ' %~iii'-\ .· _/:.,-;- '·-?r·i SO:ll,E OF THE PARTfOTT'J\:\'TS in that hig,h- Z powc•rwl St':S.'i'ion we-re chug--rin<·d t;hat Shul tze failf'r:I to includ by llie warning of this montJ1's eJC'Ction, in which tlie . GOP di:monstrated impressive gains in_ t11e nol·· m al ly Democratic hig city vore. • (Although tJ1at same e.lection sePmed to ind: c~:te a n;lfionul nbn0c---phe•re of entrench ,'1}ei;t which . for,'shadows difficulty for the admin istration i n Congress i f it:; progrnms for tile cit ies are deemed t:oo expensive or too visionary). Witllout much fanf:lre and largcly ,,ithout p ubhc notliec t11e White House has se t about in scv0ral ways to work on tJic problems o£ tne ci ties. Passage la~·t ::;Pason of the Demons trabon Ci til's Bill, was of coiu-:;e, a small but importa nt b eginning. A special l~ k foi;ce has been assigned to produce new ideas for tlie cities which oould be included m adnunistratioo measures. · AND THAT CABINET-LEVEL group, which meets weekly m Califano's office, nets e..s a watchdog over tlle presently exisitng programs m an effort ro see tJ1ey are fully ut:i.ful:xl. Meanwhile, t"ie Justice Depar!:zl".ent is pbnnjng sho1tly to mnduct a landlord-tenant co!"Jr:rOn e official present, however, int ~rjected th a t c.1ce in the capi tal. The conference will bring he opposc- an<' hav.c no wey of pi-ess• 1·ing 1'.im Wo action. job-pro
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 28

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 28
  • Text: - · - - - -- - ·- 1 - DRAFT:LEONE 6/2/67 The overriding problem of our cities is segregation by race and income. There are no urban solutions of any validity which do not deal directly with the questions posed by this segregation. The facts are these: 23% of the total population of our central cities is Negro, and 35% of these Negroes have incomes in the poverty range. Within five years, assuming present population trends and allowing for current levels and even greater effectiveness of ameliorative public programs, the proportion of Negroes to central city population will rise to 28%, with a constant percentage remaining in poverty. By 1978, both proportions will be 35%. By 1983, our central cities population will be 44% Negro, nearly two-fifths of them poor. The se are percent age s of the tot a l population of all our central cities. By 1973, at least ten of our major cities will be predominantly Negro; by 1983, at least twenty, including Chic ago, Philad e lphi a , Cleveland, Detroit, etc. To rep ea t, the s e are our proj ections of which will h a ppen if (1) pres e nt popul a tion trends continue , (2) ther e are no sudd en and surprisi ng change s in public attitud es, and (3) curr ent governmental polici e s and l ev e ls of spending r emain in force. The Task Forc e b e lie v e s that a significant cha nge in (1) despit e the notoriou s unr e li a bility of popul a tion tr ends - is unlike l y. We be li eve tha t change s in (2) a lso a re bo t h unl i ke l y and unpred i c tabl e . �2 Given these uncertainties our report focuses on (3) - current governmental policies and level of spending - • We recognize Government action is only one element in the process of urban decline. And, while it may not be a sufficient condition for turning the tide, it is certainly a necessary one. The sheer rnagnitude of the problem is staggering. Our population models tell us that simply holding the size of central city ghettos to their present size will require movement of approximately 600,000 Negroes a year into predominantly white suburbs. Such a figure would represent from ten to fifteen times the present rate of Negro outmigration. Our crude cost calculations for providing a minimlD!I acceptable level of social services in all central city ghettos indicate Federal expenditure patterns of staggering and unlikely proportions. We believe that to alter these projections signific2. .ntly, quantum leaps will have to be taken in public policy and levels of spending. Yet without a massive effort disparities bet ween white and black, affluent and poor , city and suburb will grow l arger. The probability for potentially dangerous confrontation which divides American society along these lines Hill continue to increase. 1•:e
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 31

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 31
  • Text: J uc1e l E- , 2._.. o:n : Richa _ -_ 9.6 7 C. ~ec~2 .::.·_-_c ::.cs2C:. &:ce .. a jar portioas c:: ,.: 2 realiz- th t sc~11e of th1...s1... ·c' - d _aft r epo::-L 2.;:::; s~ill in a crude fore - ·c·.-,e:.y s~-:.ould g .:.ve eve:.:,·c,:_~ sc::-.2tr iag to t 1.ink about ,:ic:.: _-: O'i'l betweE:-t now and :'hu..:-sc:ay . d::aft 3nd should have & cle&: er We wi 11 b e rE:v::. s ~ :--_::; nd perhcps ~ore r efi .~c _, _>y for our r:1ccting in W shir.gt:on . Execut ive Secret ry �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Complete Folder

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  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Complete Folder
  • Text: "· The Department of Housing and Urban Development and The Office of Economic Opportunity CONFER ENCE ON HOUSING FOR, THE POOR Ma y 23-24, 1966 Wa s hington Hil ton Hotel Washington, D.C. �., ti Agenda for CONFLmENCE ON HOUSING FOR TIii~ POUR Department of Housing and Urban Development and Office of Economic Opportunity May 23-24, 1966 Washington, D. C. Purpose: The purpose of this Conference is to evaluate the feasibility of providing several million additional standard housing units within the next five years, at prices the poor can afford. We are seeking from this Conference (1) a summary of what we do and do not know about how the poor are housed, in physical, economic and social terms; and (2) identification of alternative programs or combinations of programs and implementation strategies, that might make decent housing available for the several million poor households that would otherwise occupy substandard or overcrowded units by 1970. Program Monday, May 23, 1966 9:00 a.m. Opening Remarks Sargent Shriver, Director Office of Economic Opportunity Robert C. Wood, Under Secretary Dept. Housing & Urban Develop. 9:15 a.m. Conference Procedures Dr. Morton J. Schussheim Director, Office of Program Polky Dept. Housing & Urban Develop. Mr. Alvin L. Schorr, Deputy Chief, Research & Plans Office of Economic Opportunity 9 :,30 a .m. Statement of Problems and Its Dimensions Professor Charles Abrams Columbia University (The number of units and poor people in need of better housing; the extent to which rehabilitation and/or clearance are required; the costs involved; present locations of substandard units; composition of occupants by race, age, size and family composition; the national goal.) 11 :00 a .m. Social Issues Pr o fessor Nathan Glazer University of California (The questions of deghettoizing the poor and particularly the nonwhite poor; the supplemental educational, counseling and back - up services required; the problems of a means test and establishing priority criteria; the attitudes of poor and non - poor to this housing; the difficulties and oppor - t un ities of relocation . Should standards be reduced , e . g . no air conditioning ; room sharing; smaller room size ; etc • . . ) 1:00 p . m. WNCH �2 Monday, May 23, 1966 (Cont'd) Technological and Land Use Issues 2:30 - 5:00 Richard J. Canavan National Association of Homebuilders (The ~ype of housing required and its location; the availability of land; architectural and city planning concerns, the technological problems and opportunities of a large-scale building and rebu i lding program; the abilities of existing or proposed institutions to implement the program; prospects f or cost reducti on.) Tuesday, May 24, 1966 9:30 a.m. Economic Issues Pro fessor Chester Rapkin Uni versity o f Pennsylvania \ (Alt e rn a tive mean s of fi nancing the pr ogr am; the effect on the economy o f a multi-b i llion do llar program; the effect on the total housing industry and constr uction costs; a c ceptable standards of space and quality; the effect on the values and cond i t ion of e xisting housi n g a nd n ei ghborhoods; e ff ici encies that mi ght r esult from a r eeva lu a ti on of the e conomics of the hous ing i ndust r y.) 12 : 00 2: 00 - 4: 00 LUNCH Program Issu es Dr. Lou i s Winnick Pub li c Affairs Program The Ford Foundation (The t ypes of programs to me et the objec t ive ; possi b le expan sion or red ire ct ion of exi s t ing programs and t he inv ention of n ew kind s of programs; possible number of units to be dev eloped; ~he phasing and possible mix of programs over a several-year period.) �List of Invited Particip~nts Conference on Housing for the Poor Mr. Charles Abrams Professor of City Planning Columbia University Mr. Nathaniel Keith Consultant , Mr~. Ruth Atkins Community Representatives Advisory Council Office of Economic Opportunity Mr. Saul Director National Mutual Mr. Richard J ; Canavan Staff Vice President Builder Services Division National Association of Homebuilders Honorable Sherman Maisel Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System Dr. Robert Dentler Center f or Urban Education Honorable Arthur Okun, Member Council of Economic Advisers , Mr. John Eberhardt National Bureau of Standards Professor Chester Rapkin Institute for Environmental Studies University of Pennsylvania Professor Bernard Frieden Departmen t of City and Regional Planning Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mr. Nathaniel H. Rogg Executive Vice President National Association of Homebuilders , Mr. Robert Gladstone, President Robert Gladstone and Associates ' Dr . William G. Grigsby Institute for Environmental Studies University of Pennsylvania Klaman of Research Association of Savings Banks Mr. Arthur Levin Potomac Institute Mr. Albert M. Cole President, Reynolds Metals Development Corporation , Professor Nathan Glazer University of California Dean Burnham Kelly College of Architecture Cornell University ' Dr. John R. Seeley Chairman, Department of Sociology Brandeis University Mr. Miles Stanley National Advisory Council Office of Economic Opportunity Dr . Louis Winnick Public Affairs Program The Ford Foundation �~ Housing Poor Families The Problem. A program to house all the nation's poor in decent housing at rents they can afford contains two distinguishable elements: i) how to improve the housing conditions of those presently living in sub- • standard quarters; and 2) how to lessen the.financial burden of those who live in standard quarters at the price of devoting an excessive burden of · their income for housing. OEO has e.stimated that upwards of 4 mi·llion poor families and poor unrelated individuals in 1964 lived in housing that was dilapidated, lacked ~lumbing facilities, or was overcrowded •.!:/ The number · who overpay for standard housing is harder to estimate but is large. For example, in 1960 rent-income ratios were computed for 5.7 million families with incomes under $3,000 . 4.4 million of them were paying 25 percent of their income or more for rent. An ad ditional .5 million were paying be- tween 20 and 25 percent of their incomes. In theory, housing needs of poor people should decline because of anticipated declines in the proportion of families who are poor and because o·f continued upgrading of the total housing stock. Between 1950 and 1960, however, poor families received only 2.5 million standard units out of a ~t overall increase of 19 million . That is, families representing 30 per- cent of the total in 1950 and 20 percent in 1960 showed 13 percent of the 1/ The incidence of housing characteristics in 1960 was applied to 1964 data about the poor population, producing a total of 4.1 million in such units in 1964. If one proceeds alternatively from the housing stock itself .and the rate at which improved housing stock reaches poor families, an estimate as high as 5 million poor families in substandard housing would be produced. �,, I 2 net ove_rall increase. Moreover·, in some' places and for some groups' "natural forces" may exacerbate the problem in the years just ahead. Low ! income f families presently living in substandard housing are less mobile and have more deviant characteristics than thoae who were able to take advantage of • the filtering process during the 1950s. And such forces as zoning and sub- division controls are likely to present new impediments to the distribution 1 · downward of _standard housing. That . the current welfare system --- an ex.am.~le ~ of the pure income approach to housing --- has not produced larger results :is another argument for seeking substantial approach to the supply side of _theI equation. Obviously, some improvement will occur naturally and one must assume ( too that cash income maintenance programs wi ll meet i ncreasing portions of _/ family income de ficit s. Reasoning fr om 4 mi llion families and indiv iduals in s ubstandard housing in 1964 and add i t i onal millions pay ing more than the y c an affor d for st andard hous ing, one may e stimate the object ive more or less a t wi ll . OEO has es t imat ed that the ob ject i ve should be pi t ched I J to the expec t a tion tha t the me di an i ncome of families who should be reache d would be $3, 000 ( f or a f ami ly of fo ur ) . From th is base, one must de t er- mi ne an overall objective within t he target date of five or six years. Developing a Program. In a pproaching the developmen t of a program it is necessary to judge what may be built and what may be reclaimed. Such { an approach represents.more than simple economy. It allows room for famiU.es that may wish not to give up thei r homes and provides a pattern for contintled •• I · • I> I II I ( 11 •,' �.- .t 3 maintenance of the housing supply. In the decade from 1950 to 1960, some- thing less than one-fourth of the net increase in standard dwellings represented rehabilitated units. On one hand, there has been considerable reduction in the stock of housing that lacks plumbing facilities and is comparatively easily rehabilitated. On the other hand, new aids are available for rehabilitation and new effort is to be invested in it. tt is, in any event, necessary to make some assumption about the proportion of standard housing that would be secured by rehabilitation and the proportion that would be built new. Similarly, it is necessary to make judgments about the geographic distribution of additional standard housing. Although substandard housing is disproportionately distributed in rural areas, some number of the people now using it wi 11 be seeking housing i n urban areas. Finally, plans for a substantial program should include consideration of staging a buildup of the construction industry. For example, a net increase of 1 million units a y0ar might be built up to at the rate of 200,000 or 300,000 each year for several years. The supply of housing for low-income families can be increased either through government incentives to "the private sector or through direct construction by public housing authorities. Incentives to the private sector include -subsidization of land costs and reduction in the cost of bon:owing building capital (low interest loans or subsidized interest rates). I'. , .. ,. · 11 · • Use of �., 4 these aids provides an attractive incentive to private builders (and rehabilitation contractors) while permitting some control over the allocation of benefits and rentals or sales prices. However, these forms of assistance are not sufficient to produce housing in the $50 a month range. poor fam:1,.lies must also be subsidized. To do this; A program of the JJ1,B.gnitude being described might be fashioned entirely out of two elements rental or purchas.e assistance and interest and land subsidization. The obverse side of these assistances are conditions as to beneficiaries and uses. Obviously, Jll,S.ny variants of the two elements are possible and alternative programs may be fashioned as well. Related questions that would arise include the uses and place of code enforcement, the type of research that might be most productive, the special ne.eds of rural areas, the niethods. of assuring desegregation, and related needs for providing public and social services. l' ' �I STATEMENT ON URBAN DEVELOPMENT CORP. One area the Federal government has neglected in its effort to make lower cost housing av~ilable is the use of technology and other innovations to help reduce costs. .. Therefore, the idea of establishing an urban .,development ~orporation to create a large enough "market" in the field of rehabilitation so as to induce innovations is an attractive one. ~ I I The need to explore all ways of encouraging rehabilitation of sub-standard housing is great. However, there are a number of uncertanties and risks involved in launching a UDC program. To begin with, it is unclear to what extent i echnological and institution j innovations can reduct costs. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the program, and therefore the assumptions on the degree of financial support needed, is highly sensitive to such factors as acquisition costs, rehabilitation costs,and mortgage terms. In addition, the program cannot be started small. I I It must be launched on a large enough scale to create the necessary "market" for innovation. Therefore, the program must have top-flight leadership, and it must have a firm commitment on the availability of 22l(d)(3) below-market funds, FNMA special assistance, and rent supplements. Given the proposed 30,000 unit target for the first two years and given the need to operate on a scale of around 10,000 units in any city, it should be understood that the program will have to be --- limited to a small number of cities. i I / �, It should also be understood that no matter what cost-savings may be achieved through innovation, major subsidies in one form or another will still be required to meet the housing needs of \ the poor. Recommendations The Task Force therefore recorrnnends: 1. That a program along the lines proposed by HUD be inaugurated to test the capacity of UDC to stimulate technological innovations. 2. That the UDC should seek to encourage and to assist-through · training, technical assistance, loans and otherwise-- the formation · of competent and qualified local non-profit organizations to help carry out its mission. 3. That firm commitments be made on the availability of sufficient 22l(d)(3) below-market funds, FNMA special assistance I funds, and rent supplement funds to meet its program objectives. I I 4. That a clear understanding of the relationship of the UDC to existing local agencies concerned with housing and urban development be worked out before the program corrnnences . 5. That careful consideration be given to explor}t'\ith those most concerned possible political acceptance• of a UDC program involving new construction as well as rehabilitation. -- �,• .·• " ' .. .:..J -~. .;..,,....,~ -~ --'--L_ · - -~~ - - - -- i =·- ' 1_ __. ' Subcommittee on Exe cutive Reorganization of the Senate Committee on Government Operations Afternoon session - November 29, 1966 . Witness~ Richard M. Scammon , Vice - President, Governmental Affairs Institute , Washi ngton . 1 th' . Scarnmon testified on the need for a mid- decade Census, or an inter - censal urban Census. He said that although the 1960 Census is out - of- date, obviously the 197q census count won 1 t be ·available for five years. A big factor in the obsole scence of data is the increased mobility of the population . According to . Ya- . Scammon, there is a great need for area data rather than figures from a city as a whole . I n the questi oning by Senator Ribicoff this point was elabo:::-ated upon and it was stated that if information had been available concerning the situation in the Watts area of Los Angel es , the riots could have been avoided . Senator Ribi coff said t hat when a census was taken of Los Angeles the bad figures from such areas as Watts were offset by the figures f:::-om more affluent areas . Senator Ribicoff pointed out that Yir . Cohen from the Department of ~:EW had used figures which dated back to 1961 when he testified before the com.~~ t te e and that government agencies cannot cure social ills without up- to - date statistics which point definitively to the location of those 'ills . Senator Rib i coff and lfir . Scammon both agreed that a mid- decade census is ne cess ary . Senator Ribicoff mentioned that the Office of Eco nomic Opport u.,."li ty is planning to take a special census in 1968 in st andard metropolitan ar ea s to complile pertinent data on such statistics as the median family income . - Vir . Sca.m.~on laid the blame for the fact that a census is taken only every ten years on the Budget Bureau . He said that the costs involved are so tremendous that the Budget Bureau would not agree to a more frequent census. ' Method of t aking the ce nsus Senator Ribicoff asked whether or not the method of ta..~ing the census is important. He pointed out that a census was conducted in Watt s where questionnaires were mailed to the 1·esidents. He questioned whether or not people at these levels would be interested enough to return the complete d forms. Lack of data on adult male Negroes Senator Rib ico ff also pointed out that i n the last censu s betwe en 15% and ~.r. Sc a~.mon rep lied t hat there was a slippage in less afflue nt areas of cities, but he did not know whether Senator Ribicoff's percentages were entirely correct. 2Cf/o of adult male Negroes were mi ssed entirely. ) I· �d-~--=·__________ u_ · --·--~~-;'_______ . -'---- - ;~ _.,_\,.;. ,; L?16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST) __________ . --- ---· ·--- : ... 2 Advantages of a five-year census . Senator Ribicoff said that abnost all grant programs are based on the number of people and their needs . He claimed that we must wei gh t he advantage s of a five -year survey in relation to these programs . He said that a · f i ye-year census would be better for decision ma.~ing by such administrat ors as the Secretary of h'UD . Central location for statist ics. Senator Ribicoff also asked whether there should be a central place for t he gathering and keeping of statistics, rathe1· than allowing each Department to have operations of its own . ifi r . Scammon sai d that a task forc e heaaed by Congr essman Gallagher r ecommended s et t ing up a cent r al ban.~ for statistics, but that a big concern of the Task Force was the right of privacy of individuals in responding to questionnaires. Senator Ribicoff contended that where the information was merged, th~ pr.oblem of confidentiality was lost. Problems Senator Ribicoff to get people to forei gn areas of in orde~ to gain said that the problem of taking an urban census has been do the work . It was also poi nted out that in problem or a city, t he census takers must be famili ar with the area . the confidence of the people who are interviewed. Spending in.cities Senator Kennedy asked through the _Chainnan whether it is possible to determine .how much the government is spending i n ea ch city to rebuild . He wants to know how we can get better figures . Mr . Scam..'llon said that this information should be available from the Census Bureau or through the Subcommittee. Senators P_!esent: Ribicoff Javits �. ------ - -- - -~ - - -~·.•, _ _ __ _ j_ _ _ _ . Hea:ci ngs before the Subccmmi tt ee on Executive Reor gan i ze.t i. or:. o f the Senate Govermr..ent Ope rations Corr~tlittee Afternoon session : Witness : Novembe r 30, 1966 Judge GE!org e Ed,·re.1·ds, U. S . Court of Appeals, 6th Circui t , F orme r Police Co~.missione r of the City of Detroit; 1962 and 1963. J udge Edwards outlined for the Subccmmittee the p::.·oble!ns of law enfor c ez:-.ei1t in the large citi es of the U. S . with examples drawn la1· ge ly f:r ora his o~-,n. experi ences i n the city of De t::.·oi t . The J"G.dge emphasized tl":e prob l em::: of the Negro co:r,!nuni ty and the fac t that the a ttitude s of Negroes to,-, ards Ls:w enforc ement are the product of the ir early environr.1ent mainly in t he South. J udge Ea.war ds said that r.1ost crh--rie is cc:r.r.li tted by Neg::.·oe s and inflicte d. [ on othe rs of their own race . He said, hc,;ever, that the large r::2.jority cf · Negroes are i n favor of l aw enforc e1-::ent and want to see it i::1~roved . The Judge made the followi ng sugge stions : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 . Fi nd out more facts in regard to c o;·:iplaint s about police brutality . Transfer trouble:nakers on a police force and those who use bru.tali-::.y . En d in,restigative arr ests . Increase police in high crime prec i nct s . Fe ci.e r e.l government must help loc a liti es co:n"':Jat organized c rime . Professionalize policemen by upgradic·g their stan dards throue;h bette::.' trainin g . Prorr,ot~ Negroe s on an eq_ua l basis with uh i {;es . Ban polic e dogs in raci al d.err.or2str at ions . I ntegrate p:)lic e t eams . Ra i se the pay of po l ic emen . Hir e more polic er.ien . Coordinate l aw enforcement agenc i es . Esta"':Jlish a i'iat ional Police Tr aining College . Est ab lis h hi gh l e vel board..s within police de:partn,ents to i nvestigate charges a g ai:1st policerr.en . Federa l grants -i n - i i d should b e made for police training . End the autonor!lous :-iature of l aw enfo:r·c e ment bodies . Witness : l Robe r t Coles , M.D., ~ese a rch Psycl: iat ris t , Es.rve.::.·d Un i versity Health Servic e s . Dr. Coles is a child psychiatrist w:'lo ,,;orte d exten s ively i ri the So·t.1t h e.n.i studi e d the effect of racial ten s ion on J:egr0 child.::.·en . He stated th~t t he young Hegro children who fir st att e::-ided white schools i n the S01;.to. and ,_.;~-:o h ad to er2du.re mar:y torments and ant agonism siowed a great stre ngth of chara ct e r. He said that i t was a puzzle::;e nt to him that st::.·e s s yr odu2e s ;-:,c-r-:: str ength of character tha,, an envil·o,Jn-21;_t of lu.."\.-ury 01· midcile clas s tr""r: q_uili ty . Eo1.-rever , the Doctor poi n.t e d out that afte::.· the 2.g2. , of twe l ve , unde :cpr i vileged c hildren b egin to r eali z e that ob e d i ence to the Bibli c2.l teac h in g s of their child...hood will r2ot pay off. P.ft e r thi s re a liza~ ion t'::le �, l ---::--- 2 . l s l urn ym.rt:·. .".·=;rgoes 1·:i1at psycnia trists c all " death of t h e t ea::-t . " 'I:'rseY then oui te ·· "=D b e co:ne a nti - so c i a l a nci. turn t o a. l i fe of c:::.- ~,e or deli nq_uen c;-r . .::'b..e Doctor pointed. ou t tr..at sor~e d e linquents do ,,,.co:1g b e c 2.u s 2 they c an f L . i. ::oth i ng r i ght , nothi ng signi f ic ant and ch a l le r..g i ng t o do . Main questions raised. ·oy the Su"!:l co!!~:i.i ttee : 1. Rac};:et ee:..-ing i n shEn hous i ng . Senator Kerille(\}r ask ed J udg e Ed,,:-2.rd.s whe the r orgc.nizeci crir.-.e pla.y s a ~ c._.., i n the creat ion and. continuat io r.. of slur:: housi ng con cii tion s . The Juc'. ge s a id that i t probabl y does and Sena to::.- Kenne ci.y tol d the Ch 2..iri,1an that h e t hinks the Subcomnlittee shoul d expl ore thi s ~ossib ility . ! ' 2. Defense by citi e s a gain s t riotin ~ . Senator Ri b i coff aske d the J 1.;.ci.ge Hhat a ci t y c a :1 do to d.e fend i ts e lf a gainst r i oti ng and at wha t p o i n t the nat ional Guar d s:-::.ould. b e ca l l e d _in. The Judge s a id t h a t all of his suggest ions HO"'c1ld help :prever.t r iots , bu t once the ri ot had. c e gun i t c ou1d. be coun-c e1.· ac tec. on l y by qu ick o:cgan~z a tion and gre a t r,,ob i l i ty of sub st antial forces on t he sic'.e · o f the l aw . He said that t he f orce us ed mu s t b e ove r Ki.1el.:1.i ng a ,:d di s c i ~.)lined . He be_l ie v e s that tne Nation a l Guar d s i2ould be c a lle d. to a riot sc ene whe n ' police gur, i'ire i s n e eded . 3. Cu l ture o f p-.:> ve:rty . Se nator Ke n ne ciy a s}:e d Dr . Co l es whe t her th e r e is 2. cu l t uyc of -;:iove i't y i n the U. S . 'I·:1.e Docto r 1-epli ed that h e does not t :ii ~ '- t ha-'c we reJ.lly h ave a cult u re of povert y because pe op l ':! a:::e no l onge r i so:'..a teq. due t o th e exis tenc e and ext e ns i ve n e s s o f a rr.a .ss r::edia o f corr.:,;c:.>l i c a t i ons . Throug:1. TV a n d othe r me d i a p ::: a c-c i c a lly e v e ryone i n this country is a,.-ra:::-e of t:C-1e oppo:ct w1iti es wh i ch ex i st o:r at l e a s t t h at ther e i s a nett e r i-,2:y to live a l t hough the a tt a i ma.ent o f t h a :, l i f e i s not p o s s i b l r, . lf. B'J.ss i r. g of schoo l chi l clren . L Although D~ . Cole s thi rik s t hat the Eosto:1 e:>..--pe rin e r:t i n bus s i ng c hilclr2n t o t he s u'::mrb s h e.s b e en qui te suc c e E:s lul , Senat or Rioico ff i ::,pli ed t=-,c:. t i n hi s y i e1·r the ~;1oney. ::-: i ght better be spE:n t iri~yrov::.. ng s l ~-:--:. c: 0.ucc..t i on gener a lly . Se nat o:r Ri bicof~ sai d t h a-'c h e d i ci r.o t th i nk t hat the p l a ci r.g of very poor chi l dren in school s ':-:i t h a f f luent an d well fe d c hi l ci:::.· en was p s y cholog ically goo ci. for t h e u nd.e r :;,:ci vi l ege d. c h i l d . 5. Rehab L!. itat i on o f sl'.ll-:i. d,:e l lers . ~ a r.ybocly c cJ.:-, cha::: 6 e i: gi ve n s01:·.2~:1. i r.g t o rf aepll l i b8.edcre on . Ser.atc:c Rib i coff a ::;ke d ,·,het ne r there i s ar..y h o-::;e fo:::- t ~12 :::ost -vio l e nt rr1ert::> e r s of sllt7t c o:r_~11u1~i ti es . 1I·i-.:. e :8:> ctor· t hat i n ::i s op i n2.on Ee c ited as ar~ exar::.p le t he a1itob io z;ra~!.i.;y c f lv:s.l col.2:-. X ,.,;10 1-:e.s f r cr:1 a r.::, st u~:foTt.1.L;.f.t = far:1ily and ·w!".1 0 t ur ned a~-ra·:l ::'ro~n c. li f e of C!."'i 143.215.248.55e to b e ccr...e a l ea.:Iei-· o �. - -·--·--- .... ---······ - --- ----- ----- -- ---· L?_;-;_:i,~ 3 6. Mea!1s ,;: ·, ~h ; n g There ,.;.·. slurn cl:.i J.fu·en . general ciiscus s ion of wl:.e t:ie r the vast amount of 1rconey beir_z ~catio!1 today is payi ng off . Senator Kennec..y '.·ras v e ry int e. ::.· e s"c e c.. i n findi ;;. _: ~-2tter ways to help slun c h ilfu·e:, . spent o :-, Senators present : Ribicoff Kennedy �. - - - - ·-· · - -·- .' ·- ··· · - · . . : .. . i _ _ ____ ! J n... ~~ ....,__ . , ~ I~~3>' _., __:., . ITEM.S OF IllfrEREST RELATED 'I'O lfiJD RAISED _t{J: h-.:. . - !ill/1.RHTGS OF RIBICOFF SUBCQl.f:•.ffl'TEE ON EXECUTIVE REORGANIZATION ~m ., - • st-...:~ December 2; 1966 J ~1ES M. HESTER; President, Ne'., York University Mr. He ster evaluated the contribut i ons which New York University and similarly situated educational institutions are malcini to the improve~ent of urban conditions . _The shortage of available financi2.l r esources creat ed by a lack of sup:9ort from public sources was s een· as the major obstacle to the broadening of the uni versity role in u rban affairs . l. The I mprovement of Research on Urb211 Problems President Hest er stated that the effectiveness of university research int o urban problems was limited by the need to proceed on a projectby-proj ect b asis . The availability of fu.~ds ade~uate to finance lo:1g term programs would l ead to an increased university r esearch contribution. 2. [ The Heed for Greater Univers ity Participation i:-i the Ad:-r.in i stratio:1 of Federal Government Pro1; r a:ns Affecting the City Senator Ribicoff stressed that the soluti on of urban problems depe:rJ.d.s upon the :i;:_ecruitment of oual ified persons to carry out proGrams which Congress ha s authorized . Unless the University can i nc:::·ease its supply of such personnel, t he objectives of recently enacted l aws will not be r ealized . President He ster replied that N. Y. U_. was fulfill i ng its responsl;)l..Ll-v~to the city within the fr amework of existing finaYJci al resources . GEORGE STEill~LIEB, Professor , Rutgers Uni ve r sity Uroan Studies Cer.te r Mr . Sternlieb maintained t hat federal programs aimed at alleviating subst an.dard housine; conditions have not achieved t heir obj e:cti ves because f eder al hous ing policy has not t a1~en into account the r ealities of the urban ghetto situation . The primary er:1l1hasis i n urb a.YJ r ehabilitation should be on the r esponse of the persons. li vi:13 in slum conditions to the mea sures desi gned to help the:n . 1. Public I e;norance o:f FRI\. pro~r2cr.s !'fir . Sternlieb declared that the sm3.ll ghetto lane.lord usc:ally doe ::; not know that FHA a s sistance is available. The a110.rc;1e ss of FriA p rograms is lir.iited to l arge proper ty owner s . . �" . ,----J - , ·- --- - - ~.. .___ ___ ;., ··· 2 2. The I moact of FilA. stande.rds on Urban nehabili tat ion !tr. Sternlieb emphasized that the adoption of more sensible fina..'1cing arrangements in the field of low incor.i~ housing was ir,,perative . A property 01-mer in the ghetto who sought to bring his parcel up to FHA sta.'1dards would comrni t "econo!!li c suicide T11e FHA st2.ndards were uescribed as completely divorced from the housins market and the capac ity of the neighborhood to sustain such housing . 11 3. • The Need for an Increased Emphasis on th·c: Promotion of Hor:ie 0',mership Mr . Sternlieb maintained that the e::qJerience with the public housing program indicated that better pnysical facilities will not produce by themselves a corresponding improvement in living conditio~s. The G~etto [ resident will not support m·ban rehabilitation unless it promis e s to lead to some typ e of home ownership. 4. The Desirability of Greater Administration Awareness of Urban Froblerns Senator Ribicoff criticiz ed the failure of execu-tive departments generally to concern themselves with t he condition s that their progr2.:r.s are designed to affect. He declared that the testimony of ~rr . Sternlieb would enlighten Secretary Weaver and his associates in the Cabinet . LEES. STERLING, Executive Director, Arr:erican Property Rights Association, New Yor~ City Mr. Sterling testified that the abolition of rent controls ar..d the compulsory re - education of welfare _rec epients would be a large step toward the solutiqn of New York City' s housing problem. He de"'-anded that New York City rec,::ive no demonstr ation cities money until r ent control imd welfare abus es were abolished. ,· �l •• r. !- _, ---- ·- - ~- -- - - -~- ~- ,-~ -;-'--IJ;-_-___-_ ~---~~--------~_.__~\ ;;~i{,._._i_ .~-::'='·'~ - - --....,..--c.... · ..:. - . " ~ ITEMS OF D .TTEREST RELATED 'I'O EUD RAISED Nr !illJ\RiiXGS OF RIBI COFF SUBCOI,ii.U'FrEE OilT EXECUTI VE ru.--ORGAi'EZAI'ION De c e mber 5, 1966 ( mor ning ) CONS'l'.ANTINOS· IX)XIADIS J President , Doxi a dis As sociation . Vrr . Doxia di s ma intained that t he cri s is of urba:., s o ciety c oul d b e ·' a llevi ated only t hrough an appro ach b ase d upon systematic k.nowledGe of hu man _settlements . The gre at defe ct of existi ng urban develo:p;nen-;-, p rograms according to 1-ftr . Doxiadis i s t hat they h ave a n i mp act on a l imite d segme nt of the totality o f urba n existenc e . Ti1e s e effor ts c onfine d t o a singl e area c annot produce a f f i r mitive r esults bec ause the problem of mas s tra." lspor tation or t he d ilerr.ma of the c e ntral cit y are integrally r elat e d to the broader p atterns o f humon s ettlement. The main points r ai s e d in the t e stimony and d~ring t he questioni ng p e riod wer e the following : . •j .I j I I -i .l I I - 1. .! The Fa i lure of Feder al Government Progr ams to Sol ve Urba:1 Pr ooler::s . I ·: Mr . Doxiad.is stated tha t t he public hou s ing and u r ban r e t'.ewal p:•: : h ave riot pre ve nted a worsening o f t e e ur b a n s itu ation . The d e:::~;:·___ _ c itie s progr a m was de scrib e d as "a · small beginning in t he direc·:.; i o;: o::· · c oord i nat ed ac tion , s mall in size and small as c ompared t o t !'le a r e as i t mus t cove r . " . .i . ,i ., 'I l 2. The 11ee d f or Avo idin·g Incre sed Pr essu re on Urbe.n J1.re.e.s Mr . Doxiadi s sue;gested t h2.t t:.1~ cri s i s of the cit i es ~ight be 2.ggravc:cted by a substant i a l incre a se in f e d eral ex_penc1i tures for urb&.n d e ve l o:;:irr,3nt . Ari e a s ing o f the p re s sur e o f exi s ti n[!; cit i es t hrough the c onstru::::ti on of n ew urban c enter s s hould b e cons i d e red . i ! 3. Feder al P-.cor;rar.-1s as a M8 chan:i_sm fo r Accuirinr; I ncreased !(r,owled;,2 o f Ur ban Pr obl ems Mr . Doxi adi s s t r essed t h a t an awarene ss of t h e i nt e rrela t e d chan1c te r of urban p r oblems should l ead t o a n i nten s i fied s t udy of s oci al , e c onorr.ic , an d po_l i t i cal p a tterns pre va i l i r.g in u r ban areas . He urge d that c;ov::::c:.:.:::e:t::.:. p r o2:ro.ms should b e u til i z e d to p:t ovide increased knowl edge of these ::i:3."./c,:.::::·:·,::; . l~. Th e Preserv at ion of Ouen S-93.ces Mr . Dix i a di s declared t hat t he c onstruct j_on of public facili tief. in s electe d areas would cnc ourac;c persons and b usi~esses to l ocate t~~m s e l v es i n a manner which would s erve the int ere::;ts of an enti:ce u rba:'l r e 6 ion . The c o:-iservat ion of open l ar,d b y the government is thus n ecessa:cy t o the creation of an infrastructure of p'J.blic faciJ.ities whic:, wou ld m8.ke po s sible orderly ur':)an deve lop:~!2nt . 5. L T11e ResoJut;_on of ti1e Urb2.,, Cri sis D2µ2..rids lJ:,on a Li n i t&.'c icn o;._~ Co~·.~:·.u:1 i_ .J~y J..u~·.o;·Le, ::~:,,- .M:- . Dcn:iadis called for ov-2rall f-::!o.cre l govern~r,ent co:1t:::-o~ ;:,;: 'c:~,2 ]='-';·, . .::;:·:~,. of' t'r...t:-c::.!1 st:t"tle t.:i:::"t . '"J:i1t..; .:.cnLi:1l10:~i cn o~· c o~1::riu[.1ity a ~ ~v.:1c.:1:· . .,~.t -~·1 1.--..:: ..._..~ v. to its owi d2ve lor,,.2::-.t \-; ill :9rc::1-iat t ::1e:·e wouid necessa1·il:,· be ex-.9e1·ts 2.v:1.ila-ole o:c on call. He said that the key t o t he ·,,l-wle p:c-oblen; of ,r,:oviding lo,.; i n c o:ne housing is to demonstr2.te the p ra".!t ic al c 2.:p3.bili ty 0£' sa.'-< :in~ public plmming compatible with :9r :!.sate plannine; a:1d builo.i::J.G · ' . ' Kr. Reuther s aid that h e is very e!1thl,siastic a':)out the Demcnstrat i ons Ci t ie s Bill. .However ) he criticized Congr ess ' attitude to-.,·a rn ·ct Le appro:;iriation o:;: n,oney for don;est i c programs . He thinks ti~a t these prograo,s s hould be fu..rided a...½.ead of tic:2e ; so that the :Oe:92.rtrne:ot::; ,-,ill k n ow what mone y is available and have the money in tb1e to pl a.., 2.::e::c.ci . He thinks long term c ommi tt:n2nts should be mao.e for c.or,11:: sti c proc1·a::is as ,,e l l as for mili t_ary progra:ns ar;d i'or,=i g n aid. While c ri ticiz ine; pre s ent practices of 12nd use in cities ; suggested that a l ar.d b2.nk should b e c reated to help l oc.3.l p r ovi d e· l a,nd for low and r.1oderate inco,:.e housing . :-re s a id could. l earn a lot from Great Eri tain . He also pointed. out no slu~s in Swe e.e n . 1·~ Reuther con:::,u::1i tie. 3 thc:t the U . S . th~t t her e &:-·::; Mr . Reutl:.e r · c ont ended t hat the only way to r ed1_;_ce the cost of ouj_lcling hou ses is to appl y modern ; advar::ced t ec:hriolo~y 2.s i.t h e.s b een e.:ppl i ed t o such .fields as space ex-plo::.·atio::1 . Ee believes t ::-,2.t a ho·.1s-:: uorth $16 ; 000 according to present standards could b e developed. an-:: 3old ::·o::: $8, 000 if i ndustry i s sccn-m how to do i t b y research ins'ciG2,tcd by t h e gove r nment or a private :::i.on - profi t cor·::;ioratio;1 . [ 11.r . Reuther was h igi1ly c ritical of t he present s~rstems of r.~s s t~ ... ,,sus :r'c.?,:~j_c,:1 in this country. rie s ai d that t he _c ar i ndustry ':iill e ver;tuaJ.ly uffe:c fn:;:.1 self- s tra.'1gul at ion o n the high,-rays . Fie thinks it i s ri diculous for a p erscn to c arry a ton and. a h a l f of rcetal with nir,1 to wcrli: everyds.y . Ma in que stions r a i se d by Subcorm;ii ttee : 1. Fa1~t icii;>ati on by private inc1.11str:y in r eOuilC.ir..f- ci ti.es . l-1r . Ri b ::.coff 2.s~ed i-!D.lter Beuther whe:::. ratio \-:culo. b e de s i :rE..ble :o:cp art ici.p:i.tion by private indus t r y 2.:.1tl go\rey_~:.!e P-t i :r1 r ebuilf~inG 2i t i er, . Mr . ~e utr..er replied that he t hcc:::;_lt the mi:-i. irau:1 ratio s h ould oo $1 o::: gove:rr.i~G2nt mo!1e:>' for e--..rer:/ ·~5 of private fu.r. c~.s used . ·I 1his \·.:-a s the r 2.-:.i.0 p r oposed by Davi d Rockefeller. 2. Tee.chin;::; mi c r s.,, ts t o live in the c:i.ty . The Cnairt,1EL'1 aske d w:io t eaches the farm p e o::;ile h ow to live i:1 c.itio s 21c. how to e:void tur-ning hrn.l :::- ins into slu'.'1 ~2ss . He c laice d thi s i s o;t.:::::, the gli ght of public housing in r.-.2.r!y cities . r-:r . Re uther :;aic. t nat t:--,:: w1fort-..1r).ate thi.Dg is th a"c most new city d,,•ellers leE..l'[", i'l'O",. tt:.e :;::,20::_:iL, ,. -:: .::Xnv·.-i tic l ec.. st. abou"~ l:r_;·.., to li\~8 ~n a . : . : ~~y . __. . :::. :.(~ "'.:11.::.J.:, : .::c·:22;.-- : :1:.:~ .-::)_·;~, b e cr6aniz e d from the slutT!s to co ba c~ into the sJ.u~~s e.2:.d st':.O\·! -.9co~l.e >o-·:· �.. -..c--- .. - --~ - -: __ __: J .... c. ........... _ ..a~~':.l ;~~-·--- - ---- --- ---- -· ..... - J': . ~ ~ ..,.., to live £j_nd ta..~e ce.r-e of rel12..bi.litated fu""'ld nei,.;:- housing. [ Senator Ribicofi' seid t11at ~atc :r Oil .,_, i;1 vne he r~r ings will becomes a. 3. Se:nator RibiGoff a·skecl ho·w i s the govern:nent org.:Lu.ized to tc..~:e caJ."~ ot the pro1)lems of urban -~~r.-1·2 ric 2.. . t·T . Co::P,-ts_:_y.. said t!-:at t !1.e so --1e!·1:r~er!.lc 1 s r ead::r for a ne\; Eoover Cc:.1~·;1ission . }Ie m2.de t 11e :£'oll0'".-.ring su3ge st :=-.0:1:: Y(n.ich wo"'..lld in his opinio:1 str~::Gthen the go-,.:""e:!."'nt1ent ' e. c.bi l i t~.- to de cJ_ ·with tl1e urba!:t crisis: 1 b. Group functions together as was done in t.he D:!fer1se :r2r, urt~n·:::rrt a~1.Q Coordinate from above:: . cutting of pro ::::rai:13 Con':! by the Burer·.u of the I,~d ge t . would pl(lll &:c.d de·-;elop :;:>rogrc.:.1s f:c-0:1 •,·/ hi cl1 _t-ll·.-: i>::--c s!.d/:~n t cov.1. ,:: select the rcost useful . T.he a.dv~tr.\ced. I>lennj_ng futh~·t.ion of t ~:,~ execut:L-:1,~ br:~nch s hould :1ot. co6e u n d\-::j_... ~~he Eu.re au o f th e 5-J d{: :·: ~~ bec au.se it s}1ould be done o·J.t front nn1 n.\')t t e l1ii1d clc st.:d Cl.Oi..:i ~·s . 4 d. , }'u.r1d a.'1ead so t hat. tl1e a,;encies vron 1 t have to b es for r::or~~\ Y 2s.c h ,rea.r . e. Create a rnecha!1:i.st;t ( su.c~1 a s a l oc2.l coordinat o2.. ) i.Ihicll -:: sx! .Jv.-::.~u:: all the tool=· avails.Ole and fit thern t O th2 !le eds o f ~.oc2.l. corrll--nuni t i es J:"CrtC..er than --~:"ice v e:csa . a genius at i.:.he loc a l 1 evel federal pro grc~c.s . ... J, no1.; to k110\\i how -c. o t ak e ad·..- ::. .:i.1 tn~_; ,-- of 1 R.ole of l abor i.n r e\ri sio!"l cf t:1e c:Lt~--- . Ee :::.aicl t b..: .:.t eleven · \.1..ni cr:i s c..r c ~)2r tici~)2.ti:) .~~ . .:.::-::l cre a .J(:. e Q a cotins.il 2.::-id have do:·~e cu~:-i e.x citi nc; t l1in[;s e. s hoJ.O.i.n-~ .::! l sr_;:::-:·- 2 2uJ.d build i ng p l ayt; ::'ol:;.n ds . Se nato:t Ke:--~11eCy wl;.:.o .·tas not present ask8d t h.~cu_-.30.. · -L~e Che.i 1·tt~2.n -..:~ ::;t:.};e; ~· !1:r. F:-~ ut~er \-.1:1.s in favor of Co:·:~~rJ..;] :i.ty· DeveJ.o~:tn8nt Cor i:. or-2..tions c.t "Lt .~: 1 �. . ---- --~~---- - .. --- ---·- - - - -------·- -----' ~ ~ -~--'--·- -1. . c ~---~ r-.._,_-- -:1 ('"3~ . 4 l ocal level . ff:Y . Reut:1.er said he is very much in fa,,-or of theL'l . :S:e ,:e..,ts a N2:tional Corporation to work with the total probler.! and t o 02 bc:.c~ed u p by local corpo2:·at io!1s . 6. National Nor.:profit Housing Corp orc.tion . Senator Ri.oicoff said that the only person· he could think of ".,ho would be capable of a ssemblins the r.ecess ary leve l of representation fror, foun c.ations , u__--i.i versi ties , l abor , fin2.nce , ir::dustry and ot::ie:::- fields to participate i:1 t he n2.tional c or pora .:.ion 1 would be t he Pre side nt . The Senator said t!lat he h opes t he President will consider ti:-1is :_;;ropc s2.l . 0 7. Ho':-r to avoid continua tion of c. ,,.;e lfare sta te . J Consres s ma..11 J ames Scheuer ( D - N. Y . ) who was present at th:; h e ari ngs asked Mr . Reuther hm; third genera tion. wel::'Etre famil ies 8Ld :9:.·ec.ictc.':)2..e drop - outs c 8.J.'1 "be avoi ded . l/,r . Rc1.:the r said that tne recc:r:8 2nci.at icns made by tr..e ~ e s idec1t ' s Cow:1i. s s i er:. 0:1 .114cr..2.t i 5m s:1ould be i tr:_pl e,~,entcc,. "'1 - e pror:-"""" S' 7 E: '·'n e - r,-,on l- ..:...~n.:.!."l:, -s C.~~a" ... ,...o•,-.. - Sa '-:- d. . -'-hat ,,c,, H • C • -;--.1.:0".UJ.. _ ':'~C.. . ,r. J,..:,,... o• ---~ e ,.., e ,.....~1-,,... c. :_:.-, ,.0. ~~ • ••c,. W.: • d;., _.v -o :..- :_··.~, ince n::c i ve s 1 sucn as e arning out. s i de mon e y . He t.!1.lD:~s tna t a re c i :,ne:Tc s:-,01:.:..d. be allowe d to do this without loosin8 his welfare ::;:,ayment so tha t the person will aspire to living on a hit:;her pla.ri.e . · l., ! . J.. ~ •• l.,~ _ \".~ l., • TI Mr . Re uther said thc.t a.ri.other wa y to avoid a welf are state 8..."ld put people to work is to have a s t.,_nd2.rdi zed c o::-;:;,'J.t. e:::-' z ed e;n:::,7 o·-::::cr.,. n.:- · At p re sent 1 Mr . Re ut h e r clair:12d 1 ttie :.:"i 1· c,y e;1 c,rei:criect s--ca--:, 2 syste:,,s 2.·'.·-= obstacles t o the setting up o f efficie r:.t c ctT::_:iut ers ,:hich c ould m2."'.:.ch :.::-.. une,·a:;,loyed p e r son to a job withi n a r.:att er o -: r:,i nutes . i,'..r . R2u t h e r s aid t hat the whole p e :!: son 1 his hobbi es a s we ll 2.s h i s ski lls , is n o".; ta:~e n i nto account u..r1 c.er the p r e s e nt S'.:. at e systecns . 8. Missin p; e l ement in the s J.uc:-1s . Conbressr.1an S~heuer asked what i s ti-!e missi;:r.t3 element that has no-r, ce .:::n u sed to h e lp the cit y and ,-:heth e:..- this ele,:1e ::1t i s r.10:ce suLoidiz e c1 :10L,s :.:-.f/ ' Mr . Conwa y s a id ti1at on e r e a s on the gov e r nrr.8:1'-:, h as not h e l p e d · enou gh 5.:.. subsidi zing h ousing i s that in t he. o e:;i.nnin c; EBJ,'A was a f i n2.11e:ial i r. st~.tt·.~-:'..r.,.'.:. macle avai l abl e fo r p riv at e i r.dust,:y . He said that the A;;,e,~cy '.-ia s n ot :;,0oj:::. , o r i ented. Change in Witness s che dule : An t hony De cha".lt , Presid ent , ::-Io.t icna.J_ Fc.rrr.e:r:s lin ic::-i '., i l l not t e stify c ::-. Tuesday Deceuber 6 . D~-. ;-/ill iac!l Dcebele , Gre.c:.u 2.te School of D:::sie;n , Harvard Un i versi t y w2.s shLfted f r o:n \·lcdr:esda y t o 'I \ .:.esd.8.:f L:,s-'.:.e.s.d . I,Ie l vin Thom1 Ne.ti o r.al I ndian Youth Council n B.s been 2.dcle d. ·co tbe li s t fo:::Monci.ay , December 12 . M<::r:i'.)e rs pre sent: Senator Ribie:off Coc~ressr:!a..'1 J ames H. Scheuer , ( D-:'TY ) �I ITK.~S O? I !"'U'2~S-~} ~Cl.)/l!~l; ~C; · }0)~ R:\ISE!D ;.\'r }f.SP:.Rif\TGS OF RIBIC ()?:f' su:::!C:-=-~ii·:?~~- c:-; E(_ECU-:r·rv~ RSOl~GJ:.~TIZ..6..:J~'I0:·-1 December 6, 1966 ( Morning ) BAYARD RUSTII'J , Exe cutive Director , A. E.i,ili_p ·· Randolph Institute Mr . Rustin e.ttrioui:,ed r ecent :nEJ.r2ifesta tions of r a cial conflict to e. n at ional sh or cage of jobs , educational opportu.,.'1.i ties , 2.nd housin; 1 which c reates the fee.r tha t j\iegro advances will prove detrimental to w:C.ites . He urged the adoption 0£' the proposed 11 freedc:;i budget" so that sc2. rcities i n the fields of e;u.ployr.ient , ·housing , 2nd educe.tion ce.n ce elimins.ted . An econo~ic and sociolocica l ana lysis of r a cial prejudice and e.lienation c ompels the concl usion tha t progress can be achieved only tbrou--3;h a L'l2.ssive n2.tional commitment to t he :i.r.iprove;rrent of urban concli tions . The IT:.atn p oints r a j_sed in the testimon y 2.c1d the questioning period were toe following : 1. The Effect of tl, e Eousin3 Shortage on n~.ce Relat:i.ons Mr . Rust:i.n stress e d t:1. e ir:1port,2.nce of ass uri ne; all inco,':le grou:9s effec"-:.i ,:e a c ces s to tte housi n3 rr,a r~ e t . He pointed out that the existence o:f h oi.;.s i n~ scarcities l ea ds wni·t.cs to support re st rictive prac tic es 2nd f'orces r{e[,;ro-2 s to l j_ve in substanda rd hous i n.3 . 2. The Fa ilure of t he 1,:::1 r~-cet ?-'.e cha:1.ism Mr, Rus tin support e d the view of Profess or G3.lbr2 ith t ha t socia l and estbe~ic values should have prior:i.ty over fin anc i a l c ons iderat ions in urba n develop:nent . A . FrlILIP RAJTDOLPrt , President , A. Pnilip R-2.ndolph Institute Mr. Randolph ana lyzed the probl em of winnins politica l support for the 11 fr eedor:i bud2;et " appro::'. ch to urban prob l en s . He decl a r e d t :C.at 2. c caJ.i t ion of libe ral el ements could b e fanne d with s,Lfficient stre: Ds;th to ·,ii.n appro,:a l for t he expenditure of $185 billion of r edera l fu"lds .. over a period of ten yea rs. Th e r:12. in poi n";:,s r ai sed in the testiJ:iony and cluri:!:lg the ques tioning period 1-:e re the followin g : 1. Tne ~ i'fect of Fe der2.l Hou.sin~ Polici es Mr, Ra ncJo1:Jh asserted tte~ FeC::e1-e l prog r-2.2s have subsidized housinsi; fer persons i n the r:i iod1 e and D.p~e r incc,,:e gr01...r;_:is to the neg;::1.. ect of t he :poor. The fli ght fro:n the c entra l ci ty to suburbia ha s bee n nac.e p ossible l-i;yFedere.l e:·c-peudi tures , whJ.le a nuch s ~,a.ll e r c:..:ilOUci ::, has gone t o provide t h e p oor wit:1 hi 6 }1-rise se;rese.ted bousin3: projects. ?-Ir, Rs.ndcl ph noted tD.2..~ t!:is cc~cli.lsic~1 ~. ,~::.s se-'.: foi-t,':: i:--! tl!e :re;:01.,. ~ cf tI":2 1,.;}1ite }Ic-usr:: C::r:_~~2:r2:-.~c: on Civil ~ights . �,I . . .. 2. 2 The Heed for Planned Soc~al. Ir..·,;estr,1ent Mr. Randolph advoc a ted the adopU.on of a program of planntne: social investment in urban develop,ent rather tha n a counter subsidy for l ow-income ,- · housing . �:; _.,; __.~(.....;:.: __ --~- -- ·_: _:,-, ... . _ _ _ ... _ ! ·. . su1,:~~!ARY O:-F' E:~Ar:r:;Gs EE?0!--3 StJ2,:;c1-:2·-J143.215.248.55;'l-; ~;E OI\I ~8XECUI' IV3 ~-:£:C1RGAT:IZ..D/?I C-i~ . 0? j,iflE SEi.'T A'I '~ CO!,:.MJ.~. I '2:S 01] It{T~CV'I'~Vi PJ~ORGA~:IZAT ~:or.; Stibj2ct : \r!i tness : Geru.ld I..J - PhiJ.lippt.::, Sh-=.irr_r.e. n of t!1e 503.rC. o:f t !1e Ge ne:~ 'aJ_ Electri_c Co~rJnt1y l"~ r . PhillJ.ppe se.icl that GE !~eis 300 , 000 e:--i~r l oy·ees j_n the TJnj_tea. S ta tr~s } I.'10st of v:[101r! wo~ck and 1i,_...e i :--1 cities. He said tr13.-t , 3.s u con se (luc~ t! ct":: ; 1 his c o:r.r. any 5.s deeply cor1ccrned v;ith the ,,,tell - b e ins of cities ar!d the people who J.i ,.re nnd \.,:ori-: ther,2 ~ .1.·, ... }!e: tol.d the Subcoi'~nr:ittec tf.:at ti"Jc .re:i10di e -.-; 1-:-e \., .., .; pro"b1er:-1--.-s of the ci t:Les :-;~ust. cc!"..:c; t:---;rou3h tte c:cer~.t :t . ~,.e. j c.~1!:.dr;~ c:-Z' public and private r esourc es to ucl::i.eve wr.a t ne:Lther c~:::-1 concc:d.·vc:..:,;.. ~.r do a lone . 1•·! r . F.:1illippe pointed out th 3. t t ndus·try contrib1.1tc.: f~ to the p :tcbl e-.~s of th e cities t!:-ircugC tlle disposal of u_'fl-,;:2.nt e d \·;=1.::., tca £1~1::l. t. :rn:t'.:Cic conges ti en ., resul t,j nt; f ror:1 r11c':..rer:.: ent o.t i ndu.ztry r.s go·ods e.~tl 1::c c.1;1 .~. 0 ~'1 the othe 1~ h and ., it1c~t:stry is a r~a. j 0 r vie t i !'J of thc~:3(~ ;::.a~:~:2 p ·~·ol·J_::: ~:-.; .'3 ·t.eca1.1se it, suff ers ad6eci cos t ~~ frc,l:.! traff ic con;~es~icr:1, 2i1. p ol.11.r"c .lo:1 , \·tater ~pollution e.nc1 v.::.nd.2-..lisrn . f-1r. I'hilltppe listec3 t he rl1:l j o:r· c o!:.tribut io:1s 1:)e j_ r:c r;r-:::!2 b~r G ~~ t o teln t~nnrove c:i.tie s : P-.:c,<: u.::tio~1 of h i&,::'; - p c rf or:-r:.:-} ~1ce ec;._'..:.~r~~:e:ni.. f'c:.. . f ast tr-ar:s i t tr2. i n r. , rr.:. ;1u.fa~t·u.re of GtO=-:!ic -~~c ,. .#c'!r·::d ;~en.e:c.2. ~j_ ni; p12d ::.s -{ii~~e d~-c143.215.248.55,_.,;~1143.215.248.55;~$ t~~/143.215.248.55e,~r143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST)'c·!~~e ~:~ 143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST):~t;:: ~~::~~:143.215.248.55 ~!;/~z i ;·-:; Irf:o~por.:1.t0 cl.J }#J a v e f oy-.·. n~d Ge!l.e:ra.l L e~J."c.::. n::: Cox-po;.. .at ion cs 2. ·,~oir1 J.:. vent ure to f urthe r -t.Le ec:u.c o. t.ion oi· dis:1.G·,.re..at.e.i:::cd pers c:•nn . GE ha s t entat ive pla ns t o c r eate ent ire143.215.248.55 citi~ s . A CC·l~.ri~ur-Li t :,r Syster:--:.s Deve.lo;:tent DI \-~s:i.oL t as 1. Ch:i.n~; es i n· the bt:.ild :i n[; proct.::~1s tL1rC) u.t;h t he 2.1:1:~,:.ic at icn of r c~;,2;_j_ :_,-·e:L a~d e n~ i nee:ri r.ig t o c~esi~.:-.1 eJ.ect1,o -:1~tec:.1r~ nica l e o1!~·9c!11::~~rt.s t ~·.:D.-t. de lj_ver b~::tte r IJerforr;-~~1 r.:cc and J. o~·:e:c - i~1 - p1.:1.ce costs. 2. Util:L zi~3 a. r.; yste:-:~s pler:n i.1:.c ap::,_ :cco c: h to a t~ ~iel~1~) n e ·,.r p:cvto:.y-,::·,r; cc~:r:21-1.ni t..i_es 1::..:r..:';e eno·1 ch to s··,._,_ppo r~ a fciJ.. c.:c;;1p.l{?.J ,:2:1t o:::· mtmicipal ser•...-j.c es ,. �, 2 Mr . Ph illippe s a i d that wor~c by GE scientists and i n f orma ti on spe cis.l is t s has led to c ont ra ct s f or s tudies on appl ying sys t e ms analys is t ec hn ique s to ov era l l u r ba n pla nni ng ; to inte g rated polic e , fi re and ar.!°bulanc e c ommunication networks e tc . He sugges t ed t ha t t here be mo re and b ett e r c orrmur1 i c a tion 2.nd coopera t i on. b e t ween bus i nes s l ea de r s and political l ea dc::rs i n see}:ins t h e sol u U.0;1s to u r ban p roblems . He t hen des cribe d di ffer e nt pro j ects in wh ic l1 his c ompany h as pa rticipated. He al s o sa id t ha t r.iore ext e n s i ve re sea r :::~1 is n ee de d into the dem2. nds of th e city . GE i s wo r k ing to disc over h o w i t ca n effe ctivel y apply to cit y p roblems what ,,a s l ea rn e d through its part icipat ion in sys t ems development for t he de fe nse a nd the s pace prog r an:s . TEMPO , a GE c e nte r in Santa Narb3. r a , Ca li f ornia , h as a n expe rimentc.l program with th e City of De troi t to int r oduce prog rar.1 pa c k2. Gi n.s a nd budge t ine; t echn iques l ea r ned t broue :1 its c ost/ eff e c ti vene ss work on De f e ns e De pa rtment problems . It i s a lso working wi t h the Uni versi t y of Minnesota on an expe r i ment a l city pro 6 r am to b e b uilt n ea r Minneapoii s . On e big c ompl a i nt wh i ch .Mr . Pb illippe ma de c once r n inG present c ondi ".:, i oYJ.s wa s tha t b u i l dine; c odes or hous ing c o·des , ele ct r ica l or plurr.ci:r..g c ode s do n ot promote e f f ici e n cy i n c onst ruct i on and e.r e , i n f a ct , ins t i tut i o:1:.11 i nh ib i t ors to eff i ci e ncy in r ebui l di ng our u rba n areas . He a l s o c r i U. ci zed p r e sent gove r nme nta l policy i n r e 6 a rd to the di st1·i ou ti on of pa t e nt ri ghts t o i n v e n'.:.i ons a ri sing out of r e sea rch a n d d ev l'! l op me nt carr i e d on by private i ndust r y , but fi nanced i n whole or in pe.rt b y the Gove rn.rne:1t . He s a i d t hat pre sent pol ic y disc ou r age s p a r t ici p3. t :i. on b y p ri vate i ndustry . He approve d of f a nning ne w type s of c omb i ned publ ic and p riva t e co r po r a t ions gea r ed to r.1ceti:1g urba n ne e d s , b ut di d not f a vo r a COJ,·'.SAT type of corpo ration . He b el ie ve s it would b e b ette r t o ha ve an a£en cy 1 ik e 1-TASA, wi t h a n acc e pt e d ob j e c t i ve f or the ~e ne r a l p ublic . Ee s a id u~is i s a socia l probJ. e:r. a nd s hould b e k ept i n t he n onp rof i t a r ea . · In hi::; op inion , r e habili t at ion a nd low- i ncor.1e h ousing i n g e nera l are not a t tra c t i ve t o p r ivate i nves tors . Be s a id tha t Thoma s Paine , t he ma na ger of GE I s TEMPO o r ga nj.zat l on , is urein~ c r eat io:1 of a n Urba n De ve lov 11e nt Corpor a ti on t o buil d f i ve millj_on ne ,r h ous i ne; rn1 i ts in s L ;:,1 area s over t h e next de ca de a t an es tima t e d cos t of son,e $50 bil li on . �·~ _.._ _,..., _---.c _-~---- ~ ~ ~ - ...-: •:. . ,} l·litness : Fi1il i p }1 . Ha ll e:-1 ., ?1·2s::_ dent , I,·~3·ur:i. ce :Fe.2.k r,;E:dico.l IT\.t:.16. , pj_tts btlr[)! , Penns.yl v2niH . Mr . H:--ill e~ told t11e Stlbco11:;:d.tte;~ th::.t tho:::! poteD ti2.1 rol. e for tf::;; sn1alle:r f'oundnt.ions i n th·~ Un:1.tcd Stn tes 11~'"~~ :r1ot yet ~et:::!J. t a ~~}2d in relation to the urban condition . He sugge s ted th2. t the ~lul)cor:!.."11itte i::: or t-;o::ne otbcr app rori:r:i.atc .::.c r~ n c~/ shou.J.d co:i.1.vent:; at l~b.e nGtJ.ona.l level a. ;,. O·rl,: ing confe~cc:nce on the c~. -t ,:;is in t'b e c:Lt ies ) invit:i.nc as r:i.n n)r of the sr;:a l lc:1. fo unda.ticr:s 2-s c ou1.. f~ b e i::-1.:~er ested and induc ed in"'co a.ttendi112; s u..:!h a session . In i~·r r . l!n1 le~ 1 s opin:tor~ ) by u:t J.l:i.zinz its freedorn ·to a,c-~ in S\l~J ~_·, cr~_,j_·:1,:. and initJ.ati.ng sol.utior.ls to the 11rbc..:r1 p~obJ. e~-:ts -;,:b ic h n re r : :-! s: :143.215.248.55 :-:;.~~ ·::. to action l:;y ex:i. stin.::; r;ublic a e enci(!S end i n~;t itut.j.on.s, the ~--c.~c:c\t ~_c ;·; ca n IJOint out r;rove:n pu.ths for soc :i et~,r to folJ_c~v . Senator Ri b:i.c of:t ...,. a s vr: 1...y inte1·es t t~ q. J n ;.:fly 1Gcn li t.ic~s 1-:c :·:.:p e.nt1q u.:.:. te d -ouil d in.:; cod~s . }Ie s a i d :.r.o t n(~n rly eveI.'Y w1-;.:.:-;r.~s~1 so f a r s.i.:t·1.-~~-"~1 o::-. GE fi~·1 0J. l~l ad:nitted. t~.r.lt his co.~.~pany '.-.r o uld ncr~ ·be i n~:(.::rrj~;t~:·. i i n l ocat i ~1; in such areas bec8.t.1se of ·the foll c·,\ri:-1i di 3 a _d-:tc.1 11 t :! .; ..;:-; :. 1. \-!01.Ud not G 2. ~·Tou..ld 11ot" Oe clos e to s1.1p~lies and n~a teri:3.ls . 3. ? he clir:--.8.te wo1..D.d nc,t be c.ttractt~re becaus e of rio·~sJ l a ~·C.:: st r i.fe , etc . 5. It is too h8.:rd to 38t goods in and o·,,t t)2-c 0.use of tr,~ff'::.c c ongesti_on . 6. r..ri..n:J. 0 c entr8.l to a 1r2 .rket fer the proQuct . costs are too ~j_gh ana. 1 2.r ge enough arc.-·.f3 \·tO"l.Jld r~0i.·, : .::: a Yo.ilnb1e . . (IIe s a i_d t h:J.t Gl~ :ts not inte.res t.~C. ir-.. c o~ t :':'. .r_:;c- - t~y;~ indust. rJ'" wJ:d.ch i s ca rr:i.:::d on in the c:ro-.:.. :~e d cou.:ntr~_.. of ~ ·c:;.):·.. ~1. ) 1 -:-:: J,!:r . F·hilli1_"")pe sc.1,:i.d tr~at, GE ·ha d a 30 -y2ar-ol.C! :;1lc.nt in Q. Gb et tc1 area ,..r ·tich it iv·as r ecen~:.ly fo:i.---ced to scJ..l "'oc:::a·J.se of' tt:~e u:.r:-e.r:--.~i~11:~:-8;;·.:..3 ~nc1 h:?.. :rdch i ps , He would not n:·ui:ie the: loc f.i 1::.:Lon , · End r,old ;::,:~:ea t·.o.:.' 1{enned~/ t.b a t he 1.-.1oulcl t ell. hir!l -::he 1 or.;(1..-tio~1 in pri ve te. Ee 3~·.. j_~ tba t sc:nc of' the t h in_ss . ,.,;l:i.c}1 :1 ~H1 h2.y.,y,2 nE: d to the pJ.2:-r~~ \:e~·e \i ·:·:.:.-y ur:u.smJ_ and thRt }J e had su.r:·ert:d TJerso::a l unple£::.s.: ~.:1 t, e _v~pe:ci e ;~ e: ~. . :: ·w hen visiting t he p1ant . /tl th ouch Se~at,or :{enned;/ c o::i ..~ '::ndec1 t11n t t ·l1·2 r ~~ wcuJ_d t ,-:-~ a n unta.pped rna rkc.:~ for \.TO:cke rs B.!~d cooC. s .in Stlci1 an 2..r~~.:::. -~ t te C~n:·-:.:i. l"'J::.:~ r:. o f GE s e c r:1cd unconvinc ed and ~..ro ~1ld r\ot e-c;r2e t!:2.t 1:.is C·::.:-:--~·1_)a.~1:.· · r ml gh t be interest ed in locat inc in such an area . ·I Rib.coff and V ~ . �/j//1,, I •I (,,' , I ,.-, -1 . t.,,:...<> (., _ I , ;:· /,< (, -· v (/ }-7.c'.\.?J:l·:GS :S:220?2 T::..:; SU~:8C:.: .J:'='.!:';:';::':: on K{ECU?IVE PEORG.-~IIZATIO:,J OF '.!'EE sr:=·~.\'I'~ c c:.:-=:TI':Z::: o~r GO'JERI'J-ZJW OP'.a.::R6.TIOHS ' ,,.- Afternoon Session : -~ BRUC6 P. F.AYDEH; Vice ?:resident; ::ort 6ase 2.nd Real Estate J?epart.ment, i Colli'1ecticut Gene:r3.l Life Insurance Company Mr. Hayden defined the c onditi on.sunder which life ·insurance corporations _and other bus inesses could increase their participation in the urban r edevelop:nent process. The ex.te~1sion of Gove r!l.ment financial assistance programs to profit ventures as. well as nonprofit organi zations and the effective exercise of t h e planning and coordinating function on the part of Gover.ruaent were des cribed as necessarJ to the achieve;:;ient of greater business involvement in t h e reouildir..g of the cities. The main poim;s ·rais e d in his testiraony and during the questioning period were the follo wing : 1 l. The Weakne s s of :n orrnrofi t Ventures Hr. Hayden testified that d eveloprnent efforts unde rtaken by nonprofit conc erns u sually r esu.l t in f a ilure due to P. J a ck of knowledg e and experi ence . The tendency to l init Gover Th7ent fi"'anc i a l support to nonprofit organizati ons is thus m1desirable . 2. The Gathering of Housing Costs }Ir. Hayden stressed the importance of r ~.?~e?in~ the divergence between housing construction costs and gene:r2.l price levels which force s builders to t olerate lmr quality work . The contimstion of r eli ance upon ea s i er fina ncing arrangements will p revent a soluti on of t he costs probl em . 3. The Or ganization of tl"e Attack uuo!1 Urron Problems Mr. Hayden sta t ed t hat an agency should b e c reated with the r espons ibility for mak:Lng a tota l systems approach to tbe problems of urban housing. Such an agency could b e orga nize d along the lines of either NASA or COl-.SAT . JAMES W~ ROUSE; President; The Rouse Company irr. Rouse descri bed the steps taken to plan and f inance the Col umbia project which involves the de velopment of an entire new city within the next l 2 years in an_area midway b etween Washj_p.gton and Bal t imcre . Tbe expe rience of t he Rouse Corpor ation and the Co;:1ne cticut Gener"--1 Life Insurance Ccnpany with r egard to Columbia can b e applied to the reconstruction of t he c entral c ities ac cording to 1-il' · Rouse. The ma j_n points raised i n hi s testimony and during the questioning period were the following: ,,. �l. 'I , The Need for Concentratic~ of Financial Resources upon a Single City Mr. Rouse suggested that all urban ·renewal and -demonstration city funds should be utili zed to accomplish the total and successful renewal of a single l arge American city. The country needs to be convinced that urban problems are capable of solution. 2, The Place of Profit Consicerations in Urban Redevelopment. Mr. Rouse declare d that the construction of new cities and the reconstruction of old ones so that the real needs of their people are satisfied will b e a profitable enterprise. Once the market success of well -planned development projects is established, the solution of the nation's urban problems will be possible. <, �,_ \ I 1I . J, 11/\._.,. /,J /_ •• , /\ ·I (} ~-· tA / v, ~J Afternoon S e ssion : December 6, 1966 WITIIESS : Lee Rain1,,;c1ter, Pro fessor of Sociology and /mthrop 0 log y, W2.shinc_:ton University ( St. Louis) SUBJEC'l' : Poverty and Deprivation in the Crisis of the A."llericDn City Professor F:ainw':iter told the Subcommittee that until we make really s i gnificant head~a y in solving the poverty problem ( and thereby also the probl en;s of race and ~thnicity ) it will prove irr.pos s:i.ble to plan urba n enviromr.ents in a r 2.tional wa y, in a way tha t is useful and sa ti sfyins to urb3n populations . He sta rted by desc._:ribing one particular lowe r c l ass Nc t:: ro crn:unun ity wh ich , with a d ozen colleaz;ues , he studied int e nsively for th e pa st 3 y ears . Thi s i s the Pruitt-Igoe Housins Proj ect in St . Louis. Built in 1954 , th e project was th e fir st hi gh-rise public h ous:i.ns in th e ci ty . It cons ist s of 33 e leve n story sla b sha p e ~ building s f csigned to provide housin~ for about 2,80 0 families . At present, it houses about 10,000 t~e 0 r oe s in 2 , 000 }1ouseholds . i·Thnt s t.a rtr~ d out H S a pYcced:::nt-o:r·eak in3: pro jec t to i: np r ove the live s o:; the poor in St . Louis , a proj e ct ha il.ea n ot only by the loca l ne~spepe rs b ut by Arc r::itec turo.J. Fon.::,(, h2s b e c oue an em'oarrassmen!.; to a ll c on c erned . In th e l ast f e ~ y ea rs , t he proj ec t h as a t all ti1nes ha d a va c a ncy r a te of ove r 20 p e rc ent . News of crime and accident s in the proj ect nakes a r e 6 tLl r, r appe2.n:1.11c e i!1 the ne·.1spa pers , e.nd the words Pruj_tt -I g oe ha ve b eco:;1e a househ old term for t he worst in ghet t o li ving in loue r class Ne.:;ro h on,es , as we ll as in the larr;e r c orn.mun i ty . Prui t t-I goe , :i.n Professor Rai:l'.,8.ter ' s opinion , CO!1denses j_nto one 57-acre t:r-a ct a ll of th e probl e::;s a nd diffinilties that ari se frorn r ace and pove rty, a. nd al l of the impotence , indiffere r,ce , 8.n:l host ility with whi.cl: our society has so f a r deal t with th es e problems . Processe3 that are srn-,,e tines beneo. th the surfa ce · i n l ess virnle r.t lowe r class slums arc r e2 dily appB-rent i n Pru i. tt-I 6 oe . Because PruJtt - I g oe exists as one k ind of Fe de~ n l Gove r n~e n t r esponse to the probl ems of pove rty , t he f a il u r0 o f that r espor,se ,,,ill pert2.ps be of pa. rticuJ. ;:;,r int. ere3t to the Co1:u:dttc e , Professor nai ff,·T~tter s a id . P1·ofcssor Ra inwa t e r brouz.)1'..; out:, tl-:e follo·.1i .n 6 facts in. r eca rd to . Prui .J~ t-I g o 2 : 1. All tr~e wh i te s h e.v e !,:ov e c1 O'.J.t. and th e po p'Jla t io;-1 is no·,i a ll I:egro . 2. ·. -.:L.s, s :.- . '·. ··. :: ..; .:. -~..., .' ; ., .... ' �2 I 1; . ~:r.F.:! ·te1:e.l:.~s t:i~::.e:-~::·:~ c· · -... ~..; ::·-:y~-:i:: j 1>~Gpl e ) e.!~c . 5. 'I'e nents , tl-,e:r0fore , Frosram . h:;.,..-2 ~ t h ings out of wi ndo·.,rs., hur~:i :1; j2.,J.ndiced Yiew of t he :publ i c Hous i ng P1~ofe3s or Raj_1!-,ia.t e2."" 22. id tfl~.: - i1f2 r1ust s tart with a.n unde rst2.ndi r.g c f ',!hy l c ·, rer c le.s::; ::. i.r'e i s tn5s '...'e.Y . He beli eve s the lower cla s ses ac t - this wa y b 2cD.us e ci:f L ro probl ems : 1. ! ~a bil i t y t o find ~ork and adequate pay . 2. Beca u s e of lc1 ck of fi n?. .!1c e s , tr:ey live a mong other indivic.;.~el s simi l a rly s i tus. ted , ind i v :Ld uci.l s wh o , t he expe rien c e of their daily live s t es che s t hem, are da nc;erous , difficuJ_t , out to e x pl o i t or hurt t hem i n p e tty or si g n i f ica nt w2.y s . And the y l earn t hat in t h e ir c or:-;:iuniti es the? c a n expect bcil y p oor ai'1d i n fe r ior se r v i ce and protect i on f r om such i nst i t u tions as tte p ol ic e , t h e CO\u-·::.s , t he s chool s , the s a nita tion depa rtment , t h e l andlords and tr:c rne r chc1n'.:, s . Professor R2.i,1wG t e r c o,1tem1ed tl1a t effort s to sol ve t he . gen eral proble ms of u rbc1n rr.a,;'?.;cment will forc ·, e r be f rus trated , o r a t l east much , m1,;.ch rr.ore c os t l y without 8 solut i on to the p :: :oblcrn of p overty , bot h u :c'c6.n and r ul'al . He p:t :iposc j c hannel i ng nation'3. l incc;:;c ( po.rt i.cul arl y the yearl y i ncrem2nt in nntion':l.l j ncor,1e ) to f am ilies in the lm.rer thirty to f or t y p e r cent, of the popula tion so tha t a fami l y i :icomc: f l oor i s estab lishe d which i s n ot too far b e l ow the med i a n i n come for Americ a n families e.s a ,,,hole . Professo r Ra i nwa te r t h inks that there are 1::asic 8lly t ·,,o stra.tc 6 i es i mpl i cit in the va r i ous p roBra~s and s ugges ted pla ns for d oing some thi ns about pove rty . One , by far t he most entrenched a. t pre sent 2 might b e c a lled the ser-,,ic e s strat::bY , an d the ot.h er the inco1::e stra t e 0 y . In hi s opinion , t he p r oblem with the services appr oach is t h a t to a. conside rable extent j_t c a. n:ies t he l atent assu..r.iption either t hat the p oor a r e p ennan cn tly p oor and th e refore must h a ve spec ia l s e rvic es , or tha t th e p oor c a n be chanzed (by l ea r ning productive skill s , b y l earning how to u se the ir r,,oney more wi sely, by developinc; bette r at ti tudcs , etc . ) whHe the y are s t ill poor and that once t h ey ha ve c hs~ged the:{ will th e n b e abl e to c1ccor.1:pli s h in ,:e.ys t hat wiJ.l do a:.ra y with their poverty . ., ·r. . �, A s econd pro':Jle:;; , ::e 132.icl , witr: t !~e s ervices a ppro::1 cl1 is that the priori ty of ne~ c1s of tte pvOl' is c: s. tei:;Ol'ice.lly est.2.blished when the service pro6 :car.:s a re set u~ . An ex::rn,ple he descrj.bed j s tha t ti-:e Federal puoli c housi ng program prov ides 2. service to eac:1 !",cus e;10ld in Pruitt -I goe in the fo rm of a subs i dized a p?. rtr::ent t.}·.~t c c sts ab out $545 a year . This amotLrits to a fifth of t he ~ean f auily incoxe of the tena nts in the project . It is v e ry l i1,el y t !'.!3.t fr c::·:; t:'1e point of vie'.r of the needs of n,any of the f amil ies who live in Pruitt-Igoe t ha t $5!f5 could be put to much b etter u se . The Professor said the.t those ec:ono:dsts who h ave pursw,~d thi s line of thinking in studying t~e probl em of pove rty have suggested the inc ome s t r P-Y'O -..:: since t f1es e e ~·e by f c. r the raos t. sti y~a t.j_z j_ n _s _"k1ov er t y p rog ~2.;:1s . n ow 5n exi s t ence . Mr. Kot l e r d e sc ·rib ed t o t h e S1..tbccr!,;;1itte e tt e 2cti viti es 2 2·,d 2cco::,pli s tme ;i.ts o f t.:,e 2:cco p ro j e ct j.n Co j_l1.::,1.,u s , Oh io . He [; 2 ic1. tha t th e s ucce3s r - .- ~ . .:: -~. ·- -- . ---·--·· - -- --::- ::. ~ -~~ .-_..~ -: _  : -_· '..·, ·" · , ·--:-~-····-------- ---=---~------ . . - ,,. -_ ·.· ·.". ,_ .- ._'· .-·. .·.. . ·.:: , ~~:=-=:. :- c :-::::·_--_ ,;·, , -:-. -al.• • ..,. r - ~ i - 1- ·-- r . 1·~- ,-~0/: - - - - - : __, - - - - ~--·- .... - - , - ·· - · , :.-::.::·..:-:-: ~··=:-_.1- 1:..: ·::.i.. .L/ s-:~ ·c:.~:· -.~:.~·::: · ...., .. �I 4 pri ~:c i-~2..l asent o f c :~e.n~·:,e tc1 ·r·2t;L:..:. .i.C:. our Sl:..,111~s i n to a l ege.l co:r_;-n1..1-nity o f c,Llture J freec. ,,~ _. 2:1('. ~:!"0spe1,i·:y . 'i';;e nei 6 hborhood mus t becC-r:ie a le~2 l cc~::nur1i ~ ~: Oi-. s~1.f' :-lelp e!1d sel.f' - 50,._.rer:iing de cisions r..r i th the suffic j_ e:-it c2 pc, :::i.ty '_;o rele te '.:.o c t o.e:c organjza::.ions ) publi c a~d private ) for t~e !~sourc es and tecbnicel assistance required to b uild a bett er city . <;._ t-'. r . Kotler made the ::'ollc·.-1in.::; reco:rJnen.c1a ti o:is : 1. 'J:he Federe.l 2. The i ndependent nei &;hbod:ood corpora tions of a c ity should become d ele[;ate agencies of the existing Corr::nunity Action 0rc;a niza tion . 3. The neit';'hborrwoc1 corporations wouJ.d use the Federal f t.mds to s ub contr2. ct t o p1'i v21te industry to rebuild the c ity . 4. An P.lte r no.tive is fo :r t:-1e neiGhbor~1cod corporst ion to beccrr;e a d elegate a 6 ency o:f the l oc2.l ho . J.s ins a Ltthority . Goverffir:ent ce.n assist the forrne. t i on of ne i ghbor}1ood corpo r at i ons by fundin ['; thei r a d;i;in i s trati ve costs and p ro~r ar.'! ope r at i ons . 1 WI 'I'NESS : '\-1:Lll i mn A . Doebele ) ,Jr . 1 Profe ssor of City and Reciona l I~anning ) Assoc i at e Dee n for Developme nt ) The Giac1uate School o f Desii:;n) Ear··13. rc1 University) Ce r;,bric1L~e) I-1:;.ssach:...lset ts . Professor Doeo e l e rr:3. de the follo wi nc; rec o,::rc1e nds.tions : 1. ThStt it r equest the S e cre te, ry of the De pa 1·tme nt of H.01..1.s ing and Urba n De velop~ent to initiate at t he earliest poss ibl e opportun ity } i n cooperat ion with app ropri a te profe ss i o11a l o rgan i zations and u nivers it ies ) a c o~r.prehens ive study of rr.a npower resources in the field of urba n affairs ) r el a tinB t he s ame to t he ne e ds of both the publi c and pr·i va t e s e ctors J and t he r e quire;;1ent s not only of ex i stin[; pro 6 r a ms ) but those conte1:1pl a te:d or like ly \-,i thin t he nex t dec a de . 2. Tha t th e current $500 ) 000 appropri a tion fo r :fello~ships for gra du':l te study i n cor::m:.m i ty pla nni r:g and nll i e d fi elds ) first provide d for i n tL e Hou s j_ng Ac t of 19611) o ut not fllnd e d unt il thi s y ea r ) b e irr.:n'= dj at e l y increa s e d t o at leas t $10 mill.ion p e r y ea r) a nd e:,:tcnde d to c ove r u r be n s tudies in 1;_s ny fi e ld s and at ma ny l eve ls of tr2 inine; . 3. Th 2 t sinc e th e ~ os L critica l s h o rta g e of pe rsonn e l is at the t op pol icy p os i t i ons ) a spec i a l f un d o f $5 mill.i on per year for 5 y e :3. :!."'S be appropi~i a t e c1 for t h e purpose of E.~:'lot j_~~ t h~ este.:)J. j s~r'.:e"'1t , e.-S s e l e c te d u~:i. v ers i t:i e s, of t::ro--_r 2 :-:1s cl es_i r=: ~cd -~~-c~t{_;-:;_(;~c·~,~:;_;t~::c~:~~-c;:143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST):~'.143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST)c~~ ~~:.[:';-~,'-~-~~ o~l ~·;:c::: -~ . ": - �5 I an ~:J_ .:., . -~.- of t:~e r:ctv2:~,:.:eG. ~-:.:.:::: ~::·:·:==_---:-, ::-:~·e>_::r2 ~.s of leedi~~ school s of b :.t:=:: ::::. ::~s 2~ct-;:i:1is t:.·?143.215.248.55.G::--:_! •.-=: --:!2·:.. :-i~1 }i:·c:[; rc.:--:s ._of t}1e ~"i'Jc,:.1rc'.-,r ~·?ilson Sc }-_c·.:-l -st Prf1!.c etc.:1 7..!~i';/ ers :L:.:: ) t: _:; i;eir,1s.n J?ellows}1ips , e.!1d the n eu }:c :1~1ec1~,i- Ins t:i. tu~e e.t Hct1~ve, rd . ,.;. _ l~·: Th-?.. t. a1:. equive.l er!~ s;J;·1 Ce cr;~~·-J p:::.~i =?. t~d for the pu.rpose of doi~g r ese9 :;-·cli and es ta'8l:-..2::-,icl=:; p ilot v2·0,;:ra;n s relat ing to th e tr2. i nin,-:=; of intabitents of slar a r e ~3 ~o p9~ticip~te effectivel y i n the actu9 l r e~_u~_ld ing o! t}1et r o~.r~, en . .ti r o!·:..:·;;er.t . 1 I 5. '.i'ha.t 2 su:,1 of n ot l ess than ~;20 r::illion per year be rr,ade available ~----- --to -an -·approprirrte "C~:~3rtn:ei.i:, c1- e. ns.tion~l cc~1nc il, for · di strib1..1-- -tion to univers ities and other r esea rc h organizations for s tud ies to increase as r a pidly as possible our bas ic 1u1derstanding of the na ture of u rba!1i zat:i.on and nrban a r eas . 6 . Tha t a separate sur:i of not l ess than $250 milli on per yea r be este.bli s :-.ed under the adrninist r2. t.ion of cne or several Fede r a l De pa rtments f or the . c onstructio~ of l 2r~e - scu l e e xperimenta l u rb~n enviror~:ents, to t est and ev2.l.ue.te , 1..:0: :1,; th2 ;ne~.h ods of the social and m,tura l sdences, tbE:__effects o[.:_-u--::::·Lc1e- r2ns_e 0~ poss ibi.lH:i.es \,h ich are nm, technolo;:-:ica lly feasibl e but cannot be bailt beca use of fi nancial , l c Ga l or other constraints . In reply to a c_;ues t,ion by Sen3.tor Ken ne c.y , tr.2 Professo r s2.id that be \, Oltl d put a priorU:,y on his firs t r eco:r::1;enc12 tion , the second sug[;est ion next , a1fd tben m Enoer fi vc 2s third priori t:, S er..!?,tor Kennedy ,:as very i rnpre::,sec1 · with _the p1·o~e.ss or ' s r ecomrrienc1a tions to get nore informa tion e.bout urc a n enviromaents·, since this j_s one cf the r easons the p roblems }~a.ve not bee :-1 solve d at thi s time . 1 • 1 Ma in questions r a ised by Sena tors Ribicoff and Kennedy ( the only n:embers present ): 1. Pru:i.tt-I g oe p~blic housing project j_n St . Louis . S e na tor Ribj coff aske d Profess or Ea. inwa ter ,1hether there were any a dvant2,ges at e.11 to living in Pruitt -Igoe , an d the Profess or r epl ied that the t ena?.1ts were pl eas e d wi "'ch U1e interiors of tr,e ape.rtments , but tha t the world tha t be s gro'.m up arot~?.1c1 the project and 'Id thin i ts bounda ries is \..'h2tt e;ives th e project j_t s ba d name . Ribicoff \o:as inte r c:-:;ted in whether thi s p r oject sheds e. ny li ght on public h ous j_ng in 0 e neral. Th e Professor s a id that it s:!10·,:s that public hous ing s hould b e buHt a t s ca tt ered s it es m i d in s nm l l settl e1,:ents . Sen':l ·i;o:· ?j_oi~:off b:cc,i:rat\on prepares for L°ti7. f:f .: · .' ' %~iii'-\ .· _/:.,-;- '·-?r·i SO:ll,E OF THE PARTfOTT'J\:\'TS in that hig,h- Z powc•rwl St':S.'i'ion we-re chug--rin<·d t;hat Shul tze failf'r:I to includ by llie warning of this montJ1's eJC'Ction, in which tlie . GOP di:monstrated impressive gains in_ t11e nol·· m al ly Democratic hig city vore. • (Although tJ1at same e.lection sePmed to ind: c~:te a n;lfionul nbn0c---phe•re of entrench ,'1}ei;t which . for,'shadows difficulty for the admin istration i n Congress i f it:; progrnms for tile cit ies are deemed t:oo expensive or too visionary). Witllout much fanf:lre and largcly ,,ithout p ubhc notliec t11e White House has se t about in scv0ral ways to work on tJic problems o£ tne ci ties. Passage la~·t ::;Pason of the Demons trabon Ci til's Bill, was of coiu-:;e, a small but importa nt b eginning. A special l~ k foi;ce has been assigned to produce new ideas for tlie cities which oould be included m adnunistratioo measures. · AND THAT CABINET-LEVEL group, which meets weekly m Califano's office, nets e..s a watchdog over tlle presently exisitng programs m an effort ro see tJ1ey are fully ut:i.ful:xl. Meanwhile, t"ie Justice Depar!:zl".ent is pbnnjng sho1tly to mnduct a landlord-tenant co!"Jr:rOn e official present, however, int ~rjected th a t c.1ce in the capi tal. The conference will bring he opposc- an<' hav.c no wey of pi-ess• 1·ing 1'.im Wo action. job-pro r.llJ2.! tal into sl um rehabilitation received i,f?ong endorsc,nc~~Ltoday as the . Sc:nate Govc::·nmen t Operations s ubcom mittee began · a second r ound ... qfl, ca1:in;;s on what has be:en _, ;1llcd, . U,e,. ' c_i:isi,( ~n _t]1e . ci ties..': .·. . , ; .':·· :· ··....i :·;:., · , ._.;~ ·: ~:-11· Sena'tor\Jacr;b K _J a vit~. 'N°cwf. Yorl, Republican , ~ subcommi t- , tee member, said he was '.'encouraged by 1:ecent reports that the J ohnson Administration had such a plan under study.· Senator Abrnham A. Ribicoff, t he subcommittee chairman, decla red tha t the task cf providing decent housing , in slums was "not going · to be solved ·by Government-alone.", · He indicated that ··he would listen sympathetically to any proposal involving- a joint pu blic-private assault , on g hetto h ousi,ng. . · ·· · ' ·.. · A Tc1itati ·c Proposal Th~ Adn1inis t r ation's Lci1 tativc ' proposa l, developed over t he/ l;i.s t six months and re fined by til e Dcparlmenf of H ow-:ing and Urban Developmen t, calls fo r , creation of a na ti ona l, nonprof-1 it, semi-public _~.!1-Df'vel_Qp.Jlli;nt Corpornt1ll11 lha t, its sponsor~ hope, would attract heavy I private irwestmcnt · in t o ~!um r ehabilitation by p roviding . variet y of F ederal incentives and guarantees. . 'I11c substance of the plan was 1 disclosed in The New York Times on Sunday. ·· ' E ven thoug h ., no member of the s ubcommittee ·would comm it himself to · it specific approach, today's hearings indicated ·a lively interes t in the / pla n on the par t of ·!Irr . Ribicoff , and Mr. J a vits, a s well as t he 1 committee·s ·lcad witnes., , Da, ·id ! R ockefeller, New York fi na ncier Mr. Rockefeller, p resident of t he Chase ?v!anhattan Bank, decla red tha t . " urilan r ehbiilita tion is primarily a t ask for p r i~ vate enterpris e." But,- in rcspon to sustained r1ucstionin g ·from 1fr. J a vits, he conceded tha t ·business would be r eluctant to make heavy_ capita l· .otttlays j n slum a reas ··beca us e the · ris k' was grca.t a nd the prof/t re-, turns poor , ._. ,_ al .r.olc a s Cont_ractor , However , the Xew Yllr!, ' ba nker also decla r ed t h:i.~ busi- l n r..ss would nrobably be abl e to provide substa n t ia l clp as a ··contrncto,·:' acting fo · the Govern men t-which is one of t he roles f or bus inc.s s envisioned the propos;1,l · P. OW under study in the Adminis tration . U nder th e pla n, the ,Ur;;an Dcvclopmcn_t Corpora.Lion would /• h elp acquire rundown hou~in;;u sing money from pr l\·atc sou r- I c:cs such as ban ,s a nd fnunda-1 lions as .well a:-; Governm ent fun ds-and Lhen invite i:1dustr y to rcha.bi ifate it · chea ply and efficiently . ·· · · In this wa y, the r cpc,rt describing the p·lan wasy, the cor poration would "fuse the presently fra;;mcntcd purchasing p·ower" of the Government with t e nrnnagcrial a nd technol o~ical capacity of "Amen. ca n industrial or;;anization." The progra11's sponsors have said tha t n either n ew appropriat ions ·nor new le;:;islation oould be imincdiately requir ed. T he plan, in its fin ai form , r ecommends as a first step the purchase and rehabilita ti o~ - of · 30 000 units in se,·era l c1L1cs, requii·ing about _ HOO -million. E arlier versions of t he pla_n predicted that · ih 10_ · years . it· could providc..,...assummg 1mt1al success-5 mil lioa· ·cha bilitat cd or newly b..:il t. s um un its at ,an aggregate . cost of S?0-billion. Appear s ' Pessimistic ?11:r: R ibicoff urged :).1:r. Rocke feller·, who .at t imes app ear ed pessii11istic a bout a,i"akeningbusiness enthusiasm ·for la rgescale. investment in slum s on anything other than a contractual b?.sis, to examine not the obsta'c lcs to redevelopment but the "hopes and the possibilit ies.'_' · . H e ., u;;;:;e.:;tccl U1a t busmes s, especially ·t he construct1on · 111dus try , woul d find in sl um re h abil itat ion J n enormous mar ket for suppiies 1·a n,:;in;:: from floorin "' m aterial to dis posal uni ts. Mr. Rcickcfcllcr a lso h ad kind words fo r loca l · r r.development pla ns such as tha t envisioned by S enator Robert F. Kennedy in t he Bed,or cl-Stuyvesant a rea of Brooklyn. The Kennedy plan ca lls 'for t he establishment of a n onprofit corporat ion t o engineer the· r ehabilita tion of Bedfo rd-S tuyvesant · housing. Th. New York banker described th e approach as "mo t hopeful." He a lso exprc-ssed considerable interc,-t in ll[r . J avits',, sugg estion that the Go".ernmcnt h elp industry fon11 a technological consortium similar to the supel'sonic transport pro::ram . The New York R epublican pointed out that t he Governm ent wa.<; currently pou ring lar;:;e sums of money into the aircraft industry in Lile quest for a successful super~onic line. He ,q1;::r:estecl. Rlld ~rr. Roc-kefeller ag1:;,ed. that some k ind of " broad - scRle m a nagement group mi~ht be established . with Go\'emm01,t. help a nd - put.. to work d,~,·bing a nswers to iltE; - . , - ··-. - ~ ....-.....- ., ,. · .:, . 0 · · �Poirt lo r .i-D /U ll to Ponder The co nt roversy bct\reen _,M,ont m nic ry C'.J.ll.Ult.Y an the Department o, Housing and Ur ba n Developme 1t h olcl s a much broader interest than the rezonin g of three squ:-ire miles in the Wash ingi on suburbs. We clo not, of course, wish to minimize the importa nce of nullifying the butchery of planning by the old Montgomery County Council in its lame-cluck r ampage . But this is an in teresting test case which is certain to have an important b ea ring on the r elations between HUD and local governments in all parts of the country. HUD must necessarily invest its matching funds for the purch ase of park land and the protection of open space in accord with the standards that Congress and the agency have prescrib ed. It cannot be, exp 1-cted t o assist a county which makes a farce of planning and ~ou,i_ug protection. At the same time, however, HUD must avoid usurpation of the powers of local government and the use of pr essur e in deciding local issues. In the case at hand, we think HUD went over the line in applying pressure at a moment when the unfortunate situation in Rockville seemed to be righting itself. Unquestionably its intentions \\·ere good . But unless its pressure can be relaxed, the result may be to defeat its own purpose. Senator Brewster and numerous local officials have pointed out to HUD that the net effect of .its pressure on the new County Council to cancel its predecessor's last-minute r ezoning decisions may be to throw the entire controversy into court on the issue of intimi dation . A significant precedent for su9h suits is r eadily at hand. The grant of a n exception to the Soviet Union to per mit the construction of an embassychancery in Chevy Chase wa s upset in court some months ago because the State Department had , brought pressure on t he District's Board of Zoning Adjustment. HUD officials should realize that any specific zoning change which they impose upon un willin g local zoning authorities is highly vulnerable to legal attack. HUD needs to have assu ra nce that the reckless zone-busting policies of the old Council in Montgomery County have been abandoned . It needs assurance that proper safeguards will be ad hered to in areas for which Federal aid is sought. But these assurances appear to have been given not only by statements from the new Council but also by its vigorous action to wipe out the effects of the r ezoning spree, so far as that is possible. The grand jury investigation into possible irregularities and abuses affor ds~ further evidence of the new atmosphere in Rockville. In view of these vigorous efforts to undo the wrongs of the past and to adopt sound new p oli, cies, we think HUD should withdraw its freeze of Federal funds for the Maryland suburbs before the Council decides the rezoning cases' which it has reopened . HUD could again suspend the matching fLi'nds if the final policy which emerges should prove to be unsatisfactory. But if it insists on turning the thumb-screw whi1e the Council is sitting on these controversial cases it may defeat its own purpose and greatly embarrass the cause of proper development of the National Capital suburbs. The Washi ngton Post - Nov . :2-S, 1966 �n7 P: ,{ ..,. .·.·. .I. l V .._ ., ..,_..., .. -,-r,, ... -~ ' . J' _.__ .. '•••n r· V ··. ,.t . ' ···t : . ~. t<ld_-Ta_w !enements aret·~~t~estions" the wisabove the ex1stmg floo r. worth r enamllutmg. Peter L . Q..QI\:) 01 rt:, uvaun:; t.ne tenedirector for 1:1J6iR oii:!.h~r"Easc Side, This seemed to symbolize the Abeles, housin c~~us . an: ong- hou.,:Sin_g __ex- ~ -f.i0L!,_tor.J:m= .t.~!]nJ)- Th_ey_ cover l:i5 per ce t o!their per~s on'""'insfan r c1ITtb!ll_ta- !2JlV~~'~ 1~iz2g-E:~J'~~ the bmldmg lots and front. on tion"-that i t is a prom:smg currcnc expern ~ b!.lk.,'j_aid he streets only 60 feet wide. experiment that has produced = -================,--- - - - -=--- -"""'"' some, but by no means all , of the answers to the problem of renovating slum housing. ]\[orcovcr, t:1e experts beJicYc, it should be only the berrinnin"' of an intensified refearchO program to !ind better technical and financial tools to produce decent housing in the ountry's slum areas. \rr. Rice noted that many const. uction materials had been ·tested in the fi rst building. The -tenement now cont2.ins vinyl .f loors that require n o r efinish·n"' for 10 years, ceramic bath!i·o~m tiles that stick together i\vithout liquid cement and wallb oard that is so tough that workmen had trouble cutting holes in it for electric wiring. E:.;:pandablc windows t at adapt to the irregular shapes of the old window frames have ·been installed. Garbage chutes lead into a Swedish device that compresses the refuse, disinfects it, and even sprays it with perfume. Two one-bedroom and one three-oedroom apartment will be buit on each floor of the tenement buildings. The average development cost will be about S13,000 an apartment, Mr. Rice estimated, as opposed to about $23,000 for new construction. "There is uch a tremendous need for better housing in New York that it is worth r ehabilitating these tenements," he said. He asserted that the cost of demolishing the city's 43,000 old-law tenements - those built before 1901, with minimal standards for ventilation and sanitary facilities - would be pro-, hibitive. Housing experts a re debating 2. �I • • .. • , �l, 1tJO . -. , ~ );.'k@,-1. •· --~ ~-=-·· . i.-,..~ l , .l_e i_.;· _____ _ ---'--==··-=··..;~ , ' . _···- ...... -143.215.248.55 -~ -- -=-=•= ~---~-···' ' ~- ·-...._.,.,___ _ __ ~j _ . -··.. - .,, ' ·, I - ,,. li4 S,:~i3e1 KrI ~I 1\ t'i ii- ir/1 ,,r,;/ ·Ql. R~oJ i!'<-'i 1..,\iJ1·r.s APT S 1·z;:: -SR. . 0 .' Le N :ii"'f-:J~·r, c/J C' -:}TA 9-:r'l:j) : F"if<.,;·, BviJ.."J>11uc:;-- Goi~'\Pi-r.:ri:.:j) ~s-n MAT ii)> JJi~oJ'2c.:r l/i:-5' \ w/0~- .--, 61( 1·;>,v •if I,\I , ·- I ANJ> oec.-uP;L?"J) - - (30 i I\ B To 'J)/\TG' .. , l;. i ,-j ',(; ':')- 5((- loMPJ..l='flDAf . . ·') ·, - BR 't!. ~i'-'1PlGT£j) I ~, I '1( I; /,t 1 ') /~IJ.'i) .'-lv. :;;-: lJNJ r-.:.. . ,/ ·r +; ·7 II I \~t:IJ' ~ 1\ )-; ('. ,_,-- ~ ,: I I .i I' < ' - -~. J '6 .'T T..;.. : . ·r ~S'6 i" ,:,' ' ,1 ~i ,: It_; ./ ?,) 4 l-. "'i ! <·;. 1f ) /Ci ! ,, ~qq ;- 'f 1u: f) ?' I ' . j ~ !U-.:.- ti) I to · Ri)1,.·i">; )J<.;.c, - iort -~;) ;() , J,v i,S LL ,. . R ' :' ' Tc'iAL AVe. '(A.G ;!! ~ r I I.! C·~ i D'2 vG1~0 r Mf1v·r Cosr' S, r..vi:-11 t· ti Ai lci-Jr~1,i·rc\'~s 1-i::i1 Ar-.r..1HTEC rs (,'~!( AMOV,V'T T16M C.,c,}l O r ::r: A·1, AJ r. ji q':!D/b1 ·7 '1) . 'j 1 i.dl I '640 I'{;£: 'Zo9, o~t5 : F"t21; ,t . .. iI 4ib LE~AL.. I le,, coo 246 L...Atvj) i (r~·d:;.,L,i Riio~1,;,9 r..-r/i L ~ '1 {j I. q43 {)('() p4i3}1b t::ss: ,Vr'.C./l-Nq /1L1.v.:J1i!JC.:.1.: -Z )L~-i ~f.5"l t4ls',34-9 OR~AN l-ZATION K.c.JJTJ1l. T;.;,:,,;,vti: ~+t -~;,\Jl"tNi'..,/ N r!: /IN.'!> Ct:?.f.. i IN.(; (\Ny St11izJ).;;.c:y 8,y:-:> ,: ,_:, 01 . It ,_ r) J L..,N._t..:. r 1 . i , l'l'ti .~Cc 13. i.J.11 ' 11li1!e& ... r 23, TO : All Member of the T s FROM: the draft sub-cammitt Attached Dece Force r l port. 1966 �Dictated but not read A PILOT P (X;R.A.t\.l TO P RO::-lOTI..: HO:-IEG:E-.:ERSllIP .1~- iO:'-!G SLUl'-I RESIDS:;:-ns by Anthony Dmvns The desire to own n home is a bas ic par t of our tra dition. Today 62% of Amer ican f amilies h ave ach i eved tha t des ire. Yet the re are still millions of f ami lies who wou ld J. il~e to own the ir m-Tn h omes~. but c annot. arr angements. They are too poor to do so und er present financing J\t l eas t, ha lf a million such househo ld s now r ent sub standard h ou s ing in our metropolitan area s. A chance to mm a de cent home of their m-m mi ght hav e a profound effect up on their att i tuc es towards soci e ty. Instead o f f ee li no like fru strat e d and he l pless transi e nts floa t ing a l ong in th e po re rty and filth of t he slums , they c ou l d b g in deve loping a chanc e o_f contro l ove r . the ir a;-717_ destiny. The y cou l d gradual l y build a stake in the ir commun it i es , alld wou l d l earn how t o u se ar'.d b enef it fro:n l ega l and politic a l i nstit uti ons they no 7 rega rd with hos tility. Furthermore, providing th e l m-r- income h ou sehold with h ome-owner hip assistance would no, be g iving them the same advnntage we a l r eady ext end t o mil li ons o f middle-income and up per- income households. These h ous ehol ds now r eceive a l arge subs icly i n the form of f ederel income tax deduction for the int er es t and pr operty t axes pa id on the ir home s . Thi s subsidy amounts to at l east $1. 7 bilU on per year for j ust the wea lth iest 20% i n the form of al l public h ousing pnymcnts, we l fare payme nts ~ and t ax deductions c ombined. Cl e ar l y, t ax de ductions aren ' t much he lp t o f amili e s �2 with littl e or no t axab l e inc o~e . Sc simple j ustic e demands tha t we encourc1ge h ome owners hip fo r th em in some oth e r way mor e suit ab l e to the i r n eeds, Th ere fore, we r ecomme nd ena ctment o f a pi l ot program of aid to l ow-income famili es to h e lp th em achieve home owne rship. This program should conc entra t e up on slum dwe ll er.s because the y nou h ave at l east an opportunity to mm de c ent h omes, and bec auf;e it Hou l d h e l p i mprove s l um l iving cond itions in genera l . The pr og ram shou ld ass i s t s l um r es id ents either to move out of slums by buying h o:nes e l sewh ere s or to ac qu ire ownership of new l y r eha bilitated ui1its in ne i ghb orho ods whoch will be u p-gr aded t hr ough a wid e variety of oth er progr ams to o -- as in the ~Jode l Citi es Program. This h ome- m,mer hip program wo uld he lp l m-:~lncome famil i es buy sing l e-family ·houscs s · individua l unit s in multi- fam ily c ond om i niums , or apartment bu il dings ,~1 i ch th ey op er ated as r es i de nt l and lord s - - r ep lacing absentee l and l ords , ~10 had neg l e c ted t he i r prop-rties. Seve r a l types of aid would b e i nvo l ved in thi s program . First , th e slum hou s i ng units i nvo l ved would be su bstandard one s r ehab ili tated by a pub l ic agency or a non-pro fi t group be fore be i ng so l d t o n ew owne rs. Second, b e l ow-market- r ate l oans shou ld be us ed to fina nce owners on a n o-down payment bas i s. Third, potentia l ·o·,mers should reciev e advanced t r a ini ng in th e sk ill s of minor ma i ntenances f inanc ing , and oth e r r esponsib ilities of owne rshipo Fourth, new owners from t he l owest- i ncome groups would need a monthly h ous i ng supp l ement sim i lar to the rent supplement but app lic a ble to owne rship payment s. Fifth, so;ne t enant s i n r es id ent- l andlord bu ildings t-:ou ld receive r ent supj_::-le.;nents. Sixth, owners should receive follow-on couns e li ng about financin 6 , and repairs. '-·· �3 Seventh~ th e publ i c agency r unni n g the prog r a:11 would agr ee to buy b a ck the housing invo lved duri ng a fi xed pe riod in c as e the owne rs c ould not car ry the r e quir e d burdens. In our opinion ~ thj s i s a program s o lidly in the Ame ri c an t radition, and we ll worth trying. '- - �Dictated but not read DRAFT SUMMARY ON LANDLORD-TENANT by Julian Levi I. Archaic landlord-tenant law and principles, once appropriate to an agricultural society, must be reformed and modernized to meet the need of industrialized urban America. Ancient legal doctrine construing a lease as a conveyance of an interest in land rather than an agreement leads to the holding that the obligation of the tenant to pay rent is independent of the duty of the landlord to repair and maintain the premises. The sole remedy thus available to the tenant to secure his rights is limited to his vacating the premises and then granting termination of the lease or himself repairing the premises, financing the cost and thereafter creating a set-off against further rents. Such limitations, while onerous to all tenants, are intolerable in their application to poor people. within their means is minimal. Their choice of accorrnnodation They cannot finance repairs nor often even gain access to parts of the premises requiring repair. While state and local governments prescribe minimum standards for housing accorrnnodations, outdated legal practices thwart the poor in direct assertion of their rights. �r------'-"'=---- - - - --- - 2 II. Reformation of landlord-tenant law is a state and local government responsibility burdened with consequence to the national welfare. While appropriate solutions may vary between jurisdictions certain broad principles must be applied throughout: A. State and local enforcement of building, health, and safety codes must be streamlined and improved. Administrative flexibility and fact-finding must be fostered and the power of local courts strengthened. The obligation of code compliance must be a prior charge on the property itself and all rights within rather than merely a personal obli gat ion of the owners. / B. Compliance with law must be a basic part of every agreement and every right. Obligations of landlord and tenant alike as provided in building , health and safety codes must be construed as creating independent rights enforceable by direct legal action. Determination of such issues in the court room must be facilitated. C. Public funds must not reward illegal conduct. Appropriate rent withholding procedures must be developed for the welfare tenant. Appropriate actions must be taken in all public acquisition to the end that prices paid disregard values achieved from income derived in property operation contrary to minimum building, health and safety codes. �3. While these responsibilities are local, the Federal government can and has assisted: (1) the establishment of neighborhood l egal centers in slums by the directive of the Office of Economic Opportunity who are maldng a major effort to help te nants secure the ir rights to safe and sanitary housing : (2) the convening of a conference by the Attorney General to develop new procedures to insure that the rights of tenants are fully and effectively enforced; (3) the appointment of a commission to make a comprehensive review of codes, zoning, taxation and development standards. III. Practices and activities of the Federal government while indirect, inept, enforcement of fire prevention, housing, building, and sanit at ion law as a responsibility of local government can be of decisive i mportance: (l) Section lOla of Public Law 171 qualifies federal assistance upon the appropriate local public body undertaking "positive progr ams" and "workable programs" for community improvement through the "adoption, modernization, administration and enforcement of housing , zoning , building and other local laws, codes and regulat ions relating to l and use and adequate standards of health, sanitation and s afety and building , includi ng the use of occupancy of dwellings." Administrat ive regulations heretofore issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development should be clarified to direct specific enumeration and attention to the appli c ation and enforcement of local codes and ordinance s related t o life, health and safety throughout the locality and to demonstrate increased effort and progress in s uch enforcement. Such enfor cement of minimum codes shall be required as protection of li f e and health of occupants irrespective of whether a basically sound and stabl e are a is to be created. The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development can further -l<· * �- -~ - ---- ---~ -· - - - ---·- - - - - --- -- - 4. implement the purposes of the legislation through the development ·of major uniform statistical reporting whereby a yardstick of comparable muni cipal performance may be established. (2) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development can t ake exist- ing regulations to the end that mortgage insurance ava~lable through the Federal Housing Administration for property acquisition, rehabilitat ion and improvement must be conditioned upon code compliance. At t he same time mortgage insurance and grants under section 312 can be promoted and expedited . Special personnel can be designated in each insuring office of the Federal Housing Administration with the specific assignment of coordinating the insuring activities of that agency with city building departments and community organizations to the end that division of property financing for complete rehabilitation to meet code standards be gre atly expedited. (3) The Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare can by admini - strative regulation require that each local authority participate in administration and disbursement of relief funds available in collaboration with appropriate local authorities systems of housing inspection and certification to the end that appropriate withholding of rents where justif i ed b e undertaken. (4) All departments of government concerned with property acquisi- tion wherever federal investment is involved can r equire t hat t he acqui sition public authority demonstrat e and certify t hat no part of the award granted or payment made represents values achieved by operation contrary to local codes of building , health, and s afety. (5) All department s of government dealing with the audit ~d verifica - tion of rea,l estate and mortgage as sets can re quire certif i cati on as to the vroperty concer ned no complaints are pr esently pendi ng by any l ocal authority charging violat i on of local minimurn codes, building health and safety. �, TV• At this time property owners in deteriorated or declining city areas assume that the municipality either cannot or will not enforce the building, housing, health and sanitation l aws an assumption based on experience and occasions supported by federal statement: "Characteristic of a typical slum area is the overcrowding of housing units well beyond the l eve l s permitted by local codes. Any effort to enforce the occupancy standards of the code would have as its immediate consequence a massive displacement of the families occupying the overcrowded units. This might be acceptable if it were coupled with a concurrent program to make available to such families decent housing at prices they can afford. Unfortunately, the latter tends to b e far slower and more costly than the carrying out of code enforcement. In many cases local courts have recognized this consequence and, as a matter of public policy, have refused to permit enforcement action. "By its v ery nature, a program of code enforcement requires propoerty owners to make substanti al investments in repairs and improvements in order to avoid prosecution. Unless that investment is coupled to an increase in rental returns or property values, the owner is likely never to be able to recover the cost. But since we are still dealing with a seriously bli ghted area, neither the increase in rerit~ls or property value s is likely to occur. The present tenants usually cannot afford hi gher r entals, particularly if occupancy is reduced and there are fewer wage earners to pay the rent. Tenants with higher incomes usually cannot be persuaded to move into a still bli ghted area. The value o f the property in a private sale cannot be expected to increase unless the rentals increase nor would the repairs or improvements add si gnificantly to the property v alue in the event of a future public comdemnation. �"It has been argued that rigid code enforcement in deteriorated areas will so depress property values that new purchasers will be able to afford to make the necessary repairs without increa sing rents. In fact, this does not happen on any broad scale. While our understanding of the factors which motivate owners of slum prope rty is very limited, a recent study does cast some light on this. The large ,sophisticated' owners of slum property usually have so little of their own money invested that any feasible reduction in cost of purchasing could not equal the cost of needed repairs. On the other hand, the small 'unsophisticated' investor is usually incapable of taking advantage of any such economic effects. .In sum, it is our belief that concentrated code enforcement by itself in badly blighted areas would result in more turmoil than improvement of housing conditions. But to say that this one approach will not work is not a satisfactory answer to a very real and pressing problem. Although we have not yet arrived at anything we regard as an adequate solution, it would be extremely valuable to present some of the problems and possible approaches in order to bet broader consideration." "Staff Report Housing and Urban Development f orwarded by the Secretary to Senator John Sparkman, Chairman Subcommittee on Housing, Senate Committee on Banking and Currency, July 26, 1966." The assumption becomes an unful fi lled prophecy: A. Property owners reduce expenditures for property maintenance and repair wherever possible. B. Tenant and community morale collapse. C. Constructive community leadership is denied creditabil ity. �-I If it be assumed that power of state and local government to regulate housing condition in order to preserve life, health and safety is a prior charge on all interest in property, then the equation as to the feasibility of property repair to minimum st andards is simply whether the gross rent roll will cover current operating expense, current taxes, and principle and interest payments to cover the cost of repair. Antecedent mortgage commitments as well as the equity investment are irrelevant to the issue. Where mortgagees and property owners, contrary to existing assumptions, are convinced of this contingency, their conduct concerning property repair and maintenance would be altered significantly. In this circumstance it would not be ne cessary that public action be asserte d a gainst ea ch property in a given neighborhood in order to r everse the prior assumptions . A formidable case ex ists therefore for s el ection of a few neighborhoods in which after complete inventory of structure condit i on, ownershipj mortgage debt, and pri or hi story of code enf or cement, an experimental program be undertaken by the appropriate local public , author i ty, working i n collabora tion with the loca l communi t y , i n whi ch a•numb er of t he poss ibl e sanctions we re enumer a t ed we r e emp loyed. The e f f ort is a ttrac t ive i n: (1) pres enting a new att a ck upon the syndrome of community decli ne and coll apse; ( 2) of fering promise of reduce d publi c expend itures by i mpos ing costs upon non- conf orming pr operties; (3) gene rating i ncreased v olume compli ance with minimum codes and standards. �ADDENDA TO THE SUMMARY REPORT TO PRESIDENT Nei ghborh ood centers 1. Su bstitute the word " commu n ity 11 for " ci ty" where it appears . ( Purpose : t o i mpl y a broader universe than just the local gove rnment .) 2 . As a pos s ible a lternative to h a v i n g t h e d e monstra tion c a rri e d out b y t he federal i nter - agenc y group : Have one or all o f the f ederal agenci es provide a "pool" or an 11 e a rmark i n g 11 of funds for the de monstration, but establish an indep e ndent Advis ory Council to c arry the prog ram out 9 or to recomme nd to the a ppropr iat e a g e ncy or a g enc ies h ow it should b e c arried out. ( Que stions: would legi sl a tion b e r equire d? would the imp e tus for re concilin g differing req u irements a mong the fe deral a g encies be lost? would the leverag e ne c essary to g et a p propriate state and local a g enci es t o par ticipate be lost?) Home own e rshi n by the poor 1. Ins e rt t h e f ollowing af t er t h e 2nd par agraph: The pro gram should b e v iewe d as a mea n s of ass i s t i ng p e opl e and a c h i e ving huma n v a lue s, r a t h e r than as a d e vic e for i mprovi ng b u ilding con ditions a n d maint en a n c e . It s h ould als o avoid 11 l oc k ing " pe opl e into bad i n vestments, financial burdens t h ey c a nnot manag e, and slum ghetto es only. �June 2, 1967 MEMORANDUM To: Members of Task Force From: Richard C. Leone The attached papers are not ·meant to be improvements on the Ylvisaker draft of May 15~ 1967 . They are simply attempts to include more material fo·r discussion on June 8. Work on other proposals is going forward. Mike Danielson and I are working on a revised structure (really two parts race and income segregation and a related section of fiscal and institutional capacity). We hope to have most of these in detailed outline form at the next meeting. The enclosed, of course , are confidential. d l ecut ive Se cre t ary �CONFIDENTIAL 6/2/67 DRAFT L\1TRODUCTION America and its conuntmities are changing with tmsettling rapidity. t~st of this change has been healthy; and most of the problems it has caused tend to evoke their mm solutions. This country - despite its transitional strains and its freely-voiced compla:ints - has an i.rnmense capacity for self-correction. There is always a temptation - and a pressure - to over-react: to give equal ear to every complaint, to chase off after every problem, and to wind up with congeries of programs ,~hich may slow up rather than _ accelerate the nation's natural and long-run capacity for self-correction. Evidence is accumulating that such has already happened in the federal govenunent' s response to urban problems over the past twenty years. These have been years of improvisation, and probing. have been constructive. On balance, they But neither in scale nor impact have they caught up with the dimensions and force of the nation's urban trends and developing problems. The time has come to move from improvisation over a wide front, and in sorretirnes contrary directions, to an effort a) lvhich is aimed at selected problems of transcending ir.Jportance; b) which 1s of a scale large enough to make a difference; c) which is not dissipated by conflictD1g policies and administrative arrangements; �. 2 d) which offer powerful incentives to state, local and private initiative, ancl thereby move toward a "steady state" of continuous problem-solving; e) which begin to erase the public's skepticism -- its growing feeling that public programs are not to be taken seriously, that 111ore is promised than will ever be delivered. The Task Force believes that the first priorities for public action m urban An,erica are related to the grmving disparity between city and suburb. -· A disparity which is expressed in the segregation between white and black, the gap between income in central city and in suburb, the uneven economic growth in our metropolitan areas, and in our capacity for response to the problems of central cities. Today too many of our central cities have become the political jurisdictions and geographic areas in which accident, design and even progress have housed an inordinately high proportion of our problem people and an outsized share of our problerrLc; of public policy. The Task Force on cities decided early in its deliberations to focus on these urban disparities. W e have identified t wo major approaches. The first is a straight- fonvard discussion of urban segregation by r ace and income and some recommendations intended to alleviate its ef f ects . The second involves a s eries of re commendations - some modest, some sweeping - intended to increase sharpl y our abilit y to deal with urban prob l ems creativel y, rez!X'ns ivel y, and on a l arger scal e t han i s presently possible. �... 3 We also have found it convenient to acld three smaller sections to our report; on :innovation, the model cities program, and an agenda for future study. While we recolillnend that Federal action in these areas be altered, refocused and expandey for our r:1ccting in W shir.gt:on . Execut ive Secret ry �L TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Letter of Transmittal 2. Introduction 3. Problem Statement 4. Strategy for Meeting Problem I. (?) Increasing our knowledge of solutions to _urban problems II. Federal action to strengthen state and local ability for meeting the problem III. oi urban disparities Focusing and increasing the level of Federal. assistance directed at urban disparities IV. Reforming the administration of Federal urban pr?grams to provide simplification fl e xibility and decentralization V. Increasing the prospects for integration in metropolitan areas �-·· ·- --- - . . . . _., .· -· .... ·-· - L 11 . - .. _e::~2..·c11:., - ; chc:::.~gc it rnc.ny st:-ains a..::.d its f rce1y voiced. co::-,-,Jlrd..i7.ts socie:ty. i£ ~;~0s£::1:. prvo !.cr.:s ., . ~. -~·.:...::: -· ·.:.o -:, · ,-.-, 4. • .l. V ·'-.--.. '-· '-' of s : ~l e., ... 1 c.,., .J ._ tre::ds of c:r.!.C.. o:-:-.1r1ot1s fl ares ' . - ·- · ... t; . �- - ----- ---·----- - -·· - - - -·--- - -- - - - 11 2 · vr, .L . . . 2.21C :."2 2.S l~g, ( · /"...). -- '-' .. .. ""I ~·:2 J__:_ ~ - :. ~- i., . ',:;. -.___ -( , ;:, ,., . ./._ re l a:~ed ~c. o',~--:-"'!· ~--,·· ·_·. ",.--.{ - ~ 1..1 - - - -1·.'··-~:, 1__· r___1-, -,_ _, -- .-=-., ,-'.) -J."":-.,_- ,,c: (="-1.. -1 _-:,;.;.~_' -:-i..! _,·--::: ....,c:.:.,;_ ..:::--r ··,--- .-..-, .·- _;,_\..)~ .:: ,_ .. ..'_. ..:.._ .)\:: ,... --, _ _. _~ .... - ·"" _,, ....,_ .. . . . c:::_, .::'...... ......;..,.>.:.:; £:. :.:·_·.s .sJ:c:.rply CL:.:'.' c: •-. .... ......._. _._., ._ ___ ... -. ..•. -\,-. .., -,-. - - -. ,,__ .... ~.!. ._ ....... ..:; �-- :.--· ··--· . --~ ...__ ·--- --~------ -· .. . -- ---- .. _. ,. . · - - .. , ·- · ·- ·.. j doing be~~t~r ~ Ou.Y fccus -ss •;- ;-... , '".,: '-'~ .:.\.• ~- �,. .. -- -· - -- - ·- ----- ·· - -- - '. 1:. c c-:.~2. lhe:c e are no urb2.n solu ticns of ar...y va li2:.ty ,.~hicj:. c:i ~--..8t '-- ---~'-------- deal d ~rec t ly w:th the que s tio~s pcsed by this se~re~ at ion. 7he racts are th2s e : of th es e Negroes h ave i::·,,::.:::_~e:s c 2~t ~~ 1 ci~ies is ~eg~o , and o:: E.::1.2 liorE.tive pub l i c prog ra::is, th e prop ortion. of Negroes ·- -· _. __--.t::..-a l city ~C)Llat ion wi ll rise to - - --- , ,·,i t h a _ _ _ _ _ percentag~ By 19'i8, be ::·__ pro :Jo:::-t i o;:1s will be 3y 1~33 our c e~trel city popula ti on wil: j e The se a re ? er c enta2;e s-o f the total po~ulatio~ of ail By 1973 \_; •,:. .:.L.._ .i..:... le ast ten of our ma jor citi es wil l be ?re~c~ 143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST)t!y Xeg ro ; by 1983 , at l east t w2nty, inc l uding Chi c ago , Philad el143.215.248.55 16:57, 29 December 2017 (EST) Clevc.~3:1.c, Detroit and Eel t i more . s~~c e A=er 1can ~ i nori t y g r ou~s t r a ~itio~ally have sough t and won I~ s c:-:".e cases their asc.er,_dency was ~ur ~2~o rt discuss e s this se g r2 sa tio~ as it affects Nesroes. =ri_ -:·.2ny ci l.:i~s, of co:.: :::- s2, ·:.-:-2 c~-: .::. ~2.:: 2::.:-:- i :--:; to a p::.--01.) l c::-:1 \·~~-..ic~-: ~n~:cl2s N~ ~=ces and ~ex ~ca~ A~2~ ic 2~s c:~ ~egrc es a~d PL ~~to S~:~~s. ·.2 ~-:. 2..v2 i-::.cJ......:C:2:. ·:.:.'"i ese:. :;:: 0·0. :>:; :. __ c:.:.::-- cos ·.: c s..~~ :;-...:::..s.-c.:"..o:~s (s2e b2::..cr~~·? .:.. :.:_:,2 -:::2--:-._y of t~:2::.r ?:: c·.)~2::-.s - =- J~., ~~--..cc.-:-:2> po.:.::- 2:c·.~c::.~i...J:12. ~ subst::.:iC.c..rcl hou s :.·_·_--· . · -._; :.1 bi::-t:Ci. ::- 2. :: es , s-::8 .. - a:-c2 _. ;·=-- ~ ..;-r,_r ..,:::-:: c.:--..J~, - •-..;, - V �- - - -·- ··---- --·--··- --·--··- - --·-- --- -- ·--- - -- - - -- -~- _,..:,..... _'·:: 2 e:--: peri2llce b.as bee::i a hea ltl1y 011e for ou:r- pluralis ;i :ic politic 2 l ·sys :: e:-;: . G.ispers:ion ~e groes . We therefore ~esr ttEt th e ____ r"\ ~-- 2~1ci CGETI 72 S .! ::, - in c 1~v li~e a~d ~c ~i tical pr ob&~i lity of this con f rontEtio~ is but we are c ertain that it is h i g~ 2nou3h to b e a cause for concern. Its pe;tential d an3 e rs li e· in t :,e follcw ing: 1. The growin3 d is affection nnJ aliena tion o f Negro ghetto r2.s ic 2nt s 2.nd incre as ing ..ii li tancy ,,nich r esLl ts, to gether with i~crea sing viol ence in citi es . 2, The still po:-1e rful fo:::- c e o f ot::t - rnigration by whit e :r,ic:c:..c- fro:.:i 4. city. The in~b ility o~ raoderate ?O litica l l ea~ership t o respo~c t o th e pressu~es o f larg e r a~d l a rger poor populations . �__ - - -- -i- - - - ---·------ - - - -----_,,__ _____________ ____ -- -----·- ,. ! 3 Of t:.e ~ eg:r:oes ,-1ho live ci~ies not only because it i s ~or&ily ri ght and not only because of Th e c. e:-::.::..:-_-.:s o:E uh ict-. u lt :;_ ,,i.s.te ly 1:-1i ll t est seve::.-ely t he_ v alu2s o f Ar:-.er_ic.sn s oe: i c.'.::y . Integra tion> 1r it does notiing else, ~ay help to r educ e : 2nsions . - ·- l&rger integr a tion w~ich -:.:.:st cc::ie i n. the futu:c2 . ~oce~s t e ll u s t ~a t s i ~ply h o l d~n~ the s i ze of c e n:~nl citv ~~e t:os 6JO,O0O ~egroes a year i ~to predcmi~an: l y ,~i~e su~urb s. Ct..:.t --- ~~ g r- c.t i C:l ., Cur c r~2e cost c a~c~lctio~s fo~ prov id i ng ev e~ rc1i2ir:-_;_.:_m .scce:_:,tabl e level or 2 soci&l se:..-v ic s s 1n all centr-21 city g'.ic::t to s i ·c.dica te f e deral expenditure:: ?at:t e:c11s cf georr:etric c..r:.d un l ike ly Ev2~y avc il sb l e in~ic&t o r of he deterio r2t in ; c o~~etitive posi~ion _L �1. , L·r o~ tt e te~tr~I c~tv (th2r2 are o~ c ourse subst anti a l dif~er~nces descriptive of Los Anse l cs ). citi es are l agging beiind t~c rest of the nation by a S pe ci fical ty: ~etail 2sta blish~ents by 95% for th e rest of t he ~ation, b~t by only 41% i n citi~s . - ?2r ca? ite inco2e chang es in city relativ2 to suburb. - ?rcdict eC: joo c--...- ...~1.:. r. t. st : ~. 3 ~ ~ r 143.215.248.55s or public a ttitudes . Su ch c t a~g e s , ho~ever , a r e b ot h u ~lii2 ly ~. :e r e c: ogn.iz2 �5 It is a pparent tha t s egr esotion b; r a ce and inca~e i n our to c ::'fset it . sore than laws and fed e ril polici e s , but we suggest t~e place to In sur;i:r.ary, t he Ta sk Force icec1t i fi2s 2.s n p::cob l e!:: of . th G g ::- 22.test n2t icnai urgency U1 e :;rowt:::. a,1d ? Ove r 'c.y of c e:-,tral c:: ·.:;: .) W2 b eli e v e th.=-.t this situa tic1n al:::- cady p::-.· ovide s a driv in,; =o::c e i n u rban dec l ine and t h at it s effect is - increased 0y t :.,e u:1~c,u2.l patteri'. o:: u r tm1 d2velo?cent . 2. ) '.,J2 E.::.- 2 co, ,vinced tha t e. d rc.r,,a t i c co:-if :cont at ion b et~veen ~ l r e e.dy i s bui lding in ~ost of ou r urb a n ar e as . 3) ~n the absence of st2. t 2; fec2ra i a~d loc a l 2.ct ion on a th ~se prob l ems will grow l ~r~cr , mor e dangerou s to Arncr ic rn soc i e t y 8~d i ~creas i ng ly c i ff ~cult to solv e . ·/.: �6_ We therefore recommend a series of strategies designed to: 1. Increase individual access to jobs, education, income, housing and other social services. 2. Increase racial and income integration in metropolitan areas. 3. Increase the proportion of middle-class population, especially Negro, in central cities. 4. Increase the ability of new immigrants to adjust to urban life. 5. Increase the ability of all levels of governments to deal with these problems. Meeting th e goals will be costly and difficult. It will require, in our judgment, a well 6rganized process of innovation, focusing resources at scale , moving towards increased flexibility and strengthening th e position of mayors, some governors, urban universities and others who can be counted as · urban alli e s. Our strategy for urban chang e and the recommendations which flow from it is designed to overcome five critical limits or present abilities for meeting urban goals. �, 7 1) Capacity is limited by difficulty of effecting metropolitan integration directly. 2) Capacity is limited by city and state fiscal and administrative weakness. 3) Capacity is limited by the dispersion and low level of Federal assistance to cities. 4) Capacity is limited by Federal procedures, program practices, centra~ization, an~ inflexibility. 5) Capacity is limited by the state of the art for solving urban problems. The five sets of reco~me ndations which follow are intended to outline a strategy which will increase significantly th e ability of Federal, state and local governments to respond to the problems posed by urb an segregation and disparities. �L , I. Increasing race and income integration in urban areas The Problem Of all the problems the Task Force has addressed, none is more vexing than the question of devising effective strategies to integrate metropolitan areas. We nonetheless believe that the highest priority must be given to integration. Without it, ghetto families will be denied the opportunities enjoyed by the urban majority; they will be forced to live in the least attractive housing at increasing distances from the growth sector of the urban economy; and the problems of a disaffected minority will be concentrated in the ceritral cities. Although improving the standard of living is absolutely essential if ghetto residents are to move into the mainstream of _Americ an life, it is illusory to beli eve that enrichment alone will guarantee int egra tion. The residential patt e rns of every American city and metropolitan area document the fact that income does not provide Negroes with the sam e freedom of choice . that other Ame ric ans enjoy in th e urban housing mark et . Equally important, the dec entralized political system of the metropoli s employs l and us e and ot he r public controls to limit sev ere ly hou s ing opportuniti es in s uburbia for a ll lowe r income families. A prime imp ediment to the dispersion of th e ghetto is th e fact th at larg e numb e rs of city dwell ers and s ubu rbanites are oppo se d to resid en tial inte gration and integrat e d education. In th e �6 2 central cities, the opponents of integration usually have more influence at City Hall than the residents of the ghetto. In the suburbs, the Negro has no political voice; and the local political system employs a variety of devices to satisfy its constituents' desire to exclude Negroes in particular, and lower income families in general, from their neighborhoods. As a practical matter, an integration strategy must encompass the metropolitan area. Given the projected ghetto growth rates and the likelihood of Negro majorities in a number of major cities, integration cannot be accomplishe d within the confines of the central city. In fact , an integration strategy which excludes the suburbs would only serve to hasten the exodus of white families from the centr a l cities. Anothe r r eason for d ev e loping disp e rsion strat eg ies in a me tropolit an context is th e fa ct th a t th e hou sing marke t f unc tions ove r an entire metropolitan area. Operating within a local rath e r th an me tropolitan cont ext, federal housing programs , especially tho se aimed at th e di sadv antaged, h ave don e littl e to foster disp e rsion. In fact, more oft en than not, these programs hav e encoura ge d r es id enti a l s egrega tion. · Few me tropolitan a r eas h av e governmental arrangements which would permit th e dev e lopment and implementa tion o f a me t r opol itanwid e int eg ration strategy. Ev en fewer are popul ated by a significant numb e r of s ubu rban ites who have demonstrated a po s itive interest in an integrat e d metropo l i s . In s t ead, most metropol i t an �3 areas are governed by highly decentralized political systems. Local governments of small scale control the vital parameters of community life - the schools, land use, and the tax base. Highly responsive to their relatively homogenous clientele and sensitive to threats to local autonomy or the tax base, most suburban governments show little interest in assuming any . responsibility for the general welfare problems of the metropolis. Efforts to create metropolitan governments have been spectacularly unsuccessful. Moreover, political realities and the procliviti es of white middle class reformers have led almost all me tropolitan governme nt plans to focus on service and physical resource problems. The Task Force knows of no metro proposal that gives s e rious attention to the problems of th e ghetto. Nor is there any evidence that the few metropolitan governments creat ed in the past two decades have used their broad e r jurisdiction s to attempt to foster th e integration of th e metropolis. Federal efforts to encourage metropolitan planning and coordination also have avoid e d the policy ar eas most like ly to affect the pattern of residential segr ega tion. Substantial progress ha s b een ma d e during th e past few years tow ar d securing regional approach es to transportation, air pollution, and water s upply . Con sp icuously absent fro m this list are l p r o grams that mi ght b e u sed to promote integration, s uch as publi c hou si n g, re nt s u p pl eme nt s, a nd a id to e duc a tion. Th e �4 sad truth is that the emerging metropolitan institutions are concerned almost ~xclusively with the problems of suburban development -and white middle class families in cities and suburbs. Unless there is a radical change in the outlook of these planning and review agencies, they are likely to widen the gap between city and suburb. Finally, open housing legislation has had minimal impact on integration in the metropolis. In the absence of nation al legislation, there is a bewildering variety of state and local fair housing codes . These nearly always exempt the most common form of suburban housing - the single fimily dwelling. Another major weakness is the cumb e rsome, case by case approach based on . individual complaints, a proc ess which requires l ega l sophistication and/or support which usually dweller. is unavailable for the ghetto The federal government 's r e cord in this area is also unimpr essive - neither FHA nor VA have move d aggressively to secure maximum impact from the 1962 executive orde r banning discrimin ation in hou s ing financed by federally guaranteed mortg ages. Rec ommendations 1) National performance standards (s ee Section IV) should stress int ~g rationas an int eg ral aspect of general developm en t programs. 2) Inc entiv e gr ant s ( see Se ction IV) should be u se d to to encourage genera l d eve lopment p rograms for e ntire �5 metropolitan areas which would tie federal support for suburban improvements to ~rogress toward ending the racial and income imbalances between cities and suburbs. 3) Some form of incentive grants, particularly for metropolitan areas, should be tied specifically to housing and education programs which foster integration, such as scattered site public housing, educational parks, etc. 4) Section 204 of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act should be expanded . to cover programs that affect housing. 5) All federal hou si ng pro g r ams should place a strong emphasis on disp er sion, including the relocation policies in urban renewa l. Federal mortgage policies should be developed to e ncourag e the construction of lower cost housing units through relating down payments, interest rates, and the repayment periods to the cost of the unit. Such a policy should includ e the use of subsidi ze d ~ortgages where appropriate. 6) A compr e hensiv e national fair hou s in g act with the broad es t possibl e coverage should be e nacted. An exe cutive ord e r should b e is s ued prohibiting se g re ga tion in all forms o f ho~ sing assisted dir ec tly or indir ec tly by a ny federal agency. The order should b e positiv e ly enforced, using th e techniques d e v e lop e d in the federa l government 's efforts to e liminat e job dis c rimin a tion in al l form s o f f e d e r a lly financ e d employm e nt. �6 7) The federal governme nt should stimulate the creation of and provide fi~ancing for metropolitan development corporations which would undertake to provide integiated low-cost housing outside of ghettos. The federal government would pro- vide initial working capital and extend long term credit from a national revolving fund. Such corporations would accumulate land for integrated housing, provide assistance in job location for out-migrants, and aid suburbs in preparing effective education programs for new resid e nts. 8) Because job opportunities are likely to open up faster than hou s in g opportunities, we recomm e nd a pro g ram of transportation assist a nc e with the following ch a racteristics. a) Re sponsiv e to ch a n g in g loc a tions o f both jobs and work e rs. b) Focused on initial p e riod o f "job findin g " and "job holding." c) Tr a nsfer a bl e from on e individual to anoth e r d e p e ndin g on n ee d . d) Non-co mp e titiv e with the private ma rk e t . Wh e r e such tr a v e l is r e lativ e ly concentrat e d, this d emand can be me t th r ou g h sub s idi ze d public transport a tion . For mo r e disp e rs ed tr a v e l from gh e tto r e sid e nc e s to suburb a n job s, l I sho r t term pub licl y - ass i s t e d a utomobil e l ea sing ar r a n gem e n t s will be ne e ded . �7 9) The Administration should realize that the greatest potential fever for change in this area is the courts. The Task Force urges the Administration to hasten the inevitable Supreme Court rulings which will ban de facto school . segregation and the employment of land use controls for social, economic and racial discrimi~ation. Given the revolutionary impact of these anticipated rulings, it is not too early to begin contingency planning to assure their speedy implementation with a minimum of public disorder. �II. Federal action to strengthen city for meeting the problem of urban disparities Problem Implementing the strategies for urban chan$e discussed in this report depends ultimately upon actions taken by state and local governments. We assert that strengthening the positions of governors and especially mayors will be of critical ·importance in this process. Their ability to deliver services is seriously limited by administrative weakness and fiscal strain. Yet they are the only public officials with the potential authority •1:I! I: necessary to effectively manage the large-scale attack on I I urban problems which we believe is essential. They too - and I our population projections indicate that this is certainly true of mayors - will be under increasing pressures to respond to .J 11, the fre_quent, now almost steady state, urban crisis of :11;· J :~verty . an d segregation. ll'l!'i 1,111 1"' The administrative problem breaks along the follo wi ng lines : - Fragmentation of program responsibility among semiautonomous .agencies, often -reinforced by their counterpart s at the federal leve l, bypasses and weakens the position of mayors and gove rn ors. - State and l oca l officials are under di rect and close pressures to deliver and their high political mortality rates indicate that delivery is enormously difficult in the present system. I •-- ' ·t1;. ,11 r! 1, 11 ·1,I " I I I �·1 2 - State and local government is in a disadvantageous competitive position for directing talented, imaginative staffs . The political executives management problems are compounded by the lack of personal staff; there are few institutions analagous to the executive office at the state and local level. - Possibi l ities for a meaningful decentralization to federal field offices are severely limited by the realities of political authority in the federal system and by present congressional-bureaucratic arrangements in Washington. - Local officials must conduct an enormous numbe r of negotiations with truncated federal agencies to receive any aid. At the same time the cost of urban services is on the rise .. We can expect increasing per capita costs for social services and we ·can expect an increasing proportion of ci t y dwe l ler s to require them. The cities thus are caught in a process of cumulative deterioration whic h can be r eve r sed on l y by s hif ts ,1 i n t he r esi dence o f poo r people or h i ghe r i ncome by city r es i dent s. The pr ob l em i s par ti cu l a rly a cu t e f or l arge cities. During fi s cal year 19 65 , f or exampl e » muni c ipal expenditures per capita were appr oximately three times as hi gh for cities with populations exceeding 1 million as they were for communities ·I' with populations under 50,00 0 . In short, we see the following as critical limits on cities t o pay their own bills: - Cities are under increasing demands for social services while their revenue capabilities are increasingly inadequate to pay for even existing levels of serviceso �,'I 'Ilji' I I I I lj :, ,,, I li 'jl ~ Social service costs are rising more rapidly than costs in the economy. - Some cities are already in danger of becoming almost exclusively by peop l e who can simply not a ff ord to live elsewhere and whose need f or services is very great. - Problems of ra i sing additional revenue within juri sdictions such as cities are i mmense, due in part to the high mobi l ity of resources between stat es and local it i es i n the federal systems. Cities are forced to rely heav ily on property and consumption taxes, both of which are highly re gressive in nature. - The dependence on property· taxation on hous ing f or c i ty revenue s may be a positive de t riment t o providing mo r e standard unit s £ or the urban poo r. Re commendati on s 1) Re gard les s o f pas t fai lures t he popu l a t i on pro je c tions and trends we fore s ee clear l y ind i c ate t hat most mayo rs and ma ny urban governors, o f n ecessity, will be increasing ly resp on sive t o the problems o f ci ty ghetto s. Th ey can be the 11' 1 1,1 .I Pr es i den t's mos t i mp ort ant al l ies i n fulfilling our nat i onal urban go al s. They mu s t be the f ocu s o f any mean i ng f u l decen t rali zat i on of the f ederal s y stem . 2) In add i t i on to the fi scal flex i b i lity and d e cent ralizati on recommended below, we u r_ge that presen t aid programs operate through the political executive and not semi -autonomous bureaucracies. �4 3) To build toward a capability similar to that of the federal executive office, w~. recommend direct gr-ants to mayors and governors for staff assistants o~ city problems. 4) _ To increase the competence of state and local govern- ment personnel we recommend increased federal assistance for training and continued efforts in the direction of inter-governmental exchanges of personnel. 5) Legislation should be promoted permittirig state and local governments · to waiv·e . federal tax resumption of securities ,. 1· 11 •. in return for a federal grant equivalent to the federal taxes collected on the . interest from such securities. Some estimates indicate that this could result in an added .6 to 1 billion dollars per year. 6) · iI', Ii Ji I., Federal assistance to cities should be significantly increased; and the existing impediments to the effective use of federal aid at the local level should be eliminated. The components of this recommendation are presented in detail' in .Parts 111, ·1v, .-and V .- below. ~- 1 I ' ... , ., ' �DRAFT:LEONE:6/19/67 III. Focusing and increasing the level of Federal assistance to cities The Problem 1. Many of our present programs fail to reach the central city poor with enough resources to make a difference. 2. Simple extension of present programs - leaving effectiveness aside - to reach the central city poor would cost in manpower, education, health, housing and legal services ____ billion dollars a year. 3. Unless we reach a scale of sufficient size we will find as we have found in the past our efforts are dis~ipated by trying to reach too many people, in too many cities, with too many programs. 4. Policy responsibility at the Federal level must be focused in strengthened urban agencies. Recommendations The following programs are meant to focus resources on increasing urban integration and enriching the lives of those who remain in big city ghettos. In each program area, we have attempted to order our recommendations in terms of some rough priorities and time phases with employment having the highest overall priority . �L 2 Our expertise in the following program areas is limited. We have listed only recommendations which seem to us to be most relevant to an overall city strategy. Our suggestions are in no sense exhaustive. We hope to: Overhaul existing programs and redirect existing resource commitments to increase their impact on the ghetto. Increase commitments in the most critical program areas for implementing broad goals. Develop new approaches to tackle those aspects of ghetto enrichment and dispersion not affected by existing programs. Tie Federal assistance to disadvantaged individuals where appriate. 1. Employment A. The Task Force recommends the consolidation of presently separated manpower programs into a single comprehensive manpower grant. This move would allow development of sufficient local manpower programs under the aegis of a single agency which would absorb the important functions of recruitment, selection, and processing, training, placem ent and follo w-up of the poor . This st e p �,, 3 would include consoli dati on of those programs administered by the U. S. Department of Labor including institutional training, on-the-job training, neighborhood youth corps, concentrated employment program in the employment service with the Vocational Rehabilitation and OEO employment operations. B. In the absence of si gnificant consolidation programs, the Task Force recommends an expansion and refocusing of the on-the-job training program to provide higher subsidies to private industry for training of the poor. Reimbursement for tr aining costs should be doubled and perhaps quadrupl ed and the 26 weeks presently allowed should be expanded to a full year. OJT should b e provide d with a greater staff for job developmen t and for counselin g and follow-up after placement in a job training position. C. In order to compensate for the declin e of manufacturing and commercia l jobs in the city, the Task Force r e commends an expansion in public employment throu gh the n ew car eers idea as emb odi e d in the Scheuer Ame ndment to the Economic Opportunity Act. New careers provides entry level employment for the poor with meaningful upgrading in work and profes~ional training. �4· D. The Task Force recommends an increased number of demonstration projects - of all types to test the important relationship between deficient transportation to work sites and the willingness and ability of city residents to accept training and employment. E. The Task Force recommends a joint effort by HUD and the Department of Labor to negotiate a nation a l mod e l ag r e ement for employme n t with th e build i n g tr a de unions, which would permit lar ge -scale slum rebuilding e xperiments to make gre a ter use of slum resid ents. We r e co gn ize th a t th e i mpl ement ati on of this r e comme nda tion would not solve any signific ant proportion of the employment problem but it would h ave useful symbolic v a lu e i n the ghe tto s of ce ntr a l c ities. The De p a rtm ent of Commerce should be involv e d to reach similar agreemen t s wi th employe r s in the c onst r uction industry. F. As a l on g-run possib i l i t y, we su ggest a p r o gram whic h wou ld operate much like th e GI Bi ll of Rights wh i ch would pl a ce e ntitl ements i n t h e ha nds of th e p oor t o maximi xe persona l ch o i ce in selecting edu cational, t rainin g and employment assistance. Th e funds could be u sed by the · ind i v i du a l to gain c ert ification in regul a r educat ion a l institutions o r f or training on the j ob with the employer receiving reimbu rsement f or hi s trai ning c os ts. The great �s advant~ge of this approach is in avoidi~g the seemi~gly endless tangle of referrals, delays, and insensitivity encountered in the present, fragmented system. 2. Education A. Any program of Federal aid for elementary and secondary school construction should offer in_c entives for facilities designed to increase the integration of students. "Bonus" funds could be available for educational parks within cities, suburban exchange schools and for consolidated school districts. Funds should also be included for the modernization and replacement of older school plants in central cities. B. We recommend a program of educational subsidies for low-income children which would be administered as scholarships for use at any approved elementary and secondary educational institution. "Bonus" funds could be available for schools which are integrated or are experimental. C. 3. Sizer recommendations (see paper) Special recommendations for urban veterans A. We give the strongest endorsement to Department of Defense Manpower programs, such as . "Proj e ct 100,000" and "Project Transition" . �l, 6 B. We recommend a stepped-up outreach activities in the Veterans Administration to trace those with the greatest need for assistance at the point of separation and especially after separation. C. We urge FHA and VA loans to servicemen and veterans to finance proposed or existing individually owned on e -family units in pr~ects containing five or more units. D. We recommend that VA be given a special mandate and the capacity to assist ghetto v e terans in obtainin g such urban skills as planning, social service work and community developm e nts. 4. Incom e mainten a nce and we lf a re A. Any well conceived strategy for the city requires substantial increases in consumer demand. City dwe llers ne e d a sustain e d and substantial upward movement in payme nt lev e ls for (1) unemployment compensation (2) we lf a re p ayme nts (3) minimum wa ge B. The present welf a re syst e m must be alt ere d t o make i t a mo re e ffe ctive instrume nt in de ali n g with gh ett o depe nd e nc e . �7 (1) Altering AFDC man in the house requirements to permit (2) Altering outside income requirements to eliminate the in-effect 100% income tax rate and thus encourage C. We should move towards having a l~rger proportion and perhaps all welfare payments at the Federal level. Continued reliance on localities and states for a share places an added strain on their frequently regressive tax systems and inhibts the development of more r e asonable national standards for welfare. S. Public Facilities A. We urge greater use of the location of public facilities - both Federal and Fede rally support e d as a lev e r in s e curin g a ctu a l int eg ration, op e n housin g and employment opportunities. Those facilities which can be located in cities, especially community colleges and hospitals, should b e consid e r e d a part of overall dev e lopm e nt and city enrichme nt pl a ns . Public employ me nt for low-income groups should be related to any n e w facilit y - includin g those in th e suburbs . This n ew f ocus o f re spo ns ibili ty s h oul d b e come a ma jo r conc ern d f t he Se c re t aries o f HEW an d HUD . �-,, 8 B. The Department of Housing and Urban Development should be given a primary role in coordinating all Federal urban capital investment as part of national integration and enrichment strategies: 6. Housing A. To achieve integration there must be continued emphasis on compliance with desegregation guidelines in housing financed through the Federal mortgage programs. This is especially important in suburban developments which will account for 90% of the new housing ov e r the next 25 years. The flow of resources into financing housing is affected by interest rates, alternative investment opportunities, and oth e r forces, some of which are greatly influenced by Feder a l policy. B. Lower interest rates to stimulate a ~inimum annu a l construction rate in housin g should be a national objective. Th e eff e cts of low interest rates on the supply of low- and moderate-housing "swamps" the effects of Federal "housing progr ams" as such . C. Investme nt inc e ntiv es such as t a x credits and d e pr e ci a tion sch e dul es should b e a p pli e d t o hou s in g in th e s ame way th a t th e y a r e a pp li e d to oth er c a pit a l goo d s. �9 Every mechanism for maintaining a constant flow of investment into housing should be explored by the Administration. These might include the issuance of longer term certificates at higher interest rates to attract the investing power of pension funds and insurance companies. Certificates-should be issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association. D~ The Task Force recommends expanded use of devices such as leased,scattered site public housing rehabilitated through use of the "turnkey" approach with purchase options for the tenants. E. Homeownership incentives for central city ghetto resid ents simil ar to the Veterans' Administration's no-down payment programs should be offer ed . F. The Task-Force recommends that the multi- family mort gage operations be separated ;·from the present Federal Housing Administration which would then b e charged with insuring only single-family mortgages. In the absence of such surgery, we believ e th a t the age and inflexibility of most FHA officials renders any alternative recommendation unworkable. �10 7. Special Recommenda tions on the Community Action Program_ a) The Task Forc e believes the community action idea is a major innovation in Federal programming and reflects the emphasis on demonstration and experimentation which is critical for increasing our problem-solving capacity. The Community Action Program should be retained within an independent OEO with its charter for flexible and innovative programs. b) A first step toward employing performance criteria in distributing scarce CAP funds should be taken. These crit e ria should include the CAP's innovative capacity, its ability to coordin a te other relevant agencies and to op e rate its own programs. c) Demonstration funds should be incre a sed accomp anied by ti ghter research controls applied to projects. d) Guid e lines to insur e CAP participation in Mod e l Cities plannin g and execution should be promulgat e d. ~) Th e dev e lopment of commun i ty action agencies as parts of th e local politic a l and gove rnm ent a l s y st em should be encour age d . �n - IV. Reforming the administration of federal urban programs to provide simplification, flexibility and decentralization The Problem The American federal system is being slowly strangled by the complexity of contemporary intergovernmental relations. Cities and states are fighting a losing battle to extract · maximum advantage from a bewildering variety of federal assistance programs. Administrative shortcomings seriously compromise the prospects of many of the imaginative federal programs developed in recent years. The Task Force has grave doubts about the capacity of this over-burd ened system to manage the new efforts needed to move th e ghetto resident into the mainstream of American society. By accident rath er than design, th e federal governmen t has created an extremely categorical, fragm ented, and complic ate d approach to urb an programming. Each program area t ends to develop its own set of sp ec ific program goals and controls, a clos e r e lationship wi th a specialized clientei"e, and a narro w perspectiv e on th e problems of cities and suburbs. Because the feder a l government seeks to achieve general policy objectiv es through highly detai led pro gram controls, most federal programs are characterized by an ov ercen tr aliza tion of detai l , administrative rigidity, long delays in processing applications, a multiplication of required cons ents , a failure to inno vate , and a lack of responsiv e ness to speciali zed loc a l ne ed s. Cities L �2 confront delay and confusion in the funding of their programs; they witness an inability of federal agencies to work with one another in making sense of federal programs in urban areas. The burdens of an already overloaded system of intergoverrimental relations have been multiplied by the rapid expansion of federal domestic prqgrams during the past seven years. Most of the new programs are categorical and involve detailed federal program controls. In an effort to advance laudable national policy goals, such as metropolitan coordination and highway safety, additional detailed requirements have been imposed on existing programs. The net effect has been to complicate further the bureaucratic maze that stands between federal resources and .urban problems. The Task Force is especially concerned about the failure of the federal government to build sufficient flexibility and opportunities for state and local discretion and innovation into the federal aid system. Many of the problems of large city ghettos are quantitativ e ly and qualitatively different from those of the poorer neighborhoods of smaller cities . Solutions to many of our most vexing urban problems are neither obvious nor universally applicable. Yet relatively few fed e ral progr ams permit the d eve lopmen t of locally-determined str ateg ies for cities and metropolitan areas. In its str ess on local innovation and flexibility, the Model Citi es Program represents a welcome departure from the �L 6 3 rigid programmatic approach. By emphasizing systematic planning and coordination of federal categorical grant programs, Model Cities seeks to reduce overlap and dupl{cation of effort. But constituent-agency relations, formula grants, inflexible requirements, and specialized administrative practices tax the ability of any city to tie these many disparate strands into an effective program. In addition, Model Cities program standards are added to those required by the component programs without any compensating simplication of the process whereby a~plications for assistance are approved. Innovation, flexibility, and coordination are easily stymied by a process whose practical effect is to pyr am id requirements, multiply consents, and increase the time lag in bringing r e sources to bear against problems. The Task Force is impressed with neither the record nor the potential of existing instruments for securing interagency coordination of grant programs, such as Bureau of the Budget intervention to resolve interagency conflict, interagency committ ee s, the me tropolitan expediter, and HUD's convenor order. Th e Administration's experience with the community action program and the neighborhood centers unhappily indic ates that substantial coordination cannot b e achi eved at th e federal level withou t substantial ch anges in the grant-in-aid me chanism . The massive effort need ed to overcome the problems pos ed by the ghetto will be financed l argely by some form of federal �,, 4 grant-in~aid. To the degree that such grants are programmatic, the Task Force is convinced that it is absolutely essential to streamline and simplify the distributivi mechanisms. Instead of extending and expanding categorical aids, the Administration should stress consolidation, decentralization, and flexibility. In the opinion of the Task Force, however, fragmentation, administrative complexity and rigidity, overcentralization of de tail, inadequate coordination, and lack of innovation are endemic to the programmatic approach. Even the most imaginative reforms are likely to have only a marginal impact if grant programs continue to multiply at th e ir present rate. Of course, this growth rate would be accelerated if all the Task Force's recommenda tions were transl ated into ind ividual grant programs. An increased fed er al commitment to urban problems and a national effort focused on ghetto def iciencies requires a substanti al reorientation o f roles and responsibilities in th e federal system. The Admini s tration b egan this task with th e development of th e Poverty and Mode l Citi es progr ams . The Task Force believes th e time has come to expand the application of these conc ep ts through th e developme nt of a highly fl ex ibl e , loc~lly - based s yst em of grants-in - aid which substitutes general purpos e assistance for progr amma tic gr ant s and n a tiona l p er formance standards for detailed program c ont ro l s. It should a l s o b e not e d that the r ec ommend a tions h av e b een design e d to p e rmit th e partial applic a tion of th e s e concepts. �s Thus, the implementation of these proposals may be staged over time, with the most promising program areas selected for initial treatment. It also will be possible to retain _federal program standards in those areas where such controls are deemed in the national interest. Recommendations 1) Application, processing, and revi ew procedures should be streamlined in all non-formula grant-in-aid programs. The goals of internal program reform should be: (a) to simplify application procedures through the development of standardized methods; (b) to r e duce sh~rply the time between application and approval or rejection of a grant request; (c) to reduce multiple cons ents; (d) to check the trend toward pyramiding requireme nts; and ( e ) to employ standardized revi ew and audit procedures . Responsibility for the implementation of this recommendation should be lodg e d in th e Bureau of th e Budget. 2) Gr ea ter u se s hould be made o f earmarking of grants to facilitate the fundin g of programs lik e Mode l Cities and community action which cut across pro gram and agency lines . This dev ice should be u sed to enh ance the focu sing of fed e ral res ou rces on ghetto problems. 3) Whenever possible, new grant programs should b e merg e d with exist ing programs . Con so lidation of r e lat ed grant pro grams, along the lin es of the Partnership in Health Act of 1966 , s hould be giv en high priority. Gr ant consolida tion reduc es the numb er �L 6 of separate negotiations which any jurisdiction would have to carry on in order to design relatively comprehensive local programs. 4) Provision should be made for consolidated applications for two or more related grants administered within a single department. Such intra-agency grants would permit a state or local agency to deal with a single representative of the appropriate department wh en applyin g for r e lated gr ants. Impl ement a t io n o f this r e comme nd a t ion r e qui res the e s tabli s hmen t of an intra-agency grant office within each department, prefe r a bly in the off ic e of the s e cret ary. The intra-agency gr ant off i ce woul d r e c eiv e and p roc ess the a ppli cati on for an i n tr a-age n cy grant, coordinate th e revi ew of the application with th e appropri a t e ag enci e s within th e d e p a rtmen t to insu re th a t pro gram s t and a r ds we r e be ing me t, and a ct as the f ina l gr a n t in g authority, subj e ct to appropri a te r ev i ew at the d ep a rtm e nt a l leve l . 5) Pr ov i sions s h ould b e made f o r c on so li dated app l ications for two or mor e related grants administered by agencies in two or mo re de p a rtments. Such in ter- a ge n c y grants woul d p ermi t a state or local agency ~o deal wit h a sing l e federal agency when t he federal grants needed to finance a compreh ensive project are adminis t ered by t wo or more depa rtm en ts. Imp l emen t ation o f this recommendation requires the d es ignation o f an agency to rec eive application s for inter-ag ency grants, to coor din ate th e review of the application with the appropriate agencies to insure �~ - - - If 7 that program standards are being met, and to act as the final granting authority, subject to appeal by the appropriate departmental heads. The Task Force believes that the inter- agency grant coordinating function should be assigned to the same agency which is designated as the principal federal urban agency, as recommended in Part III above. Legislation to implement this recommendation would not authorize the waiver of statutory provisions such as eligibility for -grants, matching ratios, or program duration. 6) Performance standards should be substituted for detailed program standards wherever feasible. Standards should be simple, general, quantifiable where possible, and applicable to a wide variety of contexts. Performance standards should relate to general societal goals rather than to specific program objectives. Thus, a housing performance standard might be the proportion of substandard dwelling units, not the number of public housing units. National performance standards should focus on the urban goals of integration and enrichment. 7) The substitution of performance standards for program controls should be accompanied by the pooling of funds in existing grant programs. An essential first step in pooling is the establishment of functional pooling arrangements which permit L �8 the unrestricted use of funds in a general functional area, such as housing, manpower training, health, or transportation. In housing, for example,public housing, urban renewal, and rent supplement funds would be pooled, to be employed by the appropriate local or state agency to implement a comprehensive housing program. All programmatic restrictions would be removed. from the use of pooled funds; thus, funds derived from the public housing program might be used to finance .rent supplements, rehabilitation, code enforcement, or some other locally devised strategy designed to overcome housing deficiencies. 8) Where federal funds are functionally pooled, the basic requirement for eligibility should be a comprehensive program 1n the functional area which relates local deficiencies and needs to the ~ppropriate national performance standards. Comprehensive housing, manpower, health, or transportation programs should be developed by the appropriate local or state agency. Comprehensive programs would specify local deficiencies in terms of national standards, set forth program goals to meet the national standards, and indicate in a general way the projects to be undertaken to reach the program goals during the life of the comprehensive program. When all funds functionally pooled are from programs within a single agency or departm ent, th a t agency or departm e nt should approve the comprehensiv e program and monitor its impl e mentation . When functional l y pooled funds are drawn from two or more departm ents, the principal federal urban agency recommended �,, . 9 in Part III should approve the comprehensive program and monitor its implementation. 9) Provision should also be made for the pooling of federal funds across functional lines. Unde r this type of arrangement, some or all of the federal aid flowing into a neighborhood, municipality, county, metropolitan area, or state would be pooled, with all programmati c restrictions removed from the use of the pool ed funds. Eligibility for general pooling should be based on the preparation by the appropriate local or state unit of a general development program based on national performance standards. General development programs would be similar to the comprehensive functional programs discussed in the previous recommenda tion, except that their scope would be substantially bro ader . General dev e lopment programs would b e approved by the principal federal urban agency recommended in Part III, which would also monitor the implementation of the general development program. 10) To facilitate the preparation of compr e hensive functional programs and general development pro grams, federal technical assistance and pl a nning aid should be expanded. In the case o f compr ehens iv e function a l progr ams involving two or more a ge nci es , and in all instances of general development program prep a ration, technic a l assist an c e and planning aid should be funn e l e d throu gh th e p r incip a l fe de r a l urb an age ncy a s r e commend e d in Pa rt III. As a first step toward implemen tin g t he previou s recomme nd a tions, t he federa l governmen t s houl d f ina nce the prepar a t io n of a �, 10 number of comprehensive functional programs and general development programs by a variety of local and state units. 11) The federal government should initiate a program of . general purpose assistance to local and state governments. We recommend that two types of general purpose grants be developed deficiency grants and incentive grants. a) Deficiency grants are general purpose formula grants designed to provide supplemental federal assistance for local units, the ma gnitud e of which would be related to need and capability. An equalization formula to accomplish this purpose would be based on population, per capita incom e , tax bas e , tax effort, and perhaps other measur e s of social, economic, and infr as tructure d ef iciencies. Defici en cy grants could be used by the r e cipi e nt local or state unit for any public purpose consistent with a general developm ent program. Eligibility for deficiency grants would be det e rmin e d by the princip a l f ede ral agency recommended in Part III through its approval of a general development progr am. Given th e magnitud e of th e gh e tto probl em , th e Task Force r e comme nds an initial outlay of$ for defici ency grants, which would provide$ billion per gh et to dwell er. b) Inc en tiv e grants are gen e ral purpose grants distributed by the principal federal agency recommended in Part III. Incenti ve grants could be used to suppl eme nt pool ed �, 11 funds ·or interagency grants. The availability of general purpose agency grants should enhance the ability of the principal federal agency to promote inter-agency grants, pooling arrangements, and comprehensive functional and . general development programs. A significant proportion of incentive grants should be used to stimulate the prepara- · tion and implementation of general development programs which give high priority to ghetto problems, especially integration. �1 L I V. Increasing knowledge of solutions to urban problems The Problem The Task Force believes that if this society were ready to commit the resources required for its cities, new technologies and knowledge could make our efforts more effective and relevant than is presently possible. We emphasize the advantages of the Federal government as a funder, controller and evaluater of demonstrations and experiments - an advantage which is readily apparent in the aerospace industry. This advantage is presently being dissipated by fragmentation of problems by agency mission, lack of long-term financing of experimentation and basence of sensitive feedback mechanisms to influence policy-making. In addition, the efficiency of our efforts to solve urban problems may be limited by . the small scale of our programs and even demonstrations. Recommendations 1. The flexibility and emphasis on innovation characteristic of the Model Cities Program should be exploited by conc e ntrating resources - as far as possible on 4 or 5 cities and/or metropolitan areas capable of implementing we ll-structured and cont r olled experiments. To achieve this wo uld require at least the following: �- - 2 -- Assignment of responsibility for the design and evaluation of the experiments to the new Assistant Secretary for Research and Development in DHUD. -- Informal allocation of resources from a ge ncies other than HUD, (for example, project demonstration monies in HEW and Labor) for use in the selected cities. -- An aggressive Federal role in providing technical assistance to thes e. "key" cities'. 2. The creation and fundin g of an institute for basic urb an r e search, along the lines of RAND or IDA in th e de fense area. The institute should be Federally funded, independent of day-to-day departmental control and able to und e rt a ke long-term research projects. · Initially, the institute would not undertake operation or fundin g of action projects, but would concentrate on basic rese a rch into urban economics, data collection and analysis, etc. 3. A stren gthen e d and be t t e r-financed demonstration and exp e ri me nta t ion rol e for DHUD and its Assist a nt Secr e tary for Re se a rch and Deve lopment . This should includ e th e abilit y to fin anc e long-t e rm proj e cts ind ep enden t of f isc a l year r es trictio n s and deve lo pmen t an d a c ti on p ro j ec t s in fi e lds other than h ousi ng. A h i gh premium should be p l aced on j oint funding with o ther agencies for projects cutting across several service sectors. - - L. �L 3 4. The evolution of a developmental orgariization which can undertake large-scale investments in new systems, such as new housing ideas. This institution might be developed by the Assistant Secretary for Research and Development in DHUD. It should have the funds, flexibility and authority to underwrite construction of new types of schools or hospitals or houses on a scale large enough to make a difference. This agency also could expend the developmental work done by OEO in basic manpower and health iystems, or combine them with the physical elements of a sector. The first target of large-scale development should be constructing more efficient and flexible low-and moderate-income housing. 5. The capacity of local and state governments to undertake research and development should be increased with the aid of positive Fed era l action. Subsidies to regional or urban universities are one means of achieving this; financing of research staffs for governors and mayors is another. Federal programs, such as Model Cities and Community Action, which stimulate innovative and experimental action projects should be expanded as the best hope ' for building local development capacity. �L I - 4 6. We believe the natural advantage enjoyed by the Federal government for financing and evaluating research and development should be strengthened in all departments. Within department, R&D otitputs should feedback to the Secretary to insure that R&D projects affect on-going programs and policies and open new directions. Responsibility for monitoring government ~ wide urban R&D activity should be centralized either in the Executive Office or in HUD. Without centralizat i on, th e r e sults of r e sear ch in one a ge ncy are not like ly to become inputs in the policy-making of another. �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017

Box 22, Folder 18, Document 4

http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_022_018_004.pdf
  • Result Type: Item
  • Item Type: Text
  • Title: Box 22, Folder 18, Document 4
  • Text: . ------ - -- - -~ - - -~·.•, _ _ __ _ j_ _ _ _ . Hea:ci ngs before the Subccmmi tt ee on Executive Reor gan i ze.t i. or:. o f the Senate Govermr..ent Ope rations Corr~tlittee Afternoon session : Witness : Novembe r 30, 1966 Judge GE!org e Ed,·re.1·ds, U. S . Court of Appeals, 6th Circui t , F orme r Police Co~.missione r of the City of Detroit; 1962 and 1963. J udge Edwards outlined for the Subccmmittee the p::.·oble!ns of law enfor c ez:-.ei1t in the large citi es of the U. S . with examples drawn la1· ge ly f:r ora his o~-,n. experi ences i n the city of De t::.·oi t . The J"G.dge emphasized tl":e prob l em::: of the Negro co:r,!nuni ty and the fac t that the a ttitude s of Negroes to,-, ards Ls:w enforc ement are the product of the ir early environr.1ent mainly in t he South. J udge Ea.war ds said that r.1ost crh--rie is cc:r.r.li tted by Neg::.·oe s and inflicte d. [ on othe rs of their own race . He said, hc,;ever, that the large r::2.jority cf · Negroes are i n favor of l aw enforc e1-::ent and want to see it i::1~roved . The Judge made the followi ng sugge stions : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16 . Fi nd out more facts in regard to c o;·:iplaint s about police brutality . Transfer trouble:nakers on a police force and those who use bru.tali-::.y . En d in,restigative arr ests . Increase police in high crime prec i nct s . Fe ci.e r e.l government must help loc a liti es co:n"':Jat organized c rime . Professionalize policemen by upgradic·g their stan dards throue;h bette::.' trainin g . Prorr,ot~ Negroe s on an eq_ua l basis with uh i {;es . Ban polic e dogs in raci al d.err.or2str at ions . I ntegrate p:)lic e t eams . Ra i se the pay of po l ic emen . Hir e more polic er.ien . Coordinate l aw enforcement agenc i es . Esta"':Jlish a i'iat ional Police Tr aining College . Est ab lis h hi gh l e vel board..s within police de:partn,ents to i nvestigate charges a g ai:1st policerr.en . Federa l grants -i n - i i d should b e made for police training . End the autonor!lous :-iature of l aw enfo:r·c e ment bodies . Witness : l Robe r t Coles , M.D., ~ese a rch Psycl: iat ris t , Es.rve.::.·d Un i versity Health Servic e s . Dr. Coles is a child psychiatrist w:'lo ,,;orte d exten s ively i ri the So·t.1t h e.n.i studi e d the effect of racial ten s ion on J:egr0 child.::.·en . He stated th~t t he young Hegro children who fir st att e::-ided white schools i n the S01;.to. and ,_.;~-:o h ad to er2du.re mar:y torments and ant agonism siowed a great stre ngth of chara ct e r. He said that i t was a puzzle::;e nt to him that st::.·e s s yr odu2e s ;-:,c-r-:: str ength of character tha,, an envil·o,Jn-21;_t of lu.."\.-ury 01· midcile clas s tr""r: q_uili ty . Eo1.-rever , the Doctor poi n.t e d out that afte::.· the 2.g2. , of twe l ve , unde :cpr i vileged c hildren b egin to r eali z e that ob e d i ence to the Bibli c2.l teac h in g s of their child...hood will r2ot pay off. P.ft e r thi s re a liza~ ion t'::le �, l ---::--- 2 . l s l urn ym.rt:·. .".·=;rgoes 1·:i1at psycnia trists c all " death of t h e t ea::-t . " 'I:'rseY then oui te ·· "=D b e co:ne a nti - so c i a l a nci. turn t o a. l i fe of c:::.- ~,e or deli nq_uen c;-r . .::'b..e Doctor pointed. ou t tr..at sor~e d e linquents do ,,,.co:1g b e c 2.u s 2 they c an f L . i. ::oth i ng r i ght , nothi ng signi f ic ant and ch a l le r..g i ng t o do . Main questions raised. ·oy the Su"!:l co!!~:i.i ttee : 1. Rac};:et ee:..-ing i n shEn hous i ng . Senator Kerille(\}r ask ed J udg e Ed,,:-2.rd.s whe the r orgc.nizeci crir.-.e pla.y s a ~ c._.., i n the creat ion and. continuat io r.. of slur:: housi ng con cii tion s . The Juc'. ge s a id that i t probabl y does and Sena to::.- Kenne ci.y tol d the Ch 2..iri,1an that h e t hinks the Subcomnlittee shoul d expl ore thi s ~ossib ility . ! ' 2. Defense by citi e s a gain s t riotin ~ . Senator Ri b i coff aske d the J 1.;.ci.ge Hhat a ci t y c a :1 do to d.e fend i ts e lf a gainst r i oti ng and at wha t p o i n t the nat ional Guar d s:-::.ould. b e ca l l e d _in. The Judge s a id t h a t all of his suggest ions HO"'c1ld help :prever.t r iots , bu t once the ri ot had. c e gun i t c ou1d. be coun-c e1.· ac tec. on l y by qu ick o:cgan~z a tion and gre a t r,,ob i l i ty of sub st antial forces on t he sic'.e · o f the l aw . He said that t he f orce us ed mu s t b e ove r Ki.1el.:1.i ng a ,:d di s c i ~.)lined . He be_l ie v e s that tne Nation a l Guar d s i2ould be c a lle d. to a riot sc ene whe n ' police gur, i'ire i s n e eded . 3. Cu l ture o f p-.:> ve:rty . Se nator Ke n ne ciy a s}:e d Dr . Co l es whe t her th e r e is 2. cu l t uyc of -;:iove i't y i n the U. S . 'I·:1.e Docto r 1-epli ed that h e does not t :ii ~ '- t ha-'c we reJ.lly h ave a cult u re of povert y because pe op l ':! a:::e no l onge r i so:'..a teq. due t o th e exis tenc e and ext e ns i ve n e s s o f a rr.a .ss r::edia o f corr.:,;c:.>l i c a t i ons . Throug:1. TV a n d othe r me d i a p ::: a c-c i c a lly e v e ryone i n this country is a,.-ra:::-e of t:C-1e oppo:ct w1iti es wh i ch ex i st o:r at l e a s t t h at ther e i s a nett e r i-,2:y to live a l t hough the a tt a i ma.ent o f t h a :, l i f e i s not p o s s i b l r, . lf. B'J.ss i r. g of schoo l chi l clren . L Although D~ . Cole s thi rik s t hat the Eosto:1 e:>..--pe rin e r:t i n bus s i ng c hilclr2n t o t he s u'::mrb s h e.s b e en qui te suc c e E:s lul , Senat or Rioico ff i ::,pli ed t=-,c:. t i n hi s y i e1·r the ~;1oney. ::-: i ght better be spE:n t iri~yrov::.. ng s l ~-:--:. c: 0.ucc..t i on gener a lly . Se nat o:r Ri bicof~ sai d t h a-'c h e d i ci r.o t th i nk t hat the p l a ci r.g of very poor chi l dren in school s ':-:i t h a f f luent an d well fe d c hi l ci:::.· en was p s y cholog ically goo ci. for t h e u nd.e r :;,:ci vi l ege d. c h i l d . 5. Rehab L!. itat i on o f sl'.ll-:i. d,:e l lers . ~ a r.ybocly c cJ.:-, cha::: 6 e i: gi ve n s01:·.2~:1. i r.g t o rf aepll l i b8.edcre on . Ser.atc:c Rib i coff a ::;ke d ,·,het ne r there i s ar..y h o-::;e fo:::- t ~12 :::ost -vio l e nt rr1ert::> e r s of sllt7t c o:r_~11u1~i ti es . 1I·i-.:. e :8:> ctor· t hat i n ::i s op i n2.on Ee c ited as ar~ exar::.p le t he a1itob io z;ra~!.i.;y c f lv:s.l col.2:-. X ,.,;10 1-:e.s f r cr:1 a r.::, st u~:foTt.1.L;.f.t = far:1ily and ·w!".1 0 t ur ned a~-ra·:l ::'ro~n c. li f e of C!."'i 143.215.248.55e to b e ccr...e a l ea.:Iei-· o �. - -·--·--- .... ---······ - --- ----- ----- -- ---· L?_;-;_:i,~ 3 6. Mea!1s ,;: ·, ~h ; n g There ,.;.·. slurn cl:.i J.fu·en . general ciiscus s ion of wl:.e t:ie r the vast amount of 1rconey beir_z ~catio!1 today is payi ng off . Senator Kennec..y '.·ras v e ry int e. ::.· e s"c e c.. i n findi ;;. _: ~-2tter ways to help slun c h ilfu·e:, . spent o :-, Senators present : Ribicoff Kennedy �
  • Tags: Box 22, Box 22 Folder 18, Folder topic: Task Force on Cities | 1966
  • Record Created: April 18, 2017
  • Record Updated: December 29, 2017