Box 21, Folder 18, Document 3

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Box 21, Folder 18, Document 3

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�T E L E P HONE 088 - 6838
GE ORGE DAVI D HOUSER
A RTH UR .AND E R S E N & CO .
34 P EACHTREE STRE E T, N . W. • ATLANTA :J0 :303
THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE
BRAVES ON ATLANTA: 1966
by William A. Schaffer· George D. Houser· Robert A. Weinberg
FEBRUARY, 1967
Industrial Management Center
GEORGIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
Atlanta, Georgia
�ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to express their thanks to the many people
who worked on this study, and particularly to the Atlanta
Braves whose whole-hearted cooperation made this study possible.
3
...
�CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
3
LIST OF TABLES
5
LIST OF FIGURES
5
I. INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
II. PROCEDURES .
Sampling, 9
Interviews, 10
Reliability, 10
Representativeness, 12
7
9
Ill. CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS
General, 13
Local Fans, 16
Out-of-Town Fans, 17
· · · · . . . . . . . . . . 13
IV. ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES
· · · · · · · . . . . . . . . . 20
Sources of Expenditures, 20
Expenditures of Local Fans, 22
Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 23
Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 25
Summary of Direct Expenditures, 25
V. THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT . . . . .
VI. THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES
APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A. Questionnaire, 32
B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results, 33
C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries, 36
D. Estimation of Number of Different Persons Attending Games, 37
E. Confidence Limits of Sample, 38
F. Expenditures of Local Fans, 39
G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans, 40
H. Expenditures of Baseball Teams, 42
I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier, 42
4
. 27
. 31
. 32
�LIST OF TABLES
1. Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions
11
2. Comparison of Population and Sample
12
3. Makeup of Attendance at Games
14
4.
Radio Following . . .
15
5. Mode of Transportation
15
6. Seat Preference . . .
16
7. Attendance Expectations of Local Fans
16
8. Estimated Distance Traveled by Local Fans
17
9. Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans
18
10. States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn
. 18
11. Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game
. 19
12. Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State
. 19
13. Summary of Expenditures . . . . .
. 22
14. Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans
. 24
15.
Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment Producing for
Export, 1954 and 1964 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 30
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Expenditures of Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. 26
2. Th e Mu ltiplier Effect for Braves Related Income in Atlanta
. 28
0
5
�I I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
THE purpose of this study is to assess the economic impact of the
Atlanta Braves baseball team on Atlanta. In addition, the study
includes a variety of information, ranging from game starting
times to hot dog expenditures, which will help the Braves management better understand their fans and provide Atlanta with
a closer and more up-to-date look at the economic importance of
major league baseball in Atlanta. A similar study is being conducted t o assess the impact of the Falcons on the city. The combined reports should serve to underline the contributions of
professional sports to a growing Atlanta.
The study is divided into six parts. A summary is provided in
this section. Then the survey technique is briefly described.
Third, the characteristics of the fans are outlined. Fourth, an
analysis of expenditures made in connection with the Braves
is presented, followed by an examination of the flow of income
as these expenditures are spent and respent. Finally, the noneconomic impact of the Braves on Atlanta and Georgia is discussed. (A technical appendix is also provided to supplement findings summarized in the text.)
In summary, the Braves had a significant economic impact on
7
�the city of Atlanta in 1966. Over 9 million dollars were spent in
Atlanta in direct connection with the baseball season. As this
money circulates, up to 30 million dollars in income for Atlantans
will be generated.
Two-thirds of the initial expenditures were made by the 174,000
different visitors to Atlanta who made up 41 per cent of the
official attendance of 1,539,801. Over half of the expendit ures by
out-of-towners went for food, entertainment and lodging, although
significant amounts were also spent at the game itself, for gasoline, and on transportation.
Attendance by an estimated 107,000 Atlantans reached over
905,000. In contrast to the pattern set by out-of-town fans, twothirds of the expenditures of local fans were made at the St adium
itself, with food and entertainment, parking, gasoline, shuttle bus
and other transportation expenditures following in importance.
A hard core of baseball fans has been uncovered in Atlanta. The
typical local fan expected to see 16 to 25 games while the out -oftown fan expected t o see four games over the season. While 82
per cent of season attendance was drawn from wit hin 150 miles
of Atlanta, over half of the out-of-town fans came from 23 other
states, primarily Alabama, Tennessee, South Carolina and N orth
Carolina. A majority of the fans came with t heir families, although a large number of fans came in organized groups from
as far as Los Angeles, Chicago, and Ottawa, Canada. And no
matter where their homes, the Braves fans were loyal both in
and out of the Stadium, with 73 per cent of all fans admitting to
regularly following the Braves on t he radio.
While the economic impact has been substantial, the noneconomic contribution of the Braves to Atlanta is no less important. Some partial indicators of this contribution are available.
Thus, Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 times in daily newspapers, four games were televised nationally from Atlanta, 20
games were t elevised over the Southeast, and 39 regional radio
stations carried regular broadcasts of the Braves. If other teams
have similar networks, then t he Atlanta Braves played before
millions across the nation every week of the season. Further,
Braves personnel appeared over 395 times as speakers throughout
the state and made preseason visits to 24 major cities in the
Southeast. Finally, the Braves have contributed substantially to
programs at schools in the neighborhood of the Stadium.
8
�II / PROCEDURES
THIS study describes the characteristics of Atlanta Braves fans
through the application of standard sampling procedures. The
analysis of a small, carefully selected segment of a population will
yield information almost as accurately as if the entire population
had been studied. The technique used is outlined here; details are
presented in the Appendix.
Sampling
THE population for this study is defined as all persons who attended an ~tlanta Braves game in the Atlanta Stadium. Since
seating by section appeared to be proportionately stable from
game to game, the proportional method of sampling was chosen.
That is, the size of the sample for each section was proportional to
its population. These proportions, initially based on the first 13
home games, were adjusted as necessary later in the summer.
Within each section of the stadium the sampling was random.
Each member of the population in a section had an equal chance
of being interviewed. Locations for interviews were based on a
mathematical formula and the interviewers were not permitted to
make decisions based on their own desires and observations. This
insured a reasonable objectivit y in the survey results.
The sample games were selected to include each team, day of
9
�the week and starting time and were played over a three-month
period from mid-May to mid-August. The sample itself consisted
of a total of 1479 fans interviewed at 16 games. 1
Interviews
APPROXIMATELY 90 to 100 interviews were conducted at each
sample game by carefully trained students and members of the
faculty of Georgia Tech. Each interviewer carried an identification card indicating the purpose of the interview and authorizing
his presence in the Stadium. The interviews were conducted according to a preset format and usually could be completed in less
than two minutes each. Interviews were begun 30 minutes before
game time and stopped before play commenced.
As a technique for data collection, personal interviewing yields
good results. It allows the respondent to relax, requires a minimum of effort in answering questions and provides a larger proportion of usable replies than other methods.
The interview form was carefully constructed to avoid bias,
and each question was selected for a specific purpose. 2 The questions did not probe into the personal background of the respondents; as a result, there was little or no reluctance in answering
them. Several interviews were conducted wit h t he quest ionnaire
in a rough-draft form to insure that each question was easily answerable. Once the format was established, t he questions and
answers were number-coded so that responses could be keypunched directly from the questionnaire. This facilitated analysis
of the results through the Rich Electronic Computer Center at
Georgia Tech. Many questions were eliminated prior to the
start of the study because of the availability of information from
other sources; were it not for access to t hese sources, the time
involved would have become excessive and both fans and interviewers would have suffered unnecessarily. Throughout the survey, the cooperation and willingness of fans to participate in the
study greatly simplified the interview task.
Reliabil ity
W HILE the nature of the questionnaire prevents the determination of a degree of accuracy for the questionnaire as a whole, an
1
2
The schedule of games sampled is presented in sectum C of the appendix.
The interview questionnaire is reproduced in section A of the appendix.
10
�expected error can be stated for selected questions. Computations
based on standard statistical techniques indicate that there is
95 per cent probability that the population means will lie within
the intervals shown in Table 1.3 Where only a yes or no answer is
involved (i.e., where the distribution is binomial), the per cent
of the population possessing the characteristic in question is expected to differ no more than 4 per cent from the corresponding
per cent of the sample. Where the answer is subject to more
variation ( e.g., distance from Stadium, expenditures, length of
stay, etc.), the maximum expected error rises, particularly when
the number of observations is small. Thus, the mean entertainment expenditure of all out-of-town parties may vary from the
mean based on our sample by as much as $6.61.
In general, the usual cautions in the interpretation of survey
results apply, but estimates based on this sample should reasonably approximate the characteristics of fans of the Atlanta Braves
m 1966.
Table 1: Confidence Intervals for Selected Questions
Maximum
expected
error
Topic of question
Confidence interval
Lower
limit
Upper
limit
Asked of everyone:
Desirability of starting t ime (proportion)
Number in party . . . . . . . . .
Loca l or out-of-town resi dent (proportion)
.01
.48
.03
.90
4.29
.56
,92
5.25
.62
.37
.03
.61
1.34
8.00
.27
4.64
22.53
8.74
.33
5.86
25.21
11.02
.04
6.61
.04
.50
.04
.54
.15
.81
150.00
.37
27.71
.43
2.47
.49
6.68
1.48
7.11
172.00
.41
40.93
.51
3.47
.57
7.76
1.78
Asked of local fans:
Distance of home from Stadium (miles)
Game-connected entertainment (proportion)
Entertainment expenditure (dollars)
Number of games expect t o see . . .
Asked of out-of-town fans:
Distance of home from Atlanta (miles)
Game-connected entertainment (proportion)
Entertainment expenditu re (dollars) . . .
Overnight visit (proportion) . . . . . . .
Number of nights stayed . . . . . . .
Gas and oil purchase in Atlanta (proportion)
Gas and oil expenditure (dollars)
Games expect t o see this trip .
Games expect t o see for season
3
See sectwn E of the appendix.
11
8.73
�Representativeness
To demonstrate its representativeness, the sample is compared
with the population in several key areas in Table 2. The sample
and population proportions according to these classifications are
very close. Most of the relatively high differences in attendance
proportions in the population and sample for the various teams
played can be explained by an inability to adjust the survey
schedule to account for changes in the popularity of teams as
the season progressed. But even these are slight enough to be
disregarded.
Thus, the survey appears to be adequate in size and composition to yield reasonably accurate results.
Table 2: Comparison of Popu lation and Sam pl e
Classification
Attendance, by day of week
Week game .
Weekend game
Attendance, by opposing team
Los Angeles
Philadelphia
New York
Cincinnati
Houston
St. Louis .
San Francisco
Chicago
Pittsburgh
Attendance, by section of Stadiums
General admission
Field level
Loge
Pavilion
Upper level
Games scheduled, by day of weekb
Weekday afternoon
Weekday evening
Friday evening
Saturday aftern oon
Saturday evening
Sunday afternoon
Per cent of
populatio n
Pe r cent
of sampl e
56
57
44
43
21
20
8
11
8
8
8
7
11
6
18
7
12
13
13
14
11
4
21
24
34
3
39
5
7
35
28
1
45
17
11
4
0
44
19
12
9
6
17
19
Not es : a. The po pul ation percenta ges in secti o ns of t he Stad i um a re based o n actua l attendance f or t he first 13 hom e games.
b. Doub le head ers are counted as o ne game.
12
�Ill/ CHARACTERISTICS OF FANS
AN expected outcome of any survey of baseball fans would be a
description of the average fan. Unfortunately, much of the information required to draw a good fan profile is confidential
(age, income, education, etc.) and a direct query into these topics
is likely to be answered in an exaggerated or biased manner. To
protect answers more pertinent to the central purpose of the study,
questions of this type were eliminated during the initial testing of
the questionnaire. But several items of general interest were
compiled and are presented below. The next two sections then
provide discussions of the characteristics of local and out-oftown fans.
General
A'ITENDANCE. There is little doubt that the 1966 baseball season
has been highly successful. Official season attendance was
1,539,801, and the highest for the Braves since 1959. Playing in
the smallest metropolitan area with a National League team and
spending most of the season in the lower division, the team still
ranked sixth in total attendance ahead of Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Cincinnati, and Chicago. Attendance at home games appears to have depended in part on the standing of opponents,
13
�with Los Angeles (first place) drawing over 330,000 followed by
San Francisco (second place) with over 270,000 and Pittsburgh
(third place) with over 200,000. This stands in contrast with attendance of less than 100,000 for games with Chicago (tenth
place) and 111,000 with Cincinnati (seventh place). Average
attendance also varied by month, with games played in July and
August drawing large crowds. While those are vacation months,
school, football and other activities tend to reduce baseball attendance in May and September.4
According to the survey, roughly two out of every five fans
were from out of town and accounted for a total attendance of
Table 3: Makeup of Attendance at Games
Type of game
Week . . .
Weekend
Total
Per cent
local fans
Per cent out-of-town fans in Atlanta for:
Ball game
Other reasons
62
27
55
59
11
6
9
39
32
634,398. Table 3 shows that most out-of-town fans (78 per cent)
were in Atlanta primarily to see a game and attended more games
on weekends than otherwise.5
Per cent of total:
August 10
Survey
A ugust 8
A uto registration ( or home)
Other states
Other Georgia counties
Metropolitan Atlanta Counties
(Fulton Co.)
(DeKalb Co.)
( Cobb, Clayton, Gwinnett Cos.)
24
14
62
(37)
(16)
( 9)
19
16
65
(33)
22
16
62
(21 )
( 11)
The tag counts did not include fans arriving by shuttle bus; our interviewers (when asked) defined A tlanta as within 15 miles of downtown.
If these differences counterbalance each other, the results are virtually
identical.
•See section C of the appendix for details.
5 Our results are remarkably close to those of surveys conducted by the
R esearch Department of the A tlanta Chamber of Commerce. While their
complete study is not y et available, they have provided preliminary results of two counts of automobile license plates in the Stadium parking
lots. B oth counts were conducted on week nights with the Los A ngeles
Dodgers as the opposing team. The first (1,814 cars) was on August 8
and the second (4,967 cars) on August 10. Compared with our survey,
the results are as follows:
14
�As evidenced by the interest with which fans
follow the Braves on radio, baseball is not just a sport of passing
fancy. One of the questions asked of fans was designed to determine whether they followed the Braves by radio regularly, occasionally, or not at all. As Table 4 indicates, a large proportion
of fans follows the Braves regularly. While most of the regular
RADIO FOLLOWING.
Table 4: Radio Following
Type of fan
Per cent of attendance following radio broadcasts:
Regularly
Occasionally
Never
82
59
73
Local fans
Out-of-town fans .
All fans
12
22
19
16
11
6
listeners are local fans, the out-of-town following is still substantial (81 per cent) and is probably closely associated with the 78
per cent of out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a ball
game.
PARKING. Anyone who attended a game during the 1966 season
was reminded of Atlanta's parking problems and expressway
traffic jams. The Atlanta Transit Company established a convenient shuttle bus service from downtown to the Stadium to
supplement the limited number of parking spaces at the Stadium.
Nevertheless, as shown in Table 5, 81 per cent of the fans inter-
Table 5: Mode of Transportation
Mode
Per cent of attendance
81
1
7
1
Drove car to Stadium . . . .
Drove car t o t own and walked .
Drove car t o town and took bus
Drove car t o other and took bus
Took bus on ly
Charter bus
4
2
2
2
Taxi . .
Walked
viewed chose to drive their cars and either park in the Stadium
lots or use one of the bootleg parking facilities which have sprung
up around the Stadium. Some 12 per cent of the fans elected to
use t he shuttle bus service; this figure was generally lower during
15
�games with smaller attendance and increased markedly as attendance approached sellout proportions. 6
SEAT PREFERENCE. One of the interviewers' tasks was to code
each questionnaire according to section of the Stadium and type
of fan (local or out-of-town). This was done as an interest item
to determine out-of-town seat preferences. As Table 6 indicates,
there were no sharply drawn preferences, with the exception that
Table 6: Seat Preference
Section of Stadium
Loge . . . . .
Upper level . .
General admission
Field level
Pavilion . . . .
Per cent
local fans
Per cent out·
of-town fa ns
50
50
40
30
48
32
60
70
52
68
70 per cent of the general admission tickets was sold to local fans
and that the out-of-town fans, in general, tended to gravitate
toward the more expensive reserved seats. All it ever took during
the season was a glance at ·the grandstand area with its "Hammering Hank" and "Go Joe" banners to know that the hard-core
baseball fan was firmly entrenched in the grandstands.
Local Fans
ATTENDANCE. Baseball is not just a novelty for Atlanta fans: the
typical fan expected to see 16 to 25 games, and 16 per cent of
the local fans planned to see 40 or more games before the season
was over. Attendance expectations are presented in Table 7. If
Table 7: Attendance Expectations of Local Fans
Number of games
Pe r cent
Less than 3
3 to 6
6 to 11
11 to 16
16 to 26
26 to 41
41 or more
6
4
10
19
15
22
14
16
While offici,al figures are not available from the Atlanta Transit Com-pany, their estimates parallel ours.
16
�these expectations held true, over 107,000 different Atlantans had
attended a game by the end of the season for a local season attendance of over 905,000.7
RESIDENCE. While 40 per cent of local fans live in the Northeast
section of the city, the remainder are drawn fairly evenly from
the other quadrants of·the city (20 per cent from the Northwest,
19 per cent from the Southeast, and 21 per cent from the Southwest) . The average distance traveled from home to Stadium was
8.4 miles. As Table 8 shows, this average is heavily weighted by
Table 8: Estjmated Distance Traveled by Local Fans
Miles traveled (one way)
Per cent of local fans
18
Less than 4
4
7
10
13
23
to 7
to 10 .
to 13 .
26
or more
20
14
the large proportion of fans traveling ten miles or more. The
most frequently estimated distance traveled was 10 to 13 miles.
GROUP COMPOSITION. Baseball is a family sport in Atlanta. 52
per cent of the local fans attended games with their families, 30
per cent with friends, 16 per cent by themselves, and 2 per cent
with an organized group. The average group size was four.
Out-of-Town Fans
ATIENDANCE. In measuring t he impact of the out -of-town fan, this
study has directed its attention to the out-of-town fan who was
in Atlanta primarily t o see a ball game. 78 per cent of the out -oftown fans (or 32 per cent of all fans ) interviewed were in this
category. As shown in Table 9, the remainder were in town for
a variety of different reasons and simply selected the ball game as
one form of entertainment. By t he time the season ended approximately 634,000 out-of-town visitors had been to a Braves
game. This total includes a number of fans who came to several
7
For computation, see section D of the appendix.
17
�Table 9: Reasons for Visit to Atlanta by Out-of-Town Fans
Per cent of out-of-town f ans
Reason
78
To see a baseball game
On business
On vacation . . . .
Visiting friends . .
Just passing through
Conventioneering .
Other . . . . . .
7
6
4
1
1
3
different games (the average out-of-town fan planned to see
four games during the season). On a non-repeat basis, approximately 174,000 different out-of-towners were drawn to Atlant a
by the Braves.8
STATES REPRESENTED. Of this 174,000 total, 75,000 came from other
towns and cities in Georgia, and the remaining 99,000 came from
23 other states. While the greatest number of out-of-state fans
came from Alabama and Tennessee, it was quite common t o encounter fans from Florida, North Carolina and South Carolina.
Table 10 shows the attendance breakdown for the major contributing states.9
Table 10: States from Which Out-of-Town Fans Were Drawn
State
Per cent of out-of-town fa ns
Georgia
Alabama
Tennessee . .
South Carolina
North Carolina
Florida
Other . . . .
43
13
11
9
9
5
10
DISTANCE TRAVELED. Although more t han half of the out-of-town
fans live within 150 miles, the average one-way distance traveled
by out-of-town fans in Atlant a primarily to see a game was 161
miles. According to Table 11, the median dist ance traveled is 100
to 150 miles. 92 per cent of these fans traveled by car, 5 per cent
BFor computation, see sectwn D of the appendix.
9 The 17 other states from which fans interviewed came were (in order of
frequency ) Mississippi, Ohw, Texas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia,
West Virginia, Indiana, Louisiana, South Dakota, Maryland, Illinois,
California, Minnesota, New Jersey, Nebraska, and Missouri.
18
�Table 11: Distances Traveled by Out-of-Town Fans to See Game
Distance
Per cent of out-of-town fans
Less than 50 miles
50 to 100 miles
100 to 150 miles
150 to 200 miles
200 to 300 miles
300 miles or more
16
21
18
12
16
12
by bus, 1 per cent by airplane, and the remaining 2 per cent used
some other means of travel. (One fan insisted that he had driven
from Alabama in the family truck and flatly refused to have
it classified as anything but "other.")
Baseball for the out-of-town fan is also a
family occasion: 55 per cent of the fans interviewed were with
their families, 33 per cent were with friends, 7 per cent were by
themselves, and 6 per cent were with organized groups.
A tabulation of group ticket sales provides an interesting aside,
in addition to confirming our survey results. Table 12 shows that,
GROUP COMPOSITION.
Table 12: Organized Group Ticket Sales, by State
State
Cities
Geor.gia
Alabama
South Carolina
Tenn essee
North Carolina
Fl orida
Kentucky
Louisiana
Mississippi
Ohio
California
Illinois
Ontario (Canada)
Total
95
46
30
24
23
6
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
235
Number of
Groups
246
152
91
86
77
15
5
2
4
2
1
1
2
684
Fans
17,546
9,420
4,375
3,388
6,507
441
539
68
293
800
50
130
33
43,590
excluding groups from Metropolitan Atlanta, a total of 684 groups
from 235 cities ordered tickets to games this season, representing
6.9 per cent of estimated out-of-town attendance. This compares
favorably with survey results (6 per cent), even though the
distribution among states is not the same as for all out-of-town
fans. T he average organized group size was 64.
19
�IV/ ANALYSIS OF EXPENDITURES
THE study now turns to the monetary impact of the Braves on
Atlanta. The discussion will show the effect of the Braves on
funds flowing through Atlanta's economy, the sources of these
funds and where, specifically, they entered Atlanta's economic
stream. In addition to new funds from other areas, locally-held
funds spent due to the presence of the Braves will be considered.
Sources of Expenditures
LET us first consider new money introduced into the economy
20
�from outside of Atlanta. There are several possible sources of
these funds:
1. Money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets to games;
2. Money spent by out-of-town fans (in Atlanta for the
specific purpose of seeing the Braves) on transportation,
food, entertainment, lodging, shopping, parking, concessions,
etc.;
3. Money earned by the Braves outside of Atlanta (The
Braves receive remuneration for playing in other cities based
on attendance.) ;
4. Money spent by other baseball teams in Atlanta;
5. Money spent by baseball scouts, reporters and other support personnel in Atlanta.
All money spent by out-of-town fans on tickets and at the
games represents an inflow to the economy of Atlant a directly
attributable t o the Braves. But it is reasonable to consider any
other expenditures made by out-of-town fans attributable to
t he Braves only if the out-of-town fan was in Atlanta primarily
t o see a game.
The enumeration of induced local expenditures is more difficult.
Local expenditures are simply the sum of local ticket expenditures, local moneys spent prior to or following games on meals or
entertainment, and moneys spent at games on concessions, programs, etc. But would this direct spending on entertainment have
existed without the Braves? If t he Braves were not in Atlanta,
would the local fan have selected a movie or local theater group
to provide his entert ainment for the evening? This issue cannot
be resolved with complete satisfaction. The questionnaire was
designed, in so far as possible, t o limit the measurement of local
expenditures to those directly attributable to the Braves. Since
it is a purpose of this section to point out the tremendous pmchasing power of one and a half million fans, we have assumed
that local expenditures made in connection with baseball were induced by the presence of the Braves. While some error might be
involved, we feel that the exclusion of local expenditures would be
even more erroneous.
Table 13 delineates sources of expenditures and indicates their
points of entry into the economic stream. The following comments
briefly explain the summary amounts provided in the table.
21
�Expenditures of Local Fans
As pointed out earlier, over 107,000 Atlantans attended games
at the Stadium more than 905,000 times. These local fans introduced funds directly into Atlanta's economic stream through
their ticket purchases and expenditures on food and entertainment before and after games, on concessions, on transportation,
and on parking.10
Table 13: Summary of Expenditures
Source of expenditure
Object of
expenditure
Game (tickets)
Food and
entertainment
Concessions
Gasoline
Parking
Buses
Taxis
Lodging
Other
Total .
Local
fans
Out•Of•
town fans
. $1,576,000
$1,195,000
202,000
905,000
56,000
115,000
54,000
35,000
2,276,000
634,000
473,000
63,000
38,000
9,000
1,479,000
2,943,000
6,167,000
Visiting
teams
Visiting
scouts
Total
$2,771,000
41,000
8 ,000
14,000
31,000
41,000
127,000
5,000
4,000
17,000
2,527,000
1,539,000
529,000
178,000
106,000
44,000
1,515,000
45,000
9,254,000
While Atlantans spent over $2,078,000 for admission to
games, only $1,576,000 has been included in the tabulation of
direct expenditures. 11 This is the share of expenditures of the
Braves which is attributable to local attendance. About 24 per
cent of ticket revenue leaves Atlanta in partial support of the
farm system (four clubs, each of which requires a substantial
subsidy) , spring training, and other activities.
TICKETS.
FOOD AND ENTERTAINMENT. 30 per cent of all local fans attending
a game stopped on their way to or from the game for food and
entertainment. Specifically, 4.5 per cent of these fans attended
the games by themselves and spent an average of $3.63 per person, 14.1 per cent were with their families (average size of 3) and
spent a total of $5.41, and 11.4 per cent attended the games with
Most of the calculations for this section are reproduced in section F of
the appendix.
11 This statement is based on our estimate of ticket sales. The Braves provided a summary of their expenditures in Atlanta which has been prorated on the basis of the proportion of local fans.
10
22
�friends and spent an average of $5.73 on two persons. The total
food and entertainment expenditures (not including concessions)
of local fans for the season is estimated at over $202,000.
CONCESSIONS. According to Automatic Retailers of America, the
concessionaires at the Stadium, the typical fan spent about $1
per game on refreshments for a total of $905,000 from local fans.
GASOLINE, PARKING AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. The sample indicates that the local fan lived an average distance from the
Stadium of 8.4 miles. Further, 89 per cent of those interviewed
drove t o the Stadium or parked in town and took a bus. As a
result, over 2,400,000 miles were driven by local fans in connection
with a game. Ignoring depreciation, oil consumption, tire wear
and other measurable (but important) expenses and using informat ion supplied by the American Petroleum Institute, the total
expenditure by local fans on gasoline alone is estimated at over
$56,000.
89 per cent of the Atlanta fans parked either downtown or at
the Stadium with an average of 3.5 fans per car. Assuming a fee
of $0.50 per car, over $115,000 was spent by local fans for parking.
12 per cent of the local fans used a bus at some point in their
trip to the Stadium. At $0.50 per round trip, the Atlanta Transit
Company took in over $54,000 due to the presence of the Braves
in Atlanta.
2 per cent of the fans arrived at the Stadium by taxi. Assuming an average of 3.5 fans in each party traveling 8 miles ( oneway) and using rates of $0.50 for the first ¾ miles and $0.10 per
addit ional ¼ mile, the expenditure for taxis by Atlantans was
over $35,000.
Expendit ures of Out-of-Town Fans
THE 174,000 different out-of-t own fans attending Braves games
in Atlanta introduced new money into the local economy in
several different ways. But expenditures of these fans on such
things as food and entertainment and gasoline may properly be,
and are, attributed to the Braves only when the out-of-town fans
came to Atlanta primarily to see a game (78 per cent of outof-town attendance, or 494,830, were in that category) .
TICKETS. By our estimates, out-of-town fans spent over $1,576,000
23
�for tickets to games. But, as explained for local fans, only
$1,195,000 should be included as first-round spending. This is the
portion of direct expenditures by the Braves in Atlanta attributable to out-of-town fans.
FooD AND ENTERTAIN:MENT. 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans
here to see a game spent money on food and entertainment. Of
this group, 4 per cent were by themselves and spent an average
of $13.75 each, 55 per cent were with their families (average size
of 4) and spent $35.97 per family, and 41 per cent were with
friends and spent an average of $33.84 on two people. These


figures include all food and entertainment expenses (excluding


concessions) for the entire length of an out-of-town fan's visit.
For the season, out-of-town fans spent over $2,276,000 on food
and entertainment in Atlanta.
CONCESSIONS. With an average expendit ure of $1.00 per fan, outof town fans spent over $634,000 on concessions.
LODGING. A large number of visitors stayed overnight. Many
came for several days or a weekend to see more than one game.
Specifically, 37 per cent of the out-of-town fans stayed overnight;
the average visit extended over two nights and the average size
of party was five. As shown in Table 14, visitors most frequently
stayed downtown. Using rates provided by the Georgia HotelTable 14: Lodging Preferences of Out-of-Town Fans
Location
Per ce nt
Downtown hotel or motel . . . .
Motel in outlying or suburban areas
Home of friend or relative . . . .
Elsewhere (campers, etc.) . . . .
51
6
41
2
Motel Association (downtown-$13.00 for double and $10.00 for
single room; suburban area-$11.00 for double and $8.50 for single
room), out-of-town fans here to see a game spent about
$1,479,000 for lodging.
GASOLINE, PARKING, AND OTHER TRANSPORTATION. 53 per cent of
out-of-town fans in Atlanta to see a game spent money on gasoline. The average amount spent per party of four was $7.22 for a
24
�season total of over $473,000. While this amount may seem high,
it should be remembered that many fans stayed in Atlanta for
more than a single day and may have purchased gasoline on
several occasions.
89 per cent of all out-of-town fans paid parking fees in connection with a game. With an average of 4.5 persons per car, over
$63,000 was shared by the downtown parking lots and the Atlanta
Stadium Authority.
12 per cent of all out-of-town fans traveled to the Stadium by
bus at $0.50 per round trip for a total of $38,000.
2 per cent of all out-of-town fans arrived at the Stadium by
taxi. Assuming their trips started in the downtown area and were
$1.40, one way, out-of-town fans spent about $9,000 for taxi
transportation.
Expenditures of Baseball Teams
DIRECT expenditures were made in Atlanta not only by fans and
the Braves but also by visiting teams and scouts. The total firstround spending by baseball clubs (including the Braves) is
estimated at $2,914,000. This figure is based on estimates provided by members of the staff of the Atlanta Braves. The Braves
spent about $2,771,000 in Atlanta for such items as salaries and
wages, utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and
equipment , the Stadium Club, travel, aI1d rent. Visiting teams
are estimated to have spent about $127,000 for lodging, food, entertainment, transportation, miscellaneous personal items, and
tips for clubhouse personnel. Visiting baseball scouts spent about
$17,000 for similar items.
Summary of Direct Expenditures
FIGURE 1 contrasts the spending patterns of local and out-of-town
fans. The local fan clearly spends most of his money at the
Stadium itself, while the out-of-town fan spends substantial
amounts in other parts of the city for food, entertainment and
lodging.
A total of $9,254,000 in first-round expenditures may be credited to the presence of the Braves in Atlanta. Of this amount,
68 per cent was new money introduced into Atlanta's economy
by sources outside of the city, and 32 per cent was induced local
spending attributable to the presence of the Braves. But to say
25
�that total first-round spending represents t he economic impact of
the Braves on Atlanta is not entirely correct. To det ermine the
total impact, consideration must be given to the multiplier effect
which occurs as this money is spent and respent.
Figure t
Expenditures of Fans
EXPENDITURES OF
LOCAL FANS
Concessions
$905,000
31 %
$2,943,000
Food and
Entertainment
$202,000
7%
Game
$1,576,000
53%
EXPENDITUR ES BY
OUT-OF-TOWN FANS
Lodging
$1,515,000
24%
Game
$1,195,000
19%
Food and Entertainment
$2,325,000
36%
�V / THE MULTIPLIER EFFECT
A commonly-held theory of urban growth states that a city must
export goods and services if it is to prosper economically. Called
economic base theory, it depends on a division of the city's
economy into two sectors, the export ( or basic) sector and the
local (or support) sector.12 Exporters such as automobile and
aircraft manufacturers, hotels, restaurants, service stations, department stores and recreation centers obtain income from customers outside the city. This export income then enters the local
economy in the form of wages and salaries, purchases of materials,
dividends, etc., and becomes income to other local citizens. But
unless t he economy is entirely self-sufficient, a portion of this circulating income leaks out of the local economy with each transaction in payment for other goods, supplies and services which
are imported. Wit h each round of expenditures, local incomes
increase in a continuing but diminishing chain. The impact of the
original export sale tends to decrease with each successive round
of expenditures as leakages cont inue. The series of events following the initial injection of income is known as the "multiplier effect" and traces the indirect effects of the injection.
A crude estimate of this effect can be made by calculating the
local and export employment ( income figures would be better
HFor details of economic base studies, see Charles M. Tiebout, The
Community Economic Base Study (Washington: Committee for E conomic Development, 1962), and W alter Isard, Methods of R egional
Analysis: an Introduction to Regional Science (New Y ork : John Wiley
and Sons, Inc., 1960), chapter 6. E conomic base multipliers have been
replaced in recent years by more sophisticated, and more costly, inputoutput studies and can be justified " ... only when crude, hurried research is required . .." (ibid., p.221). The multiplier computed here is
of the crude and hurried sort. More detailed work is in progress and
will be included in the study of the economic impact of the Falcons.
But a more sophisticated multiplier for the Atlanta area is not available and awaits adequate funding.
27
�Figure 2-The Multiplier Effect for Braves-Related Income in Atlanta
$9.25 M
$6.31 M
$6.42 M
Outoftown
fans
t--.:)
00
$4.46 M
$4.37 M
$3.10 M
$3.03 M
I
$2.15 M
$2.10 M
$2.94
$1.49 M
Local
fans
$1.46M
$1.03 M
$2.05 M
$1.43 M
2
3
$1.01 M
$1.00 M
4
$0.72 M
$0.70 M
$0.69 M
5
Rounds of Spending
'
$0.48 M
6
7
j'+ . . . = $30.5
,4
$0.49 M
0
total
�but are :riot available) in the city and using them to determine the
proportions in which support and export activities tend to exist.
Table 15 shows the proportion of Metropolitan Atlanta's employment in 1964 and in 1954 which may be considered exportoriented. The estimates are based on the assumption that employees of Atlanta industries which are concentrated here in
heavier proportions than are employees in either Georgia or
Atlanta are employed in the production of goods or services for
export to state or national markets. 13
In 1964 Atlanta relied heavily on the transportation equipment, wholesale trade, printing and publishing, and finance, insurance and real estate industries for its export income. Approximately 3 out of every 10 workers were employed in export production. In 1954 the primary metals and other durable industries
were also prominent in the city's export base but have declined
in importance. But the proportion of workers producing for export
was about the same. With these data, the economic base multiplier ie computed as follows:
Multiplier, 1964 =
Multiplier, 1954 =
Total employment
Basic employment
445.3
= 3.4
131.9
---
Total employment
303.3
= - - = 3.4
88.5
Basic employment
. .
Change in total employment
142.0
Change Multiplier, 1954-64 = Ch
. b .
t = 43 4 = 3.3
1
ange m as1c emp oymen
.
If the multiplier ratio tends to remain constant (as it apparently
has) and if it applies to income as well as employment, then a
one unit increase in export activities will tend to increase total
activities 3.3 times as successive rounds of expenditures are made
and the Atlanta economy adjusts to accommodate the additional
expenditures. This means that about 70 per cent of each dollar
spent is retained within the economy to be recirculated, with 30
per cent immediately leaving the local area. Figure 2 illustrates
this process.
13
The computations are roughly based on a method described in Gerald
E . Thompson, "An Investigation of the Local Employment Multiplier,"
Review of Economics and Statistics, XLI (1959), pp. 61-7. For details,
see section I of the appendix.
29
�Table 15: Estimates of Metropolitan Atlanta Employment
Producing for Export, 1954 and 1964
(in thousands)
1 954
Total
employment
Industry
. 16.0
Contract construction
2.9
4.2
1.0
2.7
Lumber
Furniture and fixtures
Stone, clay, and glass products
Primary metal industries
Fabricated metal products
Machinery, except electrical
Transportation equipment
Other durables
2.5
2.5
. 22.1
3.7
Food and kindred products
Textile mill products
Apparel and other textile products
Paper and allied products
. 10.9
8.3
7.4
3.0
Printing and publishing
Chemicals and allied products
Leather and leather products
other nondurables
1964
Export
employment
.32
Total
employm ent
29.3
Export
employment
7.56
2.37
2.2
3.5
3.8
2.6
.87
.94
.31
21.19
2.16
4.2
3.9
28.3
5.1
.44
24.28
.46
13.1
6.1
8 .0
5.9
.91
2.70
1.84
4.8
2.9
.4
.2
1.92
.29
. 32.0
.88
6.6
3.5
2.1
1.0
3.96
12.99
4 1.4
18.26
81.1
22.46
48.2
69.3
34.37
4.85
Finance, insurance, and real estate
. 21.4
13.87
32.3
16.83
Service, miscellaneous, and mining .
. 37.8
5.14
62.4
13.85
2 1.2
41.3
3.54
445.3
131.90
Transportation and public utilities
Wholesale trade
Retail trade
Federal government
State and local government .
35.5
Total .
. 303.3
88.50
.84
The additional income brought into Atlanta by t he Braves in
1966 has been estimated at $9,254,000. As this income is spent
and respent, the total income accruing t o citizens in the Metropolitan Atlanta area should approach 3.3 times this amount, or
$30,538,000.14
1
4/f only expenditures by out-of-town fans were included in the "new
money" category, their expenditures of $6,311,000 would mean up to
$20,826,000 in additional incomes for Atlantans.
30
�VI/ THE NONECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE BRAVES
WHILE this study is specifically devoted to an examination of the


impact of the Braves on Atlanta in terms of measurable monetary


outlays, it would be remiss if some of the noneconomic :impact of
the Braves were not included. The :impact of the Braves in terms
of public relations is perhaps more :important than that measured
in terms of dollars and cents.
In 1966 there were over 1,750 daily newspapers in the United
States. If these papers reported scores for baseball games, then
Atlanta was mentioned over 280,000 t:imes during the course of
the season.
The Braves TV Network, composed of 21 stations in the Southeast, telecasted 20 games during the season and 4 home games
were carried on the NBC network. Further, 39 radio stations in
the Southeast regularly carried Braves games. And as the Braves
traveled to other parts of the nation, an undetermined number
of stations broadcasted their games.
Braves personnel from both the front office and the playing
field appeared on over 395 occasions as speakers at service clubs,
church groups, athletic banquets, etc. The majority of these
functions took place in the state of Georgia. In addition, many
personal visits by players were made to hospitals, children's
homes and other charitable institutions.
In February a Caravan of Braves personnel traveled throughout the Southeast. In each city, with the help of local people,
a press luncheon, a sports night, and visits to children's and
veterans' hospitals were conducted. Cities visited included: Nashville, Knoxville, and Chattanooga in Tennessee; Asheville, Greensboro, Charlotte, Salisbury, D urham, and Gastonia in North
Carolina; Charleston, Columbia, Greenville, and Anderson in
South Carolina; Birmingham, Mobile, and Montgomery in Alabama; Jacksonville, Florida; and Augusta, Savannah, Dalton,
Athens, Columbus, Albany, and Rome in Georgia.
It is apparent that this aspect of the Braves' presence is :important but cannot clearly be quantified.
31
�-
- - - - - -- - - - - --
APPENDICES
A. Questionnaire
Questions for Out-of-Towners
What state are you from? 01-Georgia,
02-Alabama; 03-Tennessee, 04-South
Carolina, 05-North Carolina, 06-Flor. ida. Other stat es-see Instructions.
How far do you live from Atlanta
(miles)? 0001-less than 50, 0002-50100, 0003-100-150, 0004-150-200, 0005200-300. Over 300 enter actual distance.
How did you travel to Atlanta? 1-car,
2-airplane, 3-bus, 4-train, 5-other
Are you in Atla nta primarily to 1-see
a ball game, 2-vacation, 3-passing
through, 4-business, 5-convention, 6shopping, 7-visiting friends, 8-other
Do you plan to t ake advantage of any
other forms of entertainment while in
the Atlanta area? 1-yes, 2-no
If yes, can you estimate your anticipated expenditures? 1-0-5, 2-$5-$10, 3$10-$15, 4-$15-$20, 5-$20-$50, 6-$50 or
m ore, 7-no estimate
Do you intend to stay overnight? lyes, 2-no
If yes, how many nights?
If yes, are you staying in I-downtown
hotel or motel ; 2-su burban hotel or
motel; 3-with friends or relatives; 4other
Questions for Everyone
Do you follow the Braves on radio?
I -regularly, 2-occasionally, 3-seldom
Are you pleased with the starting time
for this game? 1-yes, 2-should start
earlier, 3-should start later
With whom did you come to the game?
I-yourself, 2-friends, I-family, 4-organized group
How many are in your party?
How did you get to the stadium? 1-car,
parked at stadium; 2-car to town,
shuttle bus; 3-car to town, walked;
4-car to other, bus; 5-taxi; 6-charter
bus; 7-busses only; 8-walked
Do you live within the greater Atla nta
area (within a 15-mile radius of
town)? 1-yes, 2-no
Questions for Locals
How far do you live from the stadium
(in miles)? (00-less than one mile )
In what quadra nt of the city do you
live? 1-NE, 2-NW, 3-SE, 4-SW
Did you stop for food or some form
of entertainment on the way to the
stadium or do you expect to after the
game? 1-yes, on way to game; 2-yes,
after game; 3-yes on way to and after
game; 4-no
Do you think you 'll need to buy gas
and oil while in town: 1-yes, 2-no
If yes, can you give u s some idea of
how much you expect to spend, not
including what you will spend a t the
stadium? 1-0-$5; 2-$5-$10; 3-$10-$15;
4-$15-$20; 5-$20 or more; 6-no estimate
How many games do you expect to see
in total this season?
32
If yes, can you estimate how much
you will spend? 1-0-$3, 2-$3-$6, 3-$6$9, 4-$9-$15, 5-$15 and over, 6-no
estimate
How many games do you expect to see
this trip? (00-no estimate)
How many games in total do you expect to see this season? (00-no
estimate)
�B. Computer Print-Out of Survey Results
1. Out-of-town fans are fro!Il the fol-
lowing states:
Georgia . ... . ... .. ... .. , 262
Florida . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Alabama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Tennessee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
South Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53
North Carolina . . . . . . . . . . 53
Other
Out-of-town fans .. 59%
Local fans .... .... 82%
All fans . . . . . . . . . . 73%
3. Starting time:
Night
Game
Starting time okay
Local fans . . . ....... .. . .. .. . . 460 88%
Out-of-town fans .......... . . 298 93%
Should start earlier
Local fans ...... .. .......... . 55 11%
Out-of-town fans ..... . .. .. . . 22
7%
S hould start late r
Local fans . . . ............. . .
8
2%
Out-of-town fans . . ... . ... . . .
2
1%
4. Group composition:
Self
Drove to stadium .. ... ..... . . 81 %
Drove car to town and took bus 7 %
Drove car to town and walked . . 1 %
Drove car to other and took bus 1 %
Took taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 %
Charter bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2%
Took bus only . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4%
Walked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2%
local
fans
live
10%
22%
12%
16%
Day
Game
Sun DH
195 92% 65 88%
199 97% 34 92%
19%
6%
11%
Sat Ngt.
55 89%
44 98%
9
3
4%
1%
5
2
7%
5%
7
1
11%
2%
0
0%
1%
4
1
5%
3%
0
0
0%
0%
~
Fans came to e-ame withFriends
Family
Org. Gp.
34
19
6%
2%
7. Draw from qu adrants of the
Northeast . . ..... .. . .. .... . ...
Northwest . . . . .. . . ....... . .. .
Southeast . .. . . .............. .
Southwest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
city :
40%
20%
19%
22%
7%
16%
5. Modes of transportation :
6. Distances
stadium:
63
2. Frequency with which fans follow
Braves on radio:
Reg. 0cc. Never
43%
5%
13%
11%
9%
9%
Out-of-town fans . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Local fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
..................
198
260
33%
30%
335
453
55%
52%
8. Number of games local fans expect
to see :
Less than 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4%
3 to 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 10%
6 to 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 19%
11 t o 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 15%
16 to 25 .. . ........ _ . . 188 22%
26 to 40 .......... . ... .. 125 14%
More than 40 . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 16%
(Average number of games a local fan
expects to see is 24. )
from
Less than one mile
16 2 %
One mile . . . ............ . 13 1%
Two miles .......... ... . . 50 6%
Three miles .. . ... . . . .. . . . 74 9%
Four miles . . ..... . . . .... . 57 7 %
9. Distances out-of-town fans traveled
Five miles .... . .... . . . . . . 75 9%
primarily to see a game:
Six miles ... . . . ..... . .. . . 57 7%
Less than 50 miles ........ 74 16%
Seven miles .. . .... . . ... . 47 5%
Eight miles .. . ... . . . . .. . . 71 8% · 50 to 99 miles .......... 99 21 %
100 to 149 miles ........ 87 18%
Nine mil!iS ...... . . . . .. . . 11 1%
150 to 199 miles . . . . . . . . . . 57 12%
Ten miles .. . .... . ..... . . 128 15%
200 to 300 miles . . ...... 74 16%
Eleven miles . .. .. . ... . . . 14 2%
More than 300 miles . . . . . . 58 12%
Twelve miles .. . .. ...... . 81 9%
(Average distance traveled by an outThirteen miles . ... . . . .. . . . 20 2%
of-town fan primarily to see a game is
Fourteen miles .. ..... . . . 10 1%
161 miles.)
Fifteen miles
... . ... . 146 17%
33
�13. Number of games out-of-town fans
primarily in Atlanta to see a game
expect to see:
Games
This Trip
F or Season
1
297
62%
40
8%
2
95
20%
39
8%
3
50
11%
41
9%
4~7
31
7%
177
37%
8-15
l
0%
115
24%
16-25
1
0%
42
9%
26-50
1
0%
15
3%
Over 50
0
0%
7
1%
10. Out -of-town fans interviewed were
m Atlanta for the following
reasons :
To see a game . . . . . . . . . . 476 78%
On vacation . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6%
Passing through . . . . . . . .
4
1%
On business . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7%
For a convention . . . . . .
5
1%
On a shopping t rip . . . . . .
1
0%
4%
Visiting friends . . . . . . . . . . 22
Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4%
11. Out-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game traveled by
the following means to Atlanta:
Car . .... . ... ...... . .... 440
Bu s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Airplane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
0
Other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
14. Number of games out-of-town fans
not primarily in Atlanta to see a
game expect to see :
Games
This Trip
F or Season
1
69
52%
28
21%
20%
2
27
25
19%
3
12
9%
11
8%
4-7
23
17%
48
36%
8-15
2
2%
16
12%
16-25
0
0%
2
2%
26-50
0
0%
1
1%
Over50
0
0%
2
2%
92%
5%
1%
0%
1%
12. Of the out-of-town fans in Atlanta
primarily to see a game, 253 or
53% spent an average of $7.22 on
gas and oil. This accounted for a
party of average size = 4.
15. Makeup of attendance at games :
Out-of-Town
Fans in Atla nta
To
For
Local
S ee Ot her
Game
Fans
Game R e ason
Week, .. .. . . . 62%
27%
11%
W eekend .... 55%
39%
6%
A rough breakdown of these expenditures is as follows :
$0 to $3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4%
$3 to $6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 46%
$6 to $9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 28 %
$9 to $15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 11%
$15 and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 11 %
16. Per cent of ou t-of-town fans in Atlanta primarily to see a game, classified by
lodging p reference, length of stay and section of stadiwn
Length of stay (in nights)
One
Two
Three
Stadium
Section
More
Total
DOWNT OWN HOTEL OR MOTEL
1
2
3
4
5
TOTAL
0
13
7
26
1
47
0%
38%
19%
28%
50%
27%
0
6
5
13
1
25
0%
18%
14%
14%
50%
14%
1
3
1
5
0
10
11%
9%
3%
5%
0%
6%
1
0
1
5
0
7
11%
0%
3%
5%
0%
4%
2
22
14
49
2
89
22%
65%
39%
53%
100%
51%
0%
0%
0%
1%
0%
0%
2
1
22%
3%
6%
5%
0%
6%
SU BURBAN HOTEL OR MOTEL
1
2
3
4
5
TOTAL
1
1
2
3
0
7
11%
3%
6%
3%
0%
4%
1
0
0
0
0
0
11%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
34
0
0
0
1
0
0
0%
0%
0%
1%
0%
0%
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
5
0
10
�H OME 0 F FRIEND OR RELATIVE
1
3
4
5
TOTAL
l
7
7
20
0
35
11%
21%
19%
22%
0%
20%
2
2
5
11
0
20
1
2
3
4
5
TOTAL
0
0
3
0
0
3
0%
0%
8%
0%
0%
2%
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
22%
6%
14%
12%
0%
11%
0
0
2
6
0
8
ELSEWHERE
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0
0%
0%
0%
6%
6%
0%
5%
2
1
3
2
0
8
22%
3%
8%
2%
0%
5%
5
71
56%
29%
47%
42%
0%
41%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0%
0
1
0
0
0
1
0%
3%
0%
0%
0%
1%
0
1
3
0
0
4
0%
3%
8%
0%
0%
2%
10
17
39
0
(302 or 63 per cent of those in Atlanta primarily to see a game did not stay
overnight.)
17. Average number of persons in parties interviewed
Organized
Friends Family Group
Local fans . . . . . . . . 3.50 3.43 27.63
Out-of-town fans
here to see game 6.88 3.93 33.39
Out-of-town fans
here to see game
and staying
overnight . . . . . . . 5.50 3.96 32.25
Out-of-town fans
here for other
reasons .. .. . . ... 4.75 3.98 56.50
(Of those who came to see a game and
stayed overnight, 7% were by themselves.)
18. Overnight stays in connection with
a game:
37% of the people here to see a game
stayed overnight. The average length
of time stayed was 2 nights. This accounted for a party of average size
= 5.
19. Food and entertainment expenditures of local fans:
30% of the local fans spent money on
35
the way to or from the game on
food and entertainment. T he average
amount spent was $5.25. 15% of these
people were by themselves and spent
an average of $3.63. 47% of these people were with family and spent an
average of $5.41. T his accounted for a
party of a verage size = 3. 37% of
these people were with friends or a
group and spent an average of $5.73.
This accounted for a party of average
size= 2.
20. Food and entertainment expenditures of out-of-town fans :
37% of the out-of-town fans here to
see a game spent money on other entertainment in the Atlanta area. The
average amount spent was $34.32. 3%
of these people were by themselves
and spent an average of $13.75. 55%
of thse people were with family and
spent an average of $35.97. This accounted for a party of average size
= 4. 41 % of these people were with
friends or a group and spent an average of $33.84. This accounted for a
party of average size = 2.
�21. Standard error of the mean for selected questions:
Mean or Standard
ProporError of
tion
the mean
GENERAL QUESTION
3.
6.
8.
9.
12.
13.
14.
15.
17.
18.
19.
20.
Starting time okay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.91
Distance traveled, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.37
Number of games, local fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23.87
Distance, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161.00
Stopped for gas and oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.53
gas and oil expenditure . . .. . .. . . . .... .. .. .. . .. . . . . .
7.22
Number of games this trip .. ......... .. . . . . .. .. . . .
1.63
Number of gamea for season, out-of-town fan ... .. .. .
7.92
Local residence . . ........ .. . .. . . . ... . ... .. .. ... ... .
.59
Number in party .. .. ....... . . ........ . ..... . ... .
4.77
Stayed overnight [all fans] .. . ....... . . .. .. . . ..... .
.47
number of nights ... . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. ..... . . . . . .. . .
2.97
Stopped for entertainment, local fan . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.30
entertainment expenditure, local fan ... ... . . . . . .... .
5.25
Stopped for entertainment, out-of-town fan .. . .. . . .
.36
entertainment expenditure, out-of-town fan . . . . . . . . 34.32
.007
.191
.682
5.620
.021
.276
.074
.411
.013
.245
.021
.258
.016
.312
.020
3.367
C. Interview Schedule and Attendance Summaries
1. Interview schedule
D a te
May 22
May 31
June 4
June 15
June 16
June 19
June 26
June 'X7
J uly 15
July 16
J uly 17
July 26
J uly 29
J uly 30
Au g. 10
Au g. 12
Day
Opposing te am
Sunday
Tuesday
Sa turday evening
W ednesday
Thursday
Sunday
Sunday
M onday
Friday
Saturday a fternoon
Sunday
Tuesday
Friday
Saturday afternoon
W ed nesday
Friday
Chicago
Los Angeles
S t. Louis
N ew York
N ew York
P ittsbu rgh
Los Angeles
Chicago
Houston
Houston
Cincinnati
St. Louis
San Francisco
San Francisco
Los An geles
Philadelphia
1. G ame played September 2. Attendance : 9,145 .
2. Game played A ugust 13. Attendance: 27,770.
36
Attendance!
24,302
27,310
11,298
14,842
15,514
17,758
51,632
10,517
(Rain) 1
14,208
37,782
18,101
31,716
30,365
28,824
(Rain) 2
�2. Average game attendance, by month
4. Attendance at home games for Na-
tional League teams, 1966
Month
Average
att.
April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25,464
May ... .. .... .. . ........... 17,077
June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21,204
July .. . ... . ... ... .... . . .. . . 25,167
August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23,503
September ..... .. .. . ..... . : .. 16,242
City
3. Attendance at Braves games, by opposing team
Attendance
In
On
Opp. team
Atlanta
road
Chicago (10th)....
99,162
57,739
Cincinnati (7th) . . 110,999
58,769
Houston (8th) . . . . 120,181 209,818
Los Angeles (1st).. 332,483 263,225
New York (9th) ... 160,897 211,705
Philadelphia (4th). 118,917 119,908
Pittsburgh (3rd) . . . 200,081 107,679
St. Louis (6th) . . . 124,606 197,034
San Francisco (2nd) 272,475 172,491
T otal ..... . . . 1,539,801 1,398,368
D.
Att.
Met. Aree
pop. , 1960
Los Angeles
2,617,029
6,038,771
New York
1,932,693
10,694,633
Houston ..... 1,872,108
1,243,158
St. Louis .... 1,712,980
2,104,669
San Francisco 1,657,192
2,648,762
......
1,539,801
1,017,188
. .. 1,196,618
2,405,435
Philadelphia . . 1,108,201
4,342,897
...
. .. . .
742,958
1,268,479
635,891
6,220,913
Atlanta
Pittsburgh
Cincinnati
Chicago
5. Miscellaneous
Season ticket sales: 3,000
Children's tickets: 41,716
Passes (press, clergy, teachers, police,
and other special nights): 105,665
Estimation of Number of Different Perso ns Attend ing
Games and Average Number of Games Seen
To begin, several summary figures
are computed based on survey r esult s:
Total number of Atlantans at games
.588 (1,539,801) = 905,403
=
Total out-o f- town fans at games
.412 (1,539,801) = 634,398
=
Calculation of the number of different persons seeing a game over the
season is best explained with an example. Suppose a team plays before
10,000 fan s at each of 4 games and
30 per cent of those attending see all
4 games, 50 per cent see 2 games, and
20 per cent see just 1 game. Then 3,000
hardcore fans will see each game,
10,000 different fans will see 2 games,
and 8,000 will see only 1 game, for a
total of 21,000 different fans. A pictorial representation is as follows:
Out-o f-town fans in Atlanta to see
game = .78(634,398) = 494,830
Average attendance by Atlantans
905,403/78 = 11,608
=
Average attendance by out-of-town
fans = 634,398/78 = 8,133
Pe r cent of
attendance
100
80
new at
each
g ame
2,000
I 2,000
2, 000
I 2,000
10,000
10,000
30
0
I
3,000
I
I
Ga me I Game II Game Ill Ga me IV
37
�Number of different Georgia (other
than Atlanta) fans = 74,881
[ = .43 (174,143)]
Thus, the number of different fans attending games can be computed as
average attendance times the sum of
the per cent of attendance in each
category multiplied by the number of
games at which the category was new.
Using this method, proportions from
section A, and midpoints for each of
the attendance categories, the number
of different Atlantans and out-oftown fans attending games can be
estimated:
W e should note t hat these estimates
are based upon the plans of fans. If
the fans were optimistic in their responses to our questions, then the
numbers of different persons attending
games should be greater t han our
estimates.
The number of games seen by the
t y pical out-of-town fan is approximated by the weighted average of
their expectations as 8.3 games [
.11(1) + .09(3) +.37(6) + .22(11) +
.07 (20) + .03 (38) + .01 (50) ].
Number of different Atlantans attending a game = 107,561 [ = 11,608[.04
(78) + .10(19.5) + .19(9.75) + .15(6)
+ .22(3.9) + .14(2.36) + .16(1.60)]]
Number of different out-of-town fans
attending a game = 174,143 [= 8.133
[.11 (78) + .10(39) + .09 (26) + .37
(13) + .22(6.5) + .07(3.9) + .03(2.1)
+ .01(1.6)] ]
The number of games seen by the
t y pical Atlanta fan is estimated in
section B.
E. Confidence Limits of Sample
The confidence intervals for statistics in this study are based on standard statistical procedures. W e assume
that the amount of bias in the sample
is so small as to have a n egligible
effect on the precision of the sample
and that the sampled population is
distributed about its arithmic:tic m ean
in an approxil;nately normal m anner.
The assumption of normality is safe
wh ere prop ortions are involved, since
the binomial distribution approaches
a normal form as sample size increases. For items su ch as distance
traveled or entertainment expenditures, the distributions may be skewed,
but this deviation from n ormality
should not seriously affect our r esults.
In the case of proportions, the
stan dard error of the proportion is
computed as
s.=t;[ , wh ere p is
the propor tion of item s in the sample
possessing the characteristic in question, q is the proportion not possessing
the. cha racteristic, and N is t h e numof i tem s in the sample.
In the case of va riables which m ay
take on several values, the standard
error of t h e sample mean is com pu ted
5 x-/f,
as
, wh ere V is the sample
variance. F or continuous variables, V
= (~x2 - N x.0 ) I (N - 1): for grouped
data, V = [~ (x"f ) - N x' ] / (N - 1),
where x is the class midpoint, f is the
number of obser vations in each class,
a nd x is a simple weighted m ean.
When a class inte rval is not closed , we
h ave arbitrarily assigned a mid point.
Thus, we h ave assu m ed that expenditures for gas a n d oil in excess of $15
a verage $17.50, that entertainment exp endit u res by local fans in excess of
$20 average $35, and that entertainmen t exp enditures by ou t-of-town fans
in excess of $50 average $60. For distances t raveled by ou t-of-town fans in
excess of 300 miles, the actual m ean
for the category is used .
The confidence limits for a confidence coefficient of 95 per cent are
t h e sample mean plus or minus 1.96
times the standard error of the sample
mean. These limits are reported in
Table 1 of the text and are interpreted
38
�to mean that, for a large number of
samples, the chances are that the true
mean will be within the stated interval 95 per cent of the time. For example, the survey indicates that 59 per
cent of the fans are Atlantans, but if a
large number of similar samples had
been taken, we would expect their conclusions to range between 56 and 62
F.
per cent for 95 per cent of the samples.
References:
Ferber, Robert. Statistical Techniques in
Market Research. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Co., 1949, chapter 6.
Tintner, Gerhard. Mathematics and Statistics
for Economists. New York: Holt, Rinehart and
Winston, Inc., 1953, pp. 245-51.
Expenditures of Local Fans
1. Estimate of ticket purchases 3
In the following, the first figure is
the per cent of those in a section who
were Atlantans, the second is the per
cent of total attendance sitting in the
section, the third is total attendance (excluding children's admissions,
which are listed separately), and the
fourth is the price of a seat in the
section.
Field level:
52
X
34.3
X
1,539,801
X
$3.50
Loge level :
50
X
2.4
X
1,539,801
X
$3.50
$ 961,236
64,672
Upper level:
60
X
36.2
X
1,539,801
X
$2.00
668,455
P avilion:
68
X
7.1
X
1,539,801
X
$2.00
148,683
General admission: 69 X 21.0 X 1,539,801 X $1.00
41 ,716 X $0.50
39 X 100. X
Children:
Total expenditure by local fans on tickets
223,117
12,360
$2,078,523
a game. Using this and the proportions reported in the text, the following calculations show expenditures
on food and entertainment by local
fans:
2. Food and entertainment
271,621, or 30 per cent of local attendance, spen t money on food and entertainment while t raveling to or from
Individuals:
.045
X
271,621
X
$3.63
Families :
.141
X
271,621
X
$5.41 / 3
.114 X 271,621 X $5.73 I 2
Friends:
Tot al food and en tertainment expenditure by local fans
$ 44,369
68,937
89,024
$202,330
4. Gasoline, parking and other
transportation
According to the survey, 89 per cent
of local fans either drove to the Stadium or parked downtown and arrived
at th e game by foot, bus or taxi. Further , local fans lived an average of
8.37 miles from the St adium and the
average number of people per car was
3. This resulted in 2,248,206 driven
3. Concessions
The estimate of $1.00 per person in
concession expenditures used in the
text was provided by M r . Ray Carr of
Automatic Ret ailers of America.
3. We asked the Atlanta Braves staff to provide
only summary expen ditu re fig ures for our use
and avoided requests for revenue figures which
might be of confi dential nature.
39
�Gasoline prices in Atlanta area
(1965): premium, $0.379 per gallon;
regular, $0.339, and sub-regular, $0.319.
miles [.89 x (905,403 local attendance
/ 3 fans per car) x 8.37 miles per car]
in direct connection with the Braves.
Mr. John E. Hodges, Director, Department of Statistics, American Petroleum Institute, provided the following statistics: 4
Average gasoline consumption
(1964): 14.34 miles per gallon
Premium-grade sales in Atlanta as
proportion of total sales: .54
On the basis of averages provided by
the regional offices of several oil companies, we have assumed that 30 per
cent of local sales were of r egular
grade and 16 per cent of sub-regular
grade. Gasoline expenditures for local
fans are computed as follows:
Premium grade:
.54 x $0.379 x 2,248,806 I 14.34 =
Regular grade:
.30 x $0.339 x 2,248,806 I 14.34
Sub-regular:
.16
X
$0.319
X
2,248,806 / 14.34 =
Total gasoline expenditure by local fans
With the average taxi fare in Atlanta set at $0.50 for the first ¾
mile and $0.10 for each additional ¼
mile, and with the average local fan
living 8 miles from the Stadium, we
have estimated his round trip taxi fare
at $6.80. If 2 per cent of local fans
were transported by taxi in parties of
average size of 3.5, taxi expenditures
in connection with games should equal
$35,325 [ = .02 x 905,403 x $6.80 / 3.5].
12 per cent of local fans used a bus
at some point in their journey to the
$32,095
15,949
8,004
$56,048
Stadium. With one-wa y fare at $0.25,
expenditures by local fans for bus
transportation should amount to
$54,335 [ = .12 X 905,403 X $0.50).
89 per cent of fans had to pay for
parking facilities either downtown or
at the Stadium. Assuming a uniform
rate of $0.50 per car with an average
of 3.5 fans per car, parking fees
should total $115,239 [ = .89 x 905,403
x $0.50 I 3.5].
4. In a personal letter dated August 12, 1966.
G. Expenditures of Out-of-Town Fans
1. Estimate of ticket purchases
As in section F.l, ticket purchases of out-of-town fans can be estimated as
follows:
Field level:
Loge level:
Upper level:
Pavilion:
.48
X
.345
X
1,539,801
X
$3.50
.50
X
.024
X
1,539,801
X
$3.50
.40
X
.362
X
1,539,801
X
$2.00
445,949
.32
X
.071
X
1,539,801
X
$2.00
69,969
=
General admission: .31 x .21 x 1,539,801 x $1.00
Children:
.41 X 1.00 X 1,539,801 X $0.50
Total expenditure by out-of-town fans for tickets
40
$ 887,295
64,672
100,241
8,551
= $1,576,676
�2. Food and entertainment
183,087, or 37 per cent of out-of-town attendance, spent money on food and
entertainment. Proceeding as in section F .2, their expenditures are estimated
as follows:
·
Individuals:
.04
X
183,087
X
$13.75
Families:
.55 x 183,087 x $35.97 I 4
.41 X 183,087 X $33.84 / 2
Friends:
Total food and entertainment expenditure by out-of-town fans
3. Concessions
(As in section F .3)
.51 X 183,087
Downtown:
.06 X 183,087
Suburban:
Total lodging expenditure
and
1,270,112
$2,276,336
of the Georgia Hotel-Motel Association, we assume that the average rate
for a double room in the downtown
area is $13.00 and in a suburban area
is $11.00, and that the average rate for
a single room is $10.00 in the downtown area and $8.50 in a suburban
area. Thus for a party of five, the cost
of lodging for two days (average
length of stay) is $72.00 in the downtown area and $61.00 in a suburban
area. Estimates of expenditures are as
follows:
4. Lodging
Several assumptions are necessary
to estimate lodging expenditures of
out-of-town fans. Since the average
size of parties staying overnight was
5, we assume that each party occupied
two double rooms and one single.
On the basis of several inquiries of
hotels and motels which are members
5. Gasoline, parking
transportation
$ 100,698
905,526
X
X
$72.00 / 5
$61.00 / 5
$1,344,592
134,020
$1,478,612
Using the same percentages as in
the computation of the expenditures of
local fans for bus and taxi service
(separate percentages for out-of-town
fans were not calculated), these expenditures for out-of-town fans are
computed, along with parking costs,
as follows:
other
With 53 per cent of out-of-town
attendance spending for gasoline a
total of $7.22 for a party of four,
their total expenditure amounts to
$473,379 [ = .53 X 494,830 X $7.22 / 4 ] .
Bus:
.12
X
634,398
X
$0.50
$38,064
Taxi:
.02
X
634,398
X
$2.80 / 4
$ 8,882
Parking:
.89
X
634,398
X
$0.50 / 4.5
$62,735
(The average taxi fare from a downtown hotel or motel to the Stadium is
assumed to be $1.40 each way)
41
�H.
Expenditures of Baseball Teams
1. The Atlanta Braves
utilities, local sales taxes, public relations, supplies and equipment, Stadium Club, and Stadium rental. Since
the details are not necessary for a
study of this level, they were not
requested.
According to a statement provided
by the Atlanta Braves, their expenditures in Atlanta over the baseball
season will exceed $2,771,000. This
total includes salaries and wages,
2. Visiting teams
Estimates by members of the Braves staff indicate that visiting t eams should
spend the following in Atlanta:
Hotel (26 rooms/day at $16/ day for 75 days)
Meals (40 men/day at $12/ day for 75 days)
Miscellaneous personal expenditures (40 men/ day at
$10/day for 75 days)
Transportation for baggage, equipment and t eam
($500/trip for 27 trips)
Miscellaneous entertainment expenditures
($200/ trip for 27 trips)
Tips for clubhouse personnel ($400/ trip for 27 trips)
$ 31,200
36,000
Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting teams
$126,900
30,000
13,500
5,400
10,800
3. Visiting scouts
Similar estimates for visiting scouts are as follows :
Hotel (5 rooms/ day at $14/ day for 75 days)
M eals and entertainment (5 scouts at $20/ d ay for 75 days)
Miscellaneous p ersonal expenditures
(5 scouts at $10/ day for 75 days)
Total expenditures in Atlanta by visiting scouts
$ 5,250
7,500
3,750
$16,500
I. Calculation of the Economic Base Multiplier
The m ethod used to compute the
economic base multiplier for this study
roughly corresponds to the m ethod
described in G. E. Thom pson, "An
Investigation of the Local Employm ent Multiplier," R eview of E conom ics and S tatistics, vol. X L I (1959) ,
p p. 61-7. T h e m ethod is also outlined
in the M onthly R eview, F ederal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, M arch,
1960, and m ay be called the " prim ary market area" m ethod. We describe below the st eps involved in
constructing T able 15.
42
1. Employment in 1954 and 1964
in each industry for Atlanta, Georgia
less Atlanta, and t he continental
United S ta tes less Atlanta is obtained
from U .S. D epartment of Labor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics, Employm ent and Earnings Statistics for
State& and A reas, 1939-65, BLS Bulletin No. 1370-3, and Employ ment and
Earnings Statistics for the United
States, 1909-65, BLS Bulletin N o.
1312-3.
2. Location quotients for each of the
industries are compu ted as follows:
�Location quotient
Industry employment as per cent of total in Atlanta
Industry employment as per cent of total in primary
market area candidate
The primary market area candidate
is defined first for Georgia less Atlanta
and t h en for the U.S. minus Atlanta.
3. Loca tion quotients are c0mpared.
If t he location quotient for either
prima ry market area candidate is
greater than one, the industry is considered to have some export employm ent and the area with the largest
location quotient is designated the
benchmark economy.
4. The specialization ratio for each
export industry is then computed using the location quotient for the
benchmark economy as :
Specialization r atio = 1 - I/location
quotient .
This ratio indicates the proportion of
employment in the industry in Atlant a producing for export.
5. Employment in each export ind ustry in Atlanta is multiplied by its
specialization ratio and summed. The
resulting figure is export employment
in Atlanta.
As indicated in t he text, this method
yields an estimate of the economic
base multiplier fo r Atlanta of 3.3.
Other variations on t his m ethod show
different results. One variation (used
by Thompson) computes t he location
quotients with the benchmark economies including the subject a reas (in
this case, simply Georgia and the
U.S.). This approach leads to a multiplier of 5.03 for Atlanta and m eans
that 80 per cent of each dollar spent
would remain in the area for recirculation. Another variation uses the
United States as the benchmark
economy in each case, and results in a
multiplier of 4.2. In this case the
propensity to spend locally would be
76 per cent.
But the primary market area approach, with a propensity to spend
locally of less than 70 per cent, not
43
only appears to be the most appropriate of this techniques-it also yields
a multiplier in keeping with estimates
for other cities. Thus, quoting from
various sources, Isard and Czamanski
report the following multipliers as
typical of economic base studies: 0
City
Year
Multiplier
New York
Chicago
Detroit
Pittsburgh
New York
1944
1950
1950
1950
1950
3.2
2.99
3 .16
3 .55
3.91
1950
1950
1950
1950
1950
3 .93
3.97
4.16
4.18
4.35
1950
1950
1952
1961
1963
4.89
5.47
2.60
2.80
2.50
..
...
..
San Francisco
Cleveland
Boston
Los Angeles
Balti more
..
..
St. Louis
Philadelphia
Wichita
Los Angeles
Wilmington
..
While the above multipliers are taken
from a variety of sources and may
be computed in completely different
ways from ours, they still indicate reasonable limits for our conclusions.
For a discussion of the conceptual
basis, application, limitations and
criticisms of the economic base multipliers, the interested reader is referred
to Charles M. Tiebout, The Community Economic Base Study (Washington : Committee for Economic Development, 1962 ) and Walter Isard,
Me thods of R egional Analysis: an Introduction to R egional S cience (New
Yor k : J ohn Wiley and Sons, Inc.,
1960) .
5. Walter I sard and Stanislaw Czamanski, " Techniq ues for Estimating Local and Regional
Multiplier Effects of C hanges in the L evel of
Major Governmenta l P rograms," Peace Research Society, Papers, vol. III (I 965 ), p. 22.

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