Box 22, Folder 19, Document 9

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Box 22, Folder 19, Document 9

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November 2, 1966
Paul Ylvisaker
Stuart Chapin
This is to set down a few ideas for the TF agenda. Some of them spell
out further the ideas I listed at the end of our meeting in Washington on
October 28. The first proposal could be considered in the short-range
category, whereas the other two fall mainly in the longer range category.
They are in rough form and need "debugging," and I leave it to you to judge
whether any of them have utility for the December 1 assignment.
1. A Program for Easing the Situation of Trapped Minority Groups. Let
me first state what is quite obvious to most members of the TF, simply to
underscore the urgency of finding solutions. Two statistics about Washington,
D. C., dramatize the gravity of the situation and provide clear testimony of
the necessity of action -- (1) the fact that approximately 65 percent of the
population of the District are nonwhite, and (2) the fact that approximately
95 percent of the school children are nonwhite. Only Federal employment
opportunities and constant work by concerned community service groups appear
to be keeping this tinderbox from bursting into flame. Though the figures
for other central cities have probably not yet reached these dramatic proportions, the indications are that similar buildups are in process in most
large central cities.
Reports from studies of these areas are clear enough that those trapped
see no relief in sight and that problems involving education, employment,
housing, health and opportunities for upward mobility have reached a critical
mass. As brought out in our session on October 28, a total program is urgently
needed to bring this segment of the population into the Great Society. Asstnning that very strong recommendations in this respect are presented to the
President and become operative, I would urge inclusion in the total Administration package a new HUD program -- call it a "Program for Humanizing Metropolitan Areas'r or a "Program for Urban Development, 11 or some other positivesounding substitute title for "urban renewal. 11 Two features would distinguish
it from earlier emphases: first, it would set up renewal and housing
programs on a metropolitan-wide basis as the new Tttle II type of emphasis
in the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act has achieved for
other federal grant and loan programs, and second, it .would expand on the
workable program" concept to require certain steps for humanizing metropolitan
areas as a basis for qualifying for loan and grant assistance.
More particularly, under such a program current statutory provisions for
the array of different grants - in-aid, loan, and rent supplement authorizations
would be amended so that the eligible LPA 1 s would be new-type Metropolitan
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. Area Development Commissions .ll In addition tD the jurisdictional change,
the key feature of these new Commissions would be an entire new philosophy
in the execution of the traditional renewal, public housing, rehabilita tion
housing, cooperative housing and middle income housing programs, and the
new rent supple ment program. While the Demonstration Citie s Program woul d
· become the rr.ajor central city program, it would be required to meet the
/ workable-program-type criteria develop.ed by the Metropolita n Area ,Develop- ·
.ment Connnission.
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Under the new philosophy an empha sis on ttcommunity enclavestt would. he
· featured in contrast to .the old massive .area-wide clearance and r e development
or rehabilitation emphasis. The esse ntial objective of thi s- new appr oa ch
· would be dual -- (1) it would seek to humanize thei city environment by an
across-the-boards effort for the impr ovement of facilities and services i n
ihese enclaves,l/ each sensitively attuned to the mosaic of living patte r ns
in its environs , and (2) it.would deve lop and utilize workable progr ams tha t
would progress i ve ly put into effe ct voluntary open hous i ng gua r ant ee s a nd
intr oduce va rious services a nd improvemen ts in all e nclaves . Enclave s wou l d
be sma l l in sc'a l e , some times one block in extent, s ome t imes two or three, and
pe rhaps affecting no more than a dozen structures in a four or five block
a rea. They would be identified on the basis of a wide range of criteria ,
including struc t ura l conditions in the a r ea, hous ing vacancie s, vacant land;
t y pe of exis ting l a nd use , t he propos e d t rans por t a t i on and l a nd use s i n city
pla ns, the pattern of communit y organiza t ions i n the a rea , s ocia l inte r action
characterist'i cs i n the area , a nd a t tit ude s of re s i de n ts aixl u t the i r ne i ghbor hood. The proposa l f or human iz i ng an e nc l ave woul d :yary lvith the cha r a c ter .-- is tics , oppo.rtuni tie s, and needs of eachu Progr am empha se s would proba bly
diffe r i~ close -in a reas from t hos e -i n suburban a r ea s . Experiment a tion i n
ways of secur ing community par ticipation in e ncla ve are as wo uld be a n
i mpor tant pa r t of a ttaining respons ible invo l vement of r es i den t s i n suc h art
e ffo rt .
The hous ing aspe ct of the program might i nvolve publ i c l a nd a cquisition
of sca tte red propert ie s a few a t a t i me and the r e placement of outworn
struc t ure s wi t h new one s ; s ome might i nvolve r e habilita tion by priva t e groups
. I
1/ The t itle Me tropolita n Area Deve l opme n t Conm1i s s i on" is intended t o
convey emphasis on bui l ding and deve lopment function s , a nd might be cons olidate d
wit h the me tropol i t a n planning and pr ogramming functions t ha t are empha size d
under T"itle II of the 1966 Act. Whethe r it is po litica lly £eas i ble to phase
out the pr esent - day mun icipal programs in re newa l and public housing, I would
de f e r to othe rs on the TF on t his ques tion, but under any cir cums t a nces, the
new metr opoli tan empha sis, afte r allowi ng for a trans i tion per i od, should
rece i ve the lion 's sha re of loa n a nd gran t author i za tion .
I I This would mean i n troducing some of the same coordinat ive me chanisms
provided for under t he Demons tra tion Citie s Program i n to t h i s Program.
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or cooperatives and be planre d variably, some with and some without rent
. supplements. The key concept in the development of plans for these enclaves
would be voluntary open housing guarantees.JI Enclaves in outlying suburban arec!,s would be encouraged to receive small numbers of deprived
families .f rom the central city, and those in central areas would be designed t~ receiv~Jamilies of varying socio-economic circumstances seeking
close-in locations; For success of such a _Program a great deal depends on
develop~ng responsible participation by re.sidents of enclave connnunities
and in keeping the scale of adjustment at
low key.
To -achieve the full leverage ;iJa program of this kind, special related
efforts ··in local services, educatlon, employment, health, social work, and
recreation would be developed, especially in the central city areas. · By
and large schools would be found in interstitial areas bebveen enclaves and
depended upon to help supply a cementing force to the efforts in surrounding
enclaves. In short' the Program f .o r HumaniZ>ing Met'ropolitan Areas is based on
a philosophy of responsible involvement of small groups in making their . block
or locale a 11 foster home 11 . for . a few new families. A backup effort in s pecial
education, employment and other services would be an essential feature of the
Program. In effect, in the large me tropolitan a r eas this Program in a
_m etropolitan-wide framework would become a complement to the Demonstration
Cities Program which centers on the .c entral city problem.
2. A St epped-Up Effort in Re search on Inter-Group Re lations and
Liva bility in the City. The severa l rece nt crise s in ce ntral cities of
large me tropolitan areas and the groping a ction efforts to alleviate t he se
situa tions cle arly indicate a failure in ba ckup r esearch. In ·some r espe cts
more serious, there is a lack of an evaluation effort on action taken which
would enable conclusions to be drawn on t he relative effectiveness of
measures used.
In any effort to institute a ction programs in are as· as sensitive as
tho se of trappe d popula tions, and ce rtainly in a ny program to e liminate
ca u ses of t he se conditi ons , a major r esearch thrust is r e quired, one on · t he
order of that which this country has mounted in space research or in medica l
research in recent years.
_....,, ,
Ce rtainly the s ocial problems of today s hould- be hi gh in priority of
attent ion . But .in be late dly re searching t he s e pr oblems , t he big prob l ems
of tomorr ow should not be over looke d . One pr oblem r apidly desce nding on
~itie s is that of a dj ustments to changed ]Etterns of liv ing which wi ll come
fr om shorter work week. Ther e is a great deal of s~ecula tion on the boredom
J / Obvious l y vigor ous Admini stration l eadersh i p i n amending the
Demonstr ation Cities and Metropol itan Development Act of 1966 to e l iminate
Sec . 205(f ) would be esse ntial .

�of urbanites and their social psycho l og ical prob l ems of adjustment; the re
is speculation abo~t two-house livi ng arrangements becoming much more widespread wit h attendant changes in re c rea tion empha ses and traffic patterns;
and there are all sorts of unknowns i nvolve d i n new transportation and
communications technologies. With ;1 11 this i n t e rest and speculation, t here
is little systerna tic research going on that would en able cities to take
account of these changes in the pub l i c work s a nd service programs of a
catching-up and remedial sort be i ng l a unche d today, much less ena ble them
to embark on programs of a more pos i tive kind de signed for the Great Society.
A thir d research emphasis clea ly needed is one which frontally
e xamines the new kind of urban envi r onment res presented in the belts of
urba n deve l opme nt extending over seve r a l sta t es . These appear to be superce d ing the metropolitan area as a n ur ban environment (just at the time whe n
me t ro pol itan-wide approaches are rece iving a t t ention in Federal legisla tion
fo r the :first time to a significan t extent)G The qualitative aspects of
liv ing conditions in such regions of the k i nd noted above is one facet of
th i s envir onment, but also involve d is the whole area of governmental
mechanisms for dealing with needs a nd prob lems in these belts.
Sec. 1011 on the Urba n Environmen t a l Stud i es of the Demonstration Cities
and Me tro politan Development Act of 1966 needs t o be grea tly broa dened in
conce pt to recognize these three area s of neede d research.
3. The Wheaton Proposal for Me tropolitan Ar ea Fi s ca l Res pons ib ility
and Actio~ . Although W. L. C. Whea ton 2 s pr oposa l is already i n t he pub lic
domain, i t has not been widely cir c ulated as-ye t . I n any cas e, the r e a re
f ea tures o f his conce pt of 11 Me tr opoli t an Target Pl a nn i ng 11 which ma y ha ve
me rit fo r consideration by the TF i n t he s e cond stage of our work. Ve ry
br ie f ly he _ proposes using Federal gr a nt progr ams t o ac h ieve a more equitable
d is tribu t i on of fiscal r e sponsibil i ty among t he municipalities of a me tropolitan area, particularly in the a rea s of educa tion and housing . I attach
a c opy of his pape r.

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