Box 4, Folder 15, Document 13

Dublin Core

Text Item Type Metadata




' November 17, 1969



SUMMARY . 1. 2. 2 « «
Project Selection .
Table 1: Project Description and Initiation Date’
A... Comionality GF Solutions “44 tc gc celle

Table 2: Projects Categorized by Commonality of
Solutions . . . . . . s . * . . * . . . . . .

Innovative and Imaginative Solutions
Institutional Changes . ... s+. 26 «© «© »
Center City Transportation Solutions ....
Center City Transportation Planning Principles

Projectvsoelection Griteria: sf -. 4% . « « «ots

Relevance to Guidelines ....


Center City Planning Framework ... .
Transportation for Disadvantaged Groups

New Institutions



This portfolio describes the projects which both UMTA and the

five cities should initiate in Phase II of the Center City Transpor-
tation Project (CCIP). It identifies the purpose and significance

of each project, and its relevance to both the city and the Urban Mass
Transportation Administration. Thus, the portfolio provides a basis for
agreement and actions on specific Center City transportation projects.


The projects which have been selected build upon the insights, experiences,
and rapport gained during Phase I. They reflect extensive reconnaissance
and dialogue in each city, and the cooperative working relationships
which have been established with local officials.

These projects have been identified by the cities as meeting their

Center City transportation needs. Each project has been reviewed and

endorsed by the top professional staffs of all four firms in the group -

- Arthur D. Little, Inc.; Skidmore, Owings and Merrill; Real

Estate Research Corporation; and Wilbur Smith and Associates - and

by each city's technical staff.

The projects were selected by the cities and CCTP through an extensive
screening of the many candidate improvements identified in Phase I.

They eediede bork city needs and national program requirements. Projects
selected represent:

A. Commonality of Solutions - relevance and tranferability of methods

and results to National transportation problems.


B. Innovative and Imaginative Solutions - breakthroughs in

technological approaches to transportation problems.

C. Institutional Changes - new institutions to establish ways

of relating public and private resources to transportation
programs and projects.

D. Solutions to Center City Problems - solutions that solve

specific Center City transportation problems within a regional
E. Reflection of Planning Goals - projects which are consistent
with Center City transportation planning principles.
F. Application of Project Selection Criteria - projects which
reflect specific National and local criteria.
G. Relevance to National Guidelines - useful examples for National
policy statements.
The 17 projects selected for action in Phase II of the Center City
Transportation Project are described in Table 1. Six quick-action
projects are to be implemented prior to June of 1970; eleven will be

in some stage of construction by 1972.






Project Intercept: Stage A. Shuttle bus
circulation between open parking facilities

at the stadium and the Civic Center via a
downtown route.

Bus Circulation Improvements. Improvement of
bus operations and arterial street circulation.

Transitway Experieent. Development of a center city

ccomponent of a proposed rapid transit system.

Project Intercept: .Stage B. Expansion of
Stage A to,first, new forms of bus technology,
and second, a "people-mover" coordinated with
joint development opportunities.

Transportation Terminals. Development of new ways

of achieving effective interchange among the various
modes of travel-bus, car, pedestrian, and people-
mover — with focus on the Union Station Terminal and
Joint Development opportunities.

Center City Circulation System. Development of the







Main Street Busway, related street closings, and adapta-

tions to bus service and pedestrian movement.

Goods Distribution Network. Means of improving goods 1973

distribution will be identified, including
construction of the first segment of a truck tunnel


TABLE 1 (Continued)

Shuttle Bus Loop. Implementation of a system for
connecting major activity centers in the Central
Business District including new bus technology.

Mile-High Stadium - Center City Bus Service.
Implementation of shuttle bus circulation between
open parking facilities at the stadium and the
downtown area.

Terminal and Distribution Facilities. Identifica- 1972
tion of suitable locations for the development of
peripheral multi-level parking garages, and construc-

tion on one site. Planning of a downtown pedestrian
circulation system and construction of selected

segments. Identification of potential bus streets and



Shuttle Bus: Stadium —- CBD - Arena, Implementation
of shuttle bus circulation between open parking
facilities at the Stadium and the Arena,connecting
Major activity centers.

Center City -— Hill District - Oakland Bus Service.

_ Implementation of a demonstration project connecting

the institutional center, the highest concentration
of disadvantaged persons, and the downtown core.

Transit and Street Improvements. Development of an
action program for transit, pedestrian, automobile
and truck circulation downtown with primary attention
given to proposed PATways bus routings and distribu-
tion, and to improved pedestrian connections to the

Center City Distribution. Development of private
right-of+way east-to-north Center City distribu-
tion system for movement between downtown and
peripheral parking areas. Design and evaluation of
potentials for existing and new people-mover
technologies related to adjacent Joint Development

TABLE 1 (Continued)

1. Mini-Bus Service (Center City Bus Shuttle).
New Center City bus services to provide more
effective east-west and north-south circulation.
New technology will be explored, including turbine-
powered buses.


2. East-West People-Mover. Indentification of locations, 19 72—
technology ,usage, and Joint Development impacts for 1973
people-movers - along the east-west corridors between the
Alaskan Way Viaduct, the waterfront and Interstate 5, with ©
construction of the first segment.

3. Parking Terminals. Development of a parking strategy and 1972-
construction of the first peripheral parking garage as a 1973
terminal for the people-mover.


A. Commonality of Solutions

The projects have many elements in Cound in their approaches to solving
existing and emerging Center City transportation needs. These -

identified in Table 2 - reflect the basic strategy of the CCTP program
which favors, where possible, National market aggregation. They include
both quick-action and longer-term, more innovative solutions. Quick-
action programs are envisioned ds first-stage solutions to the introduction
of longer-range, new technologies. The particular combination of quick-
action projects and longer-range demonstrations for a given city is
tailored to that city's political and institutional structure. This

e Reflects the auto orientation of the Center City and the

need for efficient public and private transport services.

e Indicates the demand for efficient transfer of people

between car, bus and street. r

© Recognizes parking as a key element in Center City

© Emphasizes the impogtance of the pedestrian in the Center

e Creates an evolutionary approach toward new system development.

- Atlanta

Project Intercept: Stage A
Project Intercept: Stage B
Bus Circulation Improvements
Transitway Experiment


Transportation Terminals

Goods Distribution Network

Center City Circulation


Shuttle Bus Loop

Mile-High Stadium - Center City
Bus Service

Terminal and Distribution


Shuttle Bus: Stadium.- CBD -

Center City - Hill District -
Oakland Bus Service

Transit and Street Improvements

Center City Distribution


Mini-Bus Service
East-West People-Mover
Parking Terminals



Quick-Action Projects

Parking Hew bas Street and
Shuttle ‘ Expressway
Design and ‘
Bus . Adaptation
X xX
Xx x
x x
X xX
“ ' x
xX X x




Longer Term Projects


City Rapid

Quick-action The quick-action solutions recognize that in all five

cities rubber-tired technology (buses) will remain the dominant line-

- haul mode for the next decade. Consequently, the Center City street

system must be readjusted to more effectively accommodate bus flows.

- The quick-action projects - involving parking-shuttle bus systems,

new bus technology, and street and expressway adaptation - are
concerned with this adjustment.

(a) Shuttle-bus services - The use of shuttle-bus operations to

provide access from peripheral parking areas to the office-
commercial core, to improve circulation within the core, and
to provide linkages between major activity. centers.

(b) Circulation improvements - The re-evaluation of the Center
City circulation system, to identify potential opportunities
to improve the flows of buses, automobiles, pedestrians,
and trucks; to separate the various types of traffic; to
develop street specialization or closure programs; and to
promote desirable developmental patterns.”

(c) Information systems - The development and application of new
types of graphic displays to permit transit riders to determine
where they are and how best to reach their destinations.

The quick-action projects will be implemented with full recognition of
the need for the introduction of new technological solutions, involving
other than automobile or bus technologies. The longer term projects
are intended to serve this need.

Longer term solutions: These solutions include the introduction of

modified or new technologies, the development of new institutional


structures, and the introduction of new planning and development
strategies. Opportunities exist for the introduction of people’

movers, modal transfer points, and fringe parking developments, integrated
with Joint Development whenever practical. The impacts of such improve-
ments could produce more efficient land tee pureeras and create an
improved Center City environment. Accordingly, longer term solutions

emphasize the commonality of:

Multi-modal Transportation Terminals - Terminals which create integrated
downtown transportation centers
for transfer between bus, rapid
transit, auto, and pedestrian
movement systems. Terminals
which also afford excellent
Joint Development opportunities.

People-Movers - New Center City-scaled systems
which move people, relate transpor-
tation terminals to downtown land
uses and provide Joint Development

Rapid transit -. Rapid transit, when introduced, is

: , _ to form an integral part of

transportation terminals and people-


B. Innovative and Imaginative Solutions

The potential for innovation in quick-action projects is severely
limited by the time constraints. There is a greater opportunity

and need for such innovation in the longer-range time period,

where the improvements can be developed as an integral and functional

part of new commercial-office complexes. Such facilities as people-

movers, pedestrian walkways, specialized malls, Joint Developments,

terminal areas, and wide variety of complementary activities must be

considered if a new and improved Center City environment is to


The projects selected allow for innovation and imagination in the

application of both new and exising technologies. They reflect the

following types of innovation:

Improved Bus Technology Upgraded services through the use
of exclusive lanes and streets and
improved routings
More attractive and functional
vehicle design.

Low pollutant propulsion systems
for buses.

New information systems, signing
techniques (graphic displays) and

bus stop designs.

Pedestrian and People-Mover --- New climate controlled
Technologies ,
walkway systems which separate
pedestrian and vehicle traffic
--- New Center City scaled movement
systems which serve intermediate
volume ranges.

Terminal Technology ; --- New designs for sinietee svetems
in relation to expressways, bus
service, and Joint Development.

The multi-modal transportation terminal offers an opportunity to unite
all of these ekchncldetes in one place in the Center City. By designing
these terminals for all modes and relating them to Joint Development,

it becomes possible to create a "

structure for mobility" which will
help to free the downtown for the pedestrian.

C. Institutional Changes

Though commonality and new technology are essential, institutional
changes are also required. Projects reflect the eeitisnete categories
of institutional changes:
1. New techniques for planning and programming Center City and
regional transportation needs.
2. New techniques for administering and operating all modes of
transportation in the Center City.
3. New techniques for administering Joint Development projects as
related to transportation improvements.
4. New techniques for financing Center City transportation.


D. Center City Transportation Solutions


The projects described in this portfolio focus on the Center City.
Each project is designed to complement regional transportation systems.
Many important, highly visible line-haul and regional public transpor-
tation ‘systems are being developed by local and regional planning
groups. The CCTP projects are carefully coordinated with the officially
adopted plans where they interact with Center City transportation.
These locally generated plans include the following:

| The Atlanta Rapid Transit Proposal (1969)

The Dallas Rapid Transit Proposal (1968)

The Denver Regional Bus System Bevelopnent (In Progress)

The Pittsburgh "Early-Action Program" - a system of two

exclusive busways and a 10-mile line of the Transit Expressway

("Skybus") technology

The Seattle Rapid Tranist Proposal (1968)

E. Center City Transportation Planning Principles .
Certain Center City transportation planning principles underlie
project formulation. Public transportation ihozovenakke must be
guided by a multi-disciplined planning process that is responsive to
each city's needs.

1. All transportation improvements must be developed within a
total Center City planning framework, which complements the
regional transportation facilities providing line-haul
access to the Center City. To justify capital improvements,

projects must be part of a plan.


Center City transportation improvements must be multi-

modal. It is essential to coordinate highways, public transport,
pedestrian micro-systems, goods movement, and terminal facilities.
Street and highway-related improvements are necessary to allow
more effective and innovative use of public transportation to
facilitate development of pedestrian ways, and to improve
fratPic flow.

Efficient radial or line-haul public transportation services
play an important role in bringing people to the Center City,

in atttaetias present automobile users, and in relieving street
congestion. Consequently, line-haul transportation improve-
ments provide an important framework for Center City circulation
and distribution systems.

Transportation terminals which encourage the convenient transfer

of people from line-haul transit facilities to Center City
circulation systems are an increasingly important part of.
beee City transportation and iret h nade plaea,

Pedestrian movement systems — including people-movers -

should effectively link major activity centers. These linkages
are essential for the economy and amenity of the Center City.

The multiple use of urban space at transportation terminals,

and along Center City transport routes, can produce both
urban amenity and economic advantage. Such Joint Developments
have been successfully achieved in’Montreal's subway stations

and in Tokyo's joint highway and commercial facility.


The environmental improvement opportunities created by new |
transportation systems should be realized in both the new
facilities themselves and the adjacent areas. Solutions
should add to the amenity of the city in several ways:
e By creating such well-designed open spaces as malls,
plazas, walkways,and gathering places.
By integrating transportation facilities with commercial
and office developments.
By developing special-function streets, reducing or
eliminating conflicts between pedestrian, vehicle and
- transit movements.

By increasing the accessibility for pedestrians to

a variety of commercial and complementary opportunities.

All of these can combine to make the transit ride itself
inviting to the passenger - an attractive vehicle providing
the passenger with a pleasant visual sequence experience en

route to a well-designed, person-oriented Center City.

F. Project Selection Criteria

The following broad criteria have been used as a basis for project
selection. They reflect National policy Po qutrenenies and local needs,
as well as environmental, economic, social, and transportation

Individual projects are related to these ericerds in Table 3. These
evaluations have pees made a priori to detailed feasibility seudied:
Consequently, some refinement of both criteria and evaluations is
likely during the Phase II CCTP efforts.

1. Local Criteria

Need - The project serves a recognized Center City transportation
need. |

Support - The project has the endorsement of established local
public and private leadership.

Commitment - the local public and/or private agencies have extended
their endorsement of the project to include specific
allocations of funds and/or personnel.

Implementability - The foiece can be initiated or placed into
service with the designated time periods.

Consistency - The project is compatible with existing and committed
regional transportation facilities, and with longer-range

planning objectives.


Economic and Social Criteria

Increased Joint Development Opportunities - The project will

provide opportunities for coordinated land-use and transportation


Increased City Revenues - The project is expected to lead to
increased city revenues through intensive economic activities
and increases in land values, the real property ae base,
and/or development of direct-revenue generating activities

(such as lease holds).

Increased Employment Opportunities - The project is expected to
provide increased employment opportunities or offset project
employment declines primarily through improved accessibility
between labor pools and employment concentrations and increased
manpower requirements related to Joint Development projects.

Service for Economically Disadvantaged Groups - The project is

expected to improve the mobility of people to whom automobile
travel is not available, including low and lower-middle income
families, the handicapped, the elderly and the young.

Environmental Criteria

New Urban Development Options - The project is expected to

stimulate new public and private developments in the Center City
and its environs.

Increased Attractiveness, Diversity and Variety - The project is

expected to improve the quality of life in Center City areas by
increasing the compatability of the environment and the transportation



Reduced Pollution Levels —- The project is expected to contribute

to the reduction of Center City air and noise pollution.

Positive Impact on Buildings and Streets - New transportation
structures should enhance, not detract from, the visual attractiveness
of existing architectural landworks and the natural urban settings.
Transportation Criteria

Improved Service Quality - The project aheule provide greater
frequency of service, more extensive coverage, a more comfortable
ride, and higher speeds than are available on existing services.
Increased Route or Corridor Capacity - The project should increase
the passenger-carrying capacity in its travel corridor.

Reduced Street Congestion - The project should reduce street and
sidewalk congestion by attracting motorists to public transprt,

by reducing or eliminating impedances to all types of movement,

or by creating new movement channels.

Travel Time Savings - The project should reduce the time required
for travél to, from, or within the Center City.

Improved Circulation - The project should enable pedestrians, buses,
cars, and trucks to move freely and directly through and within the

Center City.

Reduced Conflicts - The project should reduce interference between

pedestrians, buses, autos, and trucks by planned street specialization,
horizontal and vertical separation of movements, and traffic

engineering measures.


Improved Center City Linkages - The project should promote
movement and interaction between major Center Cityfoci.
Cost-Service Compatability - Expected project costs are compatible
with anticipated usage, impacts, and other relevant project

National Criteria

Transferability (commonality) - The experiences gained in planning
and implementing the transportation improvement can be applied in
other Center Cities and will help identify potential national
markets for particular technologies.

Innovational Character - The project includes the innovative use

of existing technologies or the use of new technologies.

Institutional Change - The project involves adaptations of existing

institutions and/or creation of new institutions by the private and

/or public sectors to implement transportation improvements.

Timing - The project complies with UMTA's requirements for

immediate action (1970) or intermediate-range (1972) improvements.

* BLE 3

1 a Increased Reduced Travel terroyed Reduced © Improved Cost-Servi sity
Project/ Criteria Need Support Comit~ Consia~ tr Service for yey Urban Increased Reduced Enhance Inproved ie prov educe coe abilit Change
F Expl © Eeonsaieall ee 1 © Pollurien Visual Service Route oF Street time circulation Conflicts Center City Compact. y
mene ability tency Joint Devel. ; Ciry a ee a aie perelr a ease tavcle Tapact Qualicy Corridor Congestion Savings Linkages
ties groups = Options Diversity, Capacity

Projece Interdepe: x x x x x x x
Stage A x x x x x x .

Project Intercept: x x x
Stage 8 x x x x x x x x x x x x x 7 ir xa) =

Bus Circulation < x x x x x * x x x x
Inprovementa z x x x x x x x x x x x x

Busway Experinent x x x x x x x x x * x 2

Dallas .

Transportation x x x x x
Tersinals x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Goods Distribution x x x
Network x x x x x x x z x x - x x x

Canter City x x ‘x x ae x x
Circulation System X x x x x x x x x x x x x
Beaver fm x x x
Shuttle Bus Loop x x iz x x
Mile-High Stadium -
Center City Bus x x x
Service x z = x + z= ~ 2 .

Terminal and Distri- a x x x x x x x x x x
bution Facilities x x x x x x x x = x x x

Pittsburgh é 2

Shuttle Bus: Stadium = = ‘ x x x

D = x x x x x ¥ x x x i x x

Canter City - Hill = é
District - Oakland - x z x x
Bus Service x x x x x x x * - = *

Transit and Street x x x x x x
Inprovements x x x x x x = x = = * : = *

Center City Distri- x x x x x x x
bution x x = = x z x 2 x x x x x = a xa)

Seattle 7 ° x x f x x
Mind-Bus Service x x x x x x x x x x x = x(1) x x x x
East-West People-Mover X x t. x x x x x x = x x x x x x x x x x x x
Parking Terainals i. x x x x x x x x x x x %

(1) Depending on detailed feasibility studies b eer ete =

G. Relevance to Guidelines

Guideline studies are being prepared as a basis for UMTA's National
policy formulation. Under examination are such Functional Areas as:

Financing Mass Transit

Consumer Demand Analysis

Planning, Programming and Budgeting Systems

Role of Private Sector

National Policy Synthesis

Bridging the Gap between Comprehensive and Short-Range Planning

Traffic Analysis

Transportation Concepts

Technological Innovations

Urban Design

Center City Regional Planning Coordination

Economic and Social Impact

Joint Development.of Economic Uses


The relation of the selected projects to these guideline studies is
shown in Table 4. These will be used as case studies to test and refine

proposed National policies.



Project Intercept:
Stage A

Project Intercept:
Stage B

Bus Circulation

Busway Experiment



Goods Distribu-
tion Network

Center City


Shuttle Bus Loop


Mile-High Stadium -

Center City Bus

Terminal and Distribu-

tion Facilities


Shuttle Bus: Stadium

Center City-Hill
Bus Service
Transit and Street

Center City Distri-


Mini-Bus Service
East-West People-
Parking Terminals


and Budgeting



Relationship of Projects t > National Guidelines

Private National


_ Synthesis

the Gap

4 A





(New uses)


Center City -

Economic and
Social Impact


Three types of tasks will be performed in each city. These are:

(a) development of a Center City Transportation Planning

(b) evaluation of transportation services to disadvantaged
groups; and

(c) new institutional mechanisms for adminstering transportation

A. Center City Planning Framework

Each project in this portfolio will be developed within a Center City
planning framework. This will assure that transportation improvements
conform to, and stimulate, development opportunities, and that the
parts fit together. It will allow systematic approaches to improve
priorities within the broader context of overall capital improvement
programs. It will identify additional transport improvements, options
and opportunities.

The planning framework in each city will be developed seonevativels
with local agencies and will be designed to meet specific Center City
planning needs. These frameworks are further detailed elsewhere in
this portfolio.

The CCIP planning effort in each city will take place concurrently
with the specific projects. It will develop a "short-range" plan for each

G@nter City which will:


o Identify Joint Development and transportation opportunities.
© Prepare a development strategy for transportation improvements
which reflects:
o public and private programs
o funding capabilities
e development incentives
e Establish an ‘on-going woriing Seletonsnae with the local
community in which the CCTP team serves as the "catalytic
presence" in assisting the City to achieve its transportation
goals and taplemane its transportation projects.

B. Transportation for Disadvantaged Groups

Evaluations will be made as to how public transport can more effectively
serve lower income and other disadvantaged people living and/or

working in the Center City. These evaluations will be directed at
providing service or institutional changes which better serve the
disadvantaged. They also will lead to National policy formulation.

Cc. New Pustitumous

In each city, institutional mechanisms will be recommended for new
patterns of relating public and private resources. Without these

new forms of administration, many of the projects recommended in this
portfolio will be aifFicullt to effectuate.

Institutional changes usually occur in response to specific urban
needs. Consequently, many of these will take place se part of the

planning and implementation of specific projects. Others will emerge

through the on-going planning process.


III.The Task Ahead
This brief overview has summarized the projects to be undertaken

in Phase II of the CCIP. Projects have been designed to improve Center

City mobility through the use of existing and new technologies, and

The most urgent task immediately ahead is for UMTA and the cities to
agree on the projects to be undertaken and establish the priorities
for action.

Implementation of the projects is the first step toward developing a

"new mobility" in the Nation's Center Cities.

public items show