Box 5, Folder 8, Document 44

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Title

Box 5, Folder 8, Document 44

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Text

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THALER
UT -lO P
CENTENNIAL (ATLANTA)
SLUG
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p CAS
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' Atlar ta i r coniiderrd a ~odel city l in mi re t f an o r e re- .
speer

i·one
Str nd inr at
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he g l teway to . ;the sputhe r st, i _t is
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th 1e f as t1, er d eve.1 0 I ing
· . citie r'j in
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th~
c rI untry.
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5 r skyline i l p unb tuatld by new i kyscl aper l office bu l ldings,
!i a~ d t!. h e
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b US I. ness d J.St,
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1. rac k ' eS WJ.th
c I nstrr c-
l t ion actir ity. The r egen y-Hyatt Huse, a 2lt storr hotfl
l wi ili, glas s elevatork , is a tol rist attractiob in ltsel k .
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~~ l A new spor ts s adi-cqn stands in the foreground of t hose
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p ictu res h sed
j i·n g
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bf Cornmerce-typl
Chamber
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I e ir l city. Pro ! essir na l ase
h ave l all come
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gro6ps boost-
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l oot
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s · ccer
o the city in t he past few years.
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The mayor, Ivan Allen Jr., has a national reput, tion for
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. an e h lightened attitude f oward race relations and an a
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· · t ra ti ion
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· t en ti on so 1 ving
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th e ci t y ' s
g r essive
a dm inis
in
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i t he
South ~ you think of Atlanta .., " says a · Negro writer. ,
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p rob tms · [ " When you thini
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of t ood l ousil g
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fol
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p resi-·
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· ! c h i. ef , Her
I b er yI Jen 1.ins,- was appoin
. 1t e d
p; o 1 ice
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,
in'!'
1d e n t ! Johns on to the National qornmission on C~vil Disor~ers
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(" At l a n t a l is probably the best place to be arrested," a


il civi ::
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rigf ts leader once told lAllel .)
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lae c i<;led Allanta would be the first to s bmit an appli,c ation
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Jgarded b y HUD
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plann i ng granl . It was, and l he a l plici tion j is r , -
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fficials as the best model cities plan sub-
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mitted. Atlanta a 1s9 was among t h e lfirs t cities t6 buil d _


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~ u ;public h o using and use t j e urban renewa l pro ram
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111 u r ban
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!renewa l projec ts i n e x ecution or c qmple~ed).
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In iAllen Is o l f ice is a Iman l i th no st, ff 'h r dhgel
,who is responsible f o r much o
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the a c t ion w i c
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sLu G- - -- ENTENNIAL-- - -
MO G-H
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P'CAS
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At lanta its fa vorab e image. The mi n is Dan Sweat
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and
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h e J o ine a t h e city government his JO b was to see
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r that !At l ant a g ot its share .of f ederal f unds. The Job has
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l of u t ban t ffic t al,
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he c t ty ramrodl His loffif e is whert
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programs get
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orricia 1 s 1 an
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b een expanded • Sweat is an exampli of a new breed
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tarted; where government
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get t Aings
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swe at was respon sible for Atlant 's model , ities app i-
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. ·I anI app{Iication
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it befori any othe~ city. I asked him what the
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c ation . "Th e mayor told
·and submit
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budg l t wo l 1a b l . He said therl wou{a b e l no budget I I a J ked
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!him f. ow much s aff
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b +dget





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s wr t s t rte
age: r e s.
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rem
i or t i e ber
none. No sta f f ,

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ci j y an
couJ t y
ma1 t hey /ha d for , h is
. job:j'I k ni w thj man II wai ted , rom 1ach , gencJ 1;::'."'n
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ho s J men land i ocked them in
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sai
_makr g t 1eph, ne c , 11s
ared
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would haJ e. H
roo1 upstairs
I t , ok
Two week s
l atel we had { mod1 1 c Jies appliCatioJ "
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At lant a jis ndt wi t hout its J robl j ms. J n f act, t n e ci tiy
i:may Jyp


if~ the .crisis


· / t h at gr·~p s
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2~ !country.
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The c i ty h 1 s had it~ riot . I t
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t ~e ur~an c ~nte r s o f t h e
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·s st· 11 a segr e -
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jthousands lo f the city' s Piloor , ran y o f them Negro, are ]iv-





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t ng
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su~ t andard lunitjs . Th i s u c rss If th, urban r el'
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newal p ro jects has a ggra a t ed the h ous ing prob l em . By
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( lle! '_ s e ~tima e ,
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unit sl are in eede( b y 1972 jus t to
re loc:a te the fam ilies d i s,p l a c e 1a b y lg o v e~lnmen · act i on .
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Th! rati of const1uction o f ipubl y
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hous i ng a nd 221 (d ) ( 3 )
unit~ has 'not Jeen adequale t oi the ~ eed. Th e city is s ill
ls,ee~~Eg ja ~a:;;


-'o:cm 78 A


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need is dreatest.
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Oj Nov .I is, 1966, Alle
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convened a copferepce on· housing,
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attended · y the po er structu e o.f the r ity. "The prob~em ,"
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the r ousing to meet the r eeds of persons to re re ocati d
necessaryl for ! he continued progress of At lanta." In the
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code enforcerentrfthad
r. prevl ous ~ecade , he :said
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Ihigh~ay
c pnstr r c tion,
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urban ren~wal,
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esulted in
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of 21,opo far iliei, or 67,010
pef ple.
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"The mar orit~ of the f l milies and individuiils forced
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! e were
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t o mov
Negro.
Most we re poor 1. Approxim I t e 1y
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thes k peo~le ·had incomes under $3,000 a year and
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75% pad ipcomei under $5,000
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largk faml lies l with six
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o' f
bout
yeaf ···· about 15% tere
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more mei\iber .l "
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' d the f orma~ion
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commi'tt ee
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whicp wou~d give direction to a new pro ~ram . The ' ~oal:
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un ~ts br 1 9 7 f ~ ln its by t f e endl o f this rear .
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Atlanta ~s builderk, fot the most part t are not inter r
Cl.. ~~YIs ' h o l sing progfIam .
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es e in f ar
ipa. Ing
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planations of why they are not interested v ary , but th1·
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J l consensus seems to be that seyeral 1j years ago the home
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·, to give builders quotas of low- and mo derate -, incoTe housing
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t. spr ea! d ing
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!, t h eris
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~h
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. dl t o b e
an d d I vi• d ing
~ e t ime
require
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ipredominates


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area . The city, for its
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part j would f orm a ~onprof it corporatio\ and serve as ei
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1spent away fr o~ the more profitab l e custom b~ildi g which
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j v eloper o f the proj e c ts . The propos a l was r e j ected . .
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-=-crm 78 A
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�/\U ·· Ho _ _ 'f_B~_Li_Rc_.__
sLuG - -~ CE:ID_E~N:I_A_ _
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"t"'f_l
MO
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PICAS
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Noy , much of the turnk y anl 22l(d)
51Greeysborf ,
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Su
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housing is being
(3)
Mal vin i arnel of l inci, natir and the
Uil, ers r ave infrerentl cont, ct Wt th
_ _ __
ome
ty hall.
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Thj goa t of f ,aoo lunit l by i he e l d of this year won' !
be reached. Allen is confident, thJugh, that the large~
" l1c;,8 ~£../
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!goal !o f -i~
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jl972
unit, by
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, an b ,
attlined
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"Th, re . i j
]Oi every indication that we can pull t+his _J hing out of the
· rjh ole I\ in a
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reasqnable amo nt

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"Wll
hi say .
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f il ~ed
!up t J e pi~elin1 in J he _f l st ~8 modths. !we' 1 ~ eas · ly g J\t
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Uni s. W,'ve j ot the sunport of the business
lcommuni ty ,I the Chamber o f\ Cojerce, the ,n ews
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ediJ . ThJ
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lmagn i tude Qf t e Wholle e ~fort is exranding • II
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Al J.!en is1 rea istic. enou:gh to know! that the
lthe l eed. 1He is mayj r of
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'.gover,nment and
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ord is no;t
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cit! with a wiak-m1a yor r orm r f
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, rojej'c t wa;s rea'ld y to go to contract when the
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e needs tpe cooperal ion ol f th!e Board of!
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r en b i lked;. Som one

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ad c~me t f the city with an idea for
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1._ i n on r si~e ,
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f b .
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f ro u r ing pre a l r1.ca i e c f ncref e o r ses
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oard of A~der-
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plant 1,. '.' He had no prototype and no plant r II Al ~en says but
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h e came here with that idea and sucfeeded in panicking ~ome
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!i1derfi en.", 1[ Allef
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prev~ile
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.in f hat r ituat ion, but Terely
r aising the question of a technologtcal break hrough or
t he pi ssi~ l lity of findin
a pl ogra~ thai will sol+e the
32!ur b an Il hous i: ng .problemI brings
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forceful and angry answer:
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"The only problem is to make people believe there is l o
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eas y way. Looking for the instant solution to all of our
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J?robl~ms
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the
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issue.I The I!\housing
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problemI has
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got
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THALER
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I to b ~ settled ~ ow. It 's ~ot going t o wa i t for a change in
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! the f orm 9f goyernment or a new constru~tion method or a
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I.new Rrog·ram . . Tl ying to find the mal ic b tton caus ls de
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J ~lays !. The hell With delar."
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No t all !Atlantans 1.n or out jof goverru ent share Allen 's
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~ 1r~.b~ic ~± r_,, I '
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renei al alea a~d
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fsens e of urgency. National Homes brough , inl\..1ow-cdst s-i-P.~
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1£.aac<-J?' ho~ses or t e
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Thomasv·11e Urban
ound codJ s to be a prob j em.
atioj a l instal~ed t1e plulb-
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1 d
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· . i- s f ajIt ory, th i. ~ ing ·Ith e _8erm1.
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1.ng an
wi.I ring
in
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!obta .lned y om
he Bj ildiy
[the ~ ouses . Na iona
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was
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Departme~ t
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war suf J icie"j~ .
B+
o r c ek to !rip -o~t th.'e plumbing
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! hou CJ~
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~ i th 6iut t~e plumbing trees, plastic pipe, glass fiber
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r athtl b, ar d p r r fab r l ectl ical systlem. It responded by
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__f aisipg
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pr\i ces $500
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!_ Thel city planning
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lCommittee





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j hou\e..
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department and
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he Hrusing Resources
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stated in a subsequent report . h at · 11 City codes
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discr t inal e agrnst mass r prodtc ed , preft rici ted l ousil g.
f he P l umbif g anf E le r tricil Ad,isorl Boafds are coTpos~i
~ ~~edoj inanJ ly o i represen j ativ i s of , l abol a nd tradi un1. \ns .
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These j boards stronglt influence changes and interpretations
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labor-saving materi a l s
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of the City ' s Electrical and P umbing Codes . Their conce rn
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i s maintenance of the status quo of their trade· rather than
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new t ime - a nd
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o f Atlanta \ s low-cos
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and technology ."
hou sing 1·ust be multi.family uni.ts.
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But o nly 68 a cre s of ava iiable l a nd i ri the city is zone, .





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ulti ~amily. As a result , a lmoslt e v , ry ploposJd hous i ng \


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S' UG __~CENT..ENNIAL
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MS .
PI CAS
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Atlanta
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rl
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·-1-·Ti-1-,-1-1-1T1 ~ T I T 1 I r 1 1 · 1 1T 1 11 1 1 1 11 1
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proj el ct has t o be prece ded by rezon ing. Since All~n is
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determinea to comp l y with the fede r al p licy requiring in-
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!i t egr~t
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g over~ent-a ssiste d housing, the rez?ning a-
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mounts t o i a r eguest to integra te former l y al ~-white
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i ne i g r b orhiods. Two obsta, les r ave r een r aise r , on r by
he
j federa l g pverni~ ent. HUD r egulati on~ state that public
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I . f i. ! bl e areas.
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h o u s i.
ing c a n n o t i b e b ui'lt in racia 11 y1 i. d enti
f The b re s l ptiol is l hat l he h l usint is l o be built outi ide
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t h e Neg ro ! ghett o. But HUD officiall objected to buildir' g
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p u bl ( c hok sin g in all-white n i ighborhoods because they
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were l raci~l l y ~dentl fiab l e as all-Lhite l The city ·r theb ,
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could pla p e. public r ousing in neither a 1-white nor all-
'<5 i Ne g ro:
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n ei~hborhoods.
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The re wf s ev~dencr ear l ier f his f ear. f hat r n _wi s chi ng1 i ng<' that
f olicy , jusj t as FHA y as chi_a nginlg a pl olicyl of P.c ::t:
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, r~ n'.-u \1\s/
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, ~ ~~ j£g l mortr age i· nsuri nce fl or a proj ct inl an area
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'?fd
h I
. hi b e !l comp i titir
. 'I
. h ot h er F
L~ r t e r ; mi g l t
n wi
Iunt il t h e ; other housing ~as
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-in ure
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sold or ren t ed. 'i'The
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1s ays i Malcolm Jones, director of the Housing
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I~ "can't wait that
I ·1ong.
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Committee
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I time
. re
The! p rogram
cant
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d h
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here
l
ous ng
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rogram ·, "
esources
. d f or rezoning,
!
ire
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j either , and the c i t y this year was rallying suppo 1t
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fo f
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l a c ity- wide rezon ing. The alternative was to fight the J
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I s nIl ot' e y ough low-- 1i
z
o
nir
g
ba~tle
s
one
at
a
time.
"There.
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'. income ho~sing to make an equitable d istribut ion t h rough.





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l out the city,
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says Alle~ , "so the !guy on the block where
11
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! t h e h ou sing is g o ing t o b e bu ilt s ays,
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!why· me?' rhe
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i midd le -class a t itude h a sn ' t cha ng ed . There' s sti l l re T
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sista nce. ~
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DICAS

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ily housing i kn •t feasible in A.tl1 nta
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presr n tly!. "We need sing , e-faT ily l ouset verf ba\lr·" r ys
Jones, " but there's not enough profit i f thein.
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!
! requ i res
minimum
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rrt
!T rTrn--1
i ot
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s t ze o j 7,5 0 sq
ft .
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The city
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. a minim)
I
f r ontage of 60 !', ana a minimum house size of 810 lq. ft.
!
IJone :
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wani s th! min i mums reduf ed tb
j lot ; J 50'
O
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frontage,
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s. of°
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sq r ft. fo·r f he
nd 720 sq ~ ft. for the house. , "I'vb
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roposed that three times in writing over thr last year,"
i he
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says. /'We Ir k not going to get i I terer· t in single-family
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hous ~ng u ~ til this is doile.
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Jones also tried unsucbessfully
n
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o get the plumbing and
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,.. 1elect,rical codrl s changed for ~ational Hi mes. I "I've proQ ii
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! Posed to f aive codes in locations where experimental
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housing is being built. But utiions and manufacturers team
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up to oppose code changes.
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Jon es thinks the code issue will be forced in the model
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~~ ,-c ities program. Indeed, 6ne of the prop9sals in Atlanta's
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application which drew praise from HUD officials implied
I t
A
.t
t he
I
y
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Tas
'
rnl
.
.
to rspel
Id
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t
d
co es
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pe
jechn t ques Iand j ater , als ·
![ e n t ! t i o n !with new
25
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~ b e c ~mp l e-jed t l is f i ll. _, d Lo ue,
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as to
I -
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IIne
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-,.experi,_.
The p la6 ning phas~ of the model cities program
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. t'
of the best ( rac
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, t iti~ner s of urban renewal and the man ho gets credit for
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iknowing h ow to make federal b reaucrats expedite projects,
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! says ; the model cit ies program "promises 1much more than lit
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!has the c ~paci t y to produce. 1Allen doesnlt regard the 1pro-~
lj~Jram
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as the sa l vation of the city, either. "It will take
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1:::: :::a::e::de~e::1l:~y:1sumi~g_Cong~~1 provides the m
loney
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) is 11.k e most g9vernment programs," he says with a trace
~· o f
!
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a nnoyance.
5) by
. t h: e
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! slums,
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"l'he vast amount of good has been forgotten
public and
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the
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sm~ll a~ount
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A11 en does not deprecate urban renewal. "Urban renewal
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Atlanta
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of bad has beeA heralded
The urban ! renewal areas in Atlanta l constituted the worst
!
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unfit for anyone to live in at any time. They are


1 now. i usinr ss a r eas, l exprl sswal s, p t blic imprtvemel ts. l ot


i a single f erson movid oul of aJn urb an renewa+ are! who
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1.. d n 1 t
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h.is h. ousing.
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improve
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success o f u~lban renewal
! has ~ een i henomenal l The l natuj e of the model citiJ s arl a





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of .the HousI
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is nowhere near as bad as the urban renewal areas were J
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The h ousing program and the establish..~ent
.5
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i ing Resources Committee are, ncri.ethJless, tacit admission
!jthat Ijthe ;ehousing
I phase
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f
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of u 7ban ~enew~l might have been
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hand led b e tte r ~ in Atlanta as in o t h e r citie, .
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II
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_ r.
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"S i:ne s l.y oul pas! reco\rd o \
t!O~fa ct6r y,
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rel\ catil n ha, been sat s-
!Allen told his conference on 1 ousi g in 1966.:I
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But I fe e l t hat we 1mus t do b <, tte r :than just satis f acto1ry.
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A year later , the Housing Resources Commit ee and the
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. orte
I d tlha t ~.1-'he b uiI . ld ing
. i o f re 1 09aI

1
\Panning
Departme
nt rep
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I If d. I
. 1I h ous i.I n g wh1.ich meet s the nee d o
?5:it 1.on
1
- 1,when
- !they
' I-need
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Idf amI.i 1 i· esI
i J p 1 ace
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it "has not been tried, much l ess succes.s-
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f u lly a c h i e v ed , in Atla n ta ."
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The sam! rep! rt c jnclu~ed t1at "~n ly about
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.J 'disp~a cee ~






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,
1f
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froll} u rbl n r e ewa l _ h o alppar e,nt Y qua
for J?ubl iq hou, i n g 1 ere t
fin p ub l i c
locait e d
1
1
11% o
t h,
1· f · d I
1.e
1
h ousing ; s , c-
1tion '22 1 h ou sirig had not :e ff e ctive:i1y meJ the 1n eeds o f the
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large number o f low...! i n com'e fam'i lies' d i spjl a c eJ. Re n!\t s a nd


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icos t s' , whf l e mdderat:e , h a v e be.e n to1o high fo·
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I the s ,e

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fam'il ies ·
78
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G~JJ-!_i.L.'. :..1; 1 1. 111 1_u_u.1_I 1 , i I J.J 1,1_u UJJ.1-1-u.u i 11 11 LL 1 1 J.J_,


?orn






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Low- ·. and moderate income hotsing has not been b ~ ilt at
fII
...,
n1-n
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ii a ra~e su~I~f icient
. .I . .·t replace
I
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housi~g del olis ed over the
" c ade,


· a ccording


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II pas b : ae
to the report. "Due t
decrease
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~ l~in t ! e lo~ -cos f rentals pply f or b oth white ~nd legro
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, f ami ies, ! the need in number -of units today is greater
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than , it was in 1~59 r Regardless of stru~tural conditioJ s,
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,
Hther~ appears to be l a shortage of ~bout 5,300 housing
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nits
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··ui available I to Negroes and 2,100. hOU$ing
units Iavai able to
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lwhiti. fampies rent lng £cir $55 a m6nth Jr leis in Atlanta."
· ;-
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i ci·t ies,
l
1lt
j O th e r_
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· t he
is
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15!_





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1nat ion's condition
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is
a measure o f t 1h e
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o_i g som
J et inlgr-;:::al yt ingt:' oweve\
.J of solut iI on the action
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ti
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,
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that Atlan~a and its ,mayo , are accorded
1 t · i 1 ! 1 .1 f I
in~ i i na ~\ cc a i m orj
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.
I b lems
its
pro
1
' ' t e ac1t·ion t o so1 1 ve ~em.I
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t
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, an d ini
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If Ii th ereI is
.. anyth ing
j
. h . di is~inguis
' "- . I . hies Al antaI IromI
whi ic
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No !o n e is rusning in ~~om
alls.
tJ
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h .
or Was ington
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2~Ht o hE;lP A~len solve the city's, problems. Yet, in Atlantia, ast
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ue state capi o
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pit ts burgh and New Yor~
I and! Chicago' the
t ont~nue
I
.
ur a 1
10se\k thJ better life in: the !city. The
\!Poor
j[ igra~ ion
~
1"-h
.·con t ~nues
·'
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·s
,\' an d ,~
ereI is
among ci. t y o lf I1c1a
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5"'.-





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lthat !shou ~d At J anta lsucce.e d in\ impr 1oving the , light
\ of



!OL




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t h ose a lready in its slums, the cit
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would belc ome an even
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bigge1r mag!n et for the ~talt e' s ;cural poor,. With few excep-





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tio ns'h :and Georgia is not one of them-;-!the states have I
Is owni~J.l.
h
2;rpn 1y
!t
"-t:1
· e in,
.
L.
eres It
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thleir· c !,.t ies,
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e 1 ping
.
in
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even
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b


y SU~IlClen


'. ~ · · ·
ti y serv~ng
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! e ml· r1
r pra
s t OS t em th
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. ;r ra t ion
.;
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kl
i .t
ig~r l y
! b.
to i t.e citier . As l any l
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T ayor l
wan r s
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to work through! his state \ government rather than directly
I I I
with the feder a~ government, and
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~X:'....!-.:.~~':.L. ~~e
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answer
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, }J)Thf?, states have done nothing to 1 tem the mlgrat{on, ..
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says , Alle~, "tf ey 've probably been a party to it. Anyor;i.e


hi
I an ~! ove ~n
!_
t o ai .rooming
. 1.
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, ouse an
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th,
l a le ~ser : ole. I'm
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. Thi star~ s c r uldn t . har e pli yed
eeply disla ppoin~ted they , idn' I m.ove
11


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John Collins
~ ~, !
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this a r ea.
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code i catches up wit
dwait unti
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the housing
1
former mi yor
!
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f Boston and now a member of
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jr~the fa cul~y of JMI T , told l a me l ting of the Urbl an Li nd
! stitl te that "the states
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by and l ~rge, with a few excep-
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l tions, have displayed all of 1he dynamijm, a 1 of the
I1desii;e
)
15 1I
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fo r innbvation, of the dino l auer l
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sar s Pi}tsb_u rgh Mayor Joe Barr: '!Work with the states?
. Harris





. 1b urg ~
7i 1 t ehis t a tI e 1 egis
! . 1 atu~
·r-,X . f or 20 years
!
was; in





I
what
I
to
1 get
!
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it out of there. It sticks like glue.
'j. and I know
happens
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legislation
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urban
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Allen says publicly that the federal government has
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,. J-given, Atlanta f, ull cooperation. Is I thereI too much red tape?
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the cry. How Cqn we get government
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~~ i for an archite ct to come up w~th plans.'
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It : is probably true that Atlanta ihas fewer prob ems ~ ith
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' was making mar k et a n alyses in Atlanta without consulting
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city , i and its estimate of the demand for 'j moderate-in!
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. come :hous ing was considerably ll ess than the l ity's esti;





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ma te of t he need. Yet the city c an 1t fulfill the need un-


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is will ing to issue the mortgage commitments. !
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Citizen support of Allen's programs surpasses the sup -
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The ci ty-wid1e rez oning proposal ~ as being supported by·
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sevetal g ,r oups, the Champer o f Cormnerce amonr
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., builders. ! The ousi g Repourc r s Col itt, e, a citizl en Is '
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Reali estate brokers looked the lis t over and made contact


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the land and developing low-income housin6
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brokers, "
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says HRC dire c t or Jones, "are re-
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l sponsible.1: for l etting develop~rs i h to t t e program .
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i t but wondered how any-
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Other groups ! combined efforts to j push for a local fair
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h ous~ng law . Allen


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! one couia; determine the need for a i local ordinance when
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2~!-"we haven;" t haf t:imia ta hry t f e naf ianat 1aw yet.
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Bui. ld ersI i. n th e city
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i, posals to , bu ild i ntegrat ~d ho~ sing l They1 contend the market
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i requires segregation in housing; two markets[ black and
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exist , they say, a nd o ne is a s p-1 e judice d as thl'
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, othef. Toey are supporte1 , to !a degree, by a report of
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. on Civil Rights , which found that s e gregation i n Atlanta
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southe rn cities . Butte re -
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than in most other
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·port I was n o brief f o r builders



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TAe att itude o f builde rs
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that , they can d o nothing to aid the establishment of an
open housing market 11until the co:mmunity 1el iminates pre ju-





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d ic e · seemed to \ the Commit tee a denia l o f basic r esponsi-
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lo c a l guarantees a gain s t
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, h ousing l aw , according to some builders. It seemed -as





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~onference l on
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kpring whe j a large number of church and civic
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equality of opportunity
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, l arge. The e n t·re s p ectrum of the h ousing _inf ustry was re-
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Dr. Sam Williams, chairman of. the Comm~nity !
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' j Re lation s l Comm ission of Atlanta, asked the president of
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! the Atlanta Real Estate Board ) Marion Cl ane, if there were
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Negro ihas
ever applie~:3..
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"Would y ou a f cept ! a Ne ro i :yl he di id a l ply?'
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"After
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William
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ask d Wi liams.
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was equa t ly d t rect lin
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estiqning 1 otis Thorp e,
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,,...,. ; pre srden t ; o f the all-Negro Empire Real Estate Board:
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times it ~eems that even though you do ~egre~ate ~ our boards


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n eig~orhood i ~ in t ran s {tion land s et p~ ices 1·highJ r thcJ.n
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the y n ormally would lbe Yap p laus e--Y . I s t h at right? 111
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Thc::-pe and Crane den i ed t he !cha~g e, but the reaction of
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· t he a udience indic a,ted t 11,e y t h oug ht WiLhams had touched
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a nerve. Williams was c aution ed t o a voil emo ion qn a !v ised t o stay vrith fa c ts
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If y ou! wantl1 facts'
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Ithem: to y~u
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177
Centennial
13
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hk replied' "Negroes can deliver
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ini boxci rs . i e al l kno
the fact! .
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Whr areI
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That spe ech, 1 too, brought applause, and it was obvioh s
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thatl h owever far ahead of other cities tlan ,~ a is in solv-
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I i ng 1ts housing problems
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it is no~ far enough ahead to
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