Box 7, Folder 10, Complete Folder

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April 28 , 1969
To : Col . Malcolm Jones
From: Dan Swea
Attached is a copy of a draft position p per establishing the
Nation l Urb n Coalition's role in hou ing.
I would
OS :fy
any comments you may hav •
�April 28~ 1969
Mr. Duane Beck
Exe cutive Dil'ector
Community Council of the
Atlanta Area, Inc.
1000 Glenn Building
120 Marietta Street, N. W .
Atlant , Georgia 30303
De r Duane:
Attached i a copy of a draft position paper establishing the
National Urban Coalition's role in he 1th.
I would appreci
ny comments you or your coll
hav .
Sine · rely your ,
Dan Sw at
gues m y
�The Urban Coalition
1815 H Street, N.W.
Washin gton, D.C. 20006
Telephone : 347-9630
CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner
CO-CHAI AMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A. Philip Randolph
Apri l 1 7 , 1969
The Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr .
Mayor of the City of Atlanta
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Dear Ivan :
At the request of the Executive Committee tle staff has
underta ken preparation of position papers in each of the
major substantive areas which concern the Urban Coalition.
I am enclosing for your information papers on housing and
on health which have been approved by the Executive Committee.
As a general rule the se papers are r eviewed by representative task forces or ad hoc committees and then submitted
to the Executive Committee for final approval. Other papers
are in the process of prepar_a tion.
Peter Libassi
Executive Vice President
Mr. Dan Sweat
�duanc w beck
ouncil o:f the
t anta
rea inc.
EUGENE T. BRANCH. CJrnirm,m of thit ffr,,ll,1 of T)lrr.·,.: tor.\
CECIL A LEXANDER. Fii't! Chairm,m
JOHN IZARD. Vice Chai rm, w
MR S . THOMAS H . GIBSO N. S,:cr<lar)'
Exe,·uri,·,· Direcror
TELEPHONE 577-2250
May 6, 1969
Mr. Dan E. Sweat, Jr.
Director of Governmental Liaison
Office of the Mayor
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Dear Dan:
The draft position paper on health by the National Urban Coalition
is, in general, excellently put together. The statistics, insofar
as we are specifically familiar with them, are accurate. The listing of problems affecting the poor in different ways or in different
degrees as compared to the non-poor, is essentially the listing our
Comprehensive Health Planning Project has been gathering together.
The listing of possible solutions or ameliorations is quite comprehensive. However, several such solutions are presented as though
their efficacy had already been established, such as the use of
neighborhood health centers, the extension of group practice, etc.
These must be, in fact, the objects of careful study, in which both
objective and subjective factors need to be included.
A small quibble would seem in order for the first few pages which
seem to equate being black with being poor. I realize this is because
statistics are more readily available comparing the health conditions
of Negroes and whites than comparing the poor and non-poor, but this
could be remedied in the final edition of the paper. In the concluding
sections, the emphasis is clearly on the poor in general, as is most
proper and effective.
The authors of this paper obviously know how to marshal their evidence
and how to present it effectively to make points ~ There is little
doubt tha t this is a valuable resource doc
t, and the promised "Ex
for Ac tion" should be even more useful.
DWB : j
Revised Draft:
Urban Coalition Roles in the Health Field
While no one wants to be sick, among the desperate needs
of the urban poor and disadvantaged, seeking good health, including practicing preventive medicine, will not be perceived as
a very high priority.
They find as more compe lling needs, jobs,
the opportunity to own a business, more educational opportunity
and better housing.
Since without good health, daily functioning
in holding jobs , running households, attending school and the like,
di f ficult, i f not i mposs i ble,
v a rious kinds of health s ervices
are a necessary condition for the poor to function with any adeq uacy a t work, at home and in th e ir communiti e s .
The r e is much evide nce o f the dep lorab le health sta tus of
the u rban poor.
abou t
" Poor" refers to al l those families, including
25 milli on indi viduals whos e income f alls below the commo n ly
a ccepte d g o vernment standard t h at would pro vi d e adequate f ood ,
clothing, and shelter and medical care.*
Th e dispropo r t i o nate

of an estimated 45 million poo r people, half live in l a rge

metropo litan areas. Ano ther 25% o f this t o tal l ive i n c o ncentrations of population but non-metropolitan areas. Our primary
concern is with the improvement of the health services in the
cities that serve at least 2 5 milli o n Americans.
�- 2 prevalence of ill-health among the poor, minority and disadvantaged groups is shown in many ways:
--Death comes earlier to the poor.
Life expectancy for
the non-white is 7 years less than for the white.
--Death is a more frequent visitor to poor mothers and
Non-white mothers die in childbirth 4 times as frequen-
tly as white mothers.
Infant mortality is twice as high among
the non-white as among the white.
--Illness is twice as frequent among families with annual
incomes of $2000 or less.
There is 4 times as much chronic
illness among these families, twice the number of days of resticted activity, a third longer hospitalization.
--Tuberculosis and cancer of the cervix is found twice as
often among non-white urban residents as among the white.
--Visits to doctors and dentists, despite the obvious greater
need, are less frequent among the urban poor.
Children under age
15 average half the doctor visits in families with incomes under
$2000 compared with children of the same age in more affluent
--Preventive services are not received by the same proportion
of poor children as they are by the more affluent .
Only 8 . 6 % of
white children have no immunizations compar ed with 22 . 5 % of nonwh ite children .
Ex i s ting health se r vices delive r y sys t ems do n o t r eac h all
of the urban p oo r .
Me dic al 9are i s ge n e r ally p r ovi d ed in c l inics
3 -
where available, generally over-crowded, at inconvenient hours,
understaffed, and run as categorical units:
clinic, heart clinic, arthritis clinic.
i.e., diabetes
Care is episodic, focused
on emergencies rather than continuous and comprehensive, with little
if any attention to preventive services, or health education. There
is little or no effort to reach those who need care, but lack motivation.
There is little if any follow-up, coordinated control
intake, or referral procedures.
Where private doctors' offices are the source of care, high
costs deny needed services to many.
While Title XIX (Medicaid)
has been in effect for a number of years, not every State has yet
participated, and even where the States have, legislative ceilings
both Federal and State have . imposed stern limitations.
Less than
9 million people altogether in the country are covered and able to
take advantage of the program.
This means that for the other mil-
lions of the poor, the doctor's bill may strongly deter their
seeking care.
In addition, the clinics and doctors offices are not available
to all .
Many inner city neighborhoods are far from where hospital
clinics were set up a generation or more ago; doctors have moved
to the more affluent suburbs; public transportation from many of the
inner city neighborhoods is lacking , insufficient or e xpensive .
The shortage of health manpower gene r ally is well - known , and the
sho r tages of phy sicians and nurses , and oth e r health personnel have
b een well p ub l i c iz ed .
4 -
The problem of accessibility of health care facilities is
compounded in those instances where governmental and private
agencies and institiutions have failed to reorganize to meet the
personal health needs of the poor.
In addition to the fact that
facilities are often absent, obsolete, or obsolescent, inadequate
in scope of service or availability temporally or geographically,
emergency services are difficult to obtain, inadequately staffed,
qualitatively inadequate.
Environmental health needs are only minimally met.
lems of air and water pollution are largely ignored.
The prob-
More personal
env\ ronmental needs such as damp, cold crowded housing are widespread among the poor.
Garbage and waste disposal is inadequately
Rats abound, as do other pests.
Most of such conditions
result from failures of local policing and supervision.
Federal aid does not serve local health agencies effectively .
In the past five years, a spate of Federal legislation has been
enacted and the amounts spent by the Federal government in the
health field have b e en tripled .
At the same time , because o f t h e
multiplicity of funding sources and the comple x ity of approach ,
i n c l u din g t he p r oliferation
of pl a nn i ng bodies , local units we r e
a n d are un abl e t o tak e ful l o r even p a r ti a l adv an t a g e of t h e r e sources availab l e.
Fu r the rmo r e , the n e w l e g i s l ati on l o ok ed t o
mo dificat i on o f the l ocal o rganiz at i o n and n e w me thods f o r the de livery of h e alth services that existing service agenc i es were completely unprepared to undertak e .
�-5Hunger and malnutrition can be both a concomitant to illness
or a direct cause of it.
Malnutrition is known to interfere with
proper growth of the fetus in the mother during pregnancy, with
the health of the pregnant woman, and is responsible in some
degree for the higher maternal and infant death rates among the
Malnutrition is known to be associated with improper develop-
ment of the growing child physically and mentally, and is responsible in part for the increased illness among the children of the
poor, their learning difficulties in school, their later failure
to find adequate employment and in adult life, their increased
chronic illness.
(Some 25 million
people must be counted among the poor and the
near poor, yet nowhere near that number qualifies for, or lives in
communities that operate, Food Assistance Programs.
Only about 8
million actually receive food assistance, through commodities
distribution or food stamp programs.
Commodity distribution has
been attacked as nutritionally inadequate, culturally unsuitable,
and logistically impractical .
Food stamp programs are
hedged about with requirements of time and place and quantity
of purchase reducing their coverage .
School lunches are not free
to millions of children who cannot purchase them even where they are
Some districts specifically e xc lude families on we lfare
from free s chool lunches for t heir chi ldr e n.
Hundreds o f counties
where desperately p oo r people live have no food programs at all .
study of welfare food cash a llowance in a report last year from HEW
demonstrated its inadequacy even for the poorest of the poor who
qualify for welfare aid:
6 -
the food prices are based on 10-year
old costs, or else the State or local welfare payment is only 18%
or 50% of the State's own admitted level of need,.
The health of residents of the inner cities cannot be served
b y health programs alone.
Education, including health education
and nutritional education, improved housing, more and better skill
tra i ning, finding and retaining jobs, are integrally related needs.
However, as already stated, significant and substantial progress
mu st be made toward meeting each of these needs, but those ends
wi ll n ( t b e a chie v e d unle ss simultane ously p r ogress is made toward
pro v iding more adequate health services.
To achieve the progress th a t wi ll b e tter conditions in t h e
ci tie s and wi ll reduce t e ns i ons i n urban c e nters requires re a s s essment o f responsibilities to be borne by the various elements involved in deli v e r ing medical care services :
What res ponsib i l i t ies can the privat e practiti oners o f me d i cine assume f o r i mpr ovin g the hea l th o f the urban p o or.
For loc a t i ng offi c e s accessible to the poor , and us ing
non- profess ional aides from a mo ng the poor t o serve t h e p o or in
thei r offices'?
Fo r limiting the char ges wh i ch deny medi cal care t o many?
For reaching out t o the needy, rather than passively wait -
i ng to serve?
7 -
For looking toward group and team services as a pattern
of practice?
What responsibilities must government assume for improving
the health of the urban poor?
For expanding the supply of trained health manpower and
stimulating the use of new and more imaginative combinations of
health workers to increase physician productivity?
For providing needed health facilities, emphasizing
interrelated institutional needs?
For assisting individuals to meet the costs of essential
medical care?
For establishing goals and priorities in health services?
What responsibilities must hospitals and medical teaching
centers assume for improving the health of the urban poor?
For developing a full spectrum of institutional services?
For modernizing educational opportunities to increase
their productivity, and recruitment policies more applicable to
the poor?
For outreach services and programs beyond their walls?
For continuing education?
What r esponsibilities should business assume for improving
the health of the urban poor?
For el i minating ai r and water pollution?
Fo r improving e x isting housing c ondit i ons ?
8 -
For using their influence in Board membership of
voluntary and public agencies to facilitate needed change?
It has become increasingly clear that the absence of representatives of the community in the councils and committees that
de cide on policies, devise plans and programs and carry t h em out,
is a serious flaw and probably contributes heavily to the failure
or inadequacy of existing health programs.
Priorities and alloc-
ati on of resources cannot be appropriately assessed if not r e lated to the community of discourse, as well as professional considerations.
This is true of the poor, of all minority groups,
and even more so where profound cul t ural and language dif f ere nces
exi s t.
Th e involveme n t of poor wh ites a nd poor blacks i s e ssen -
tial i n decision making on b e n lth planning and programs, the
involve me nt o f Spanish speak ing people i n Mexican-Ame rican a nd
Pue r t o Rica n commun i ti es , t h e i n v o lvement o f Ind ians i n t heir areas
of residence.
The exi stence of the Urban Co aliti on i s based on the belief
that concerne d ci tizens wi sh to c o ntri b u te t o t h e pro c es s o f
cha nging instituti ons whe re t h e e v i dence of t h eir in a dequacy i n
dealing fairly and justly with all citizens is demonstrable.
failures of the health service system to deal fairly and justly
with the poor is demonstrable.
Change in this system will require
painful readjustment, but is long overdue.
It will not be enough
9 -
to recognize the defects in someone else's operation.
of traditional modes of thought and behavior will be expected in
one's own part of the whole.
Recognition on the part of each element
involved, of his own deficiency is basic to change.
will be asked to re-examine their patterns of practice, reim-bursement, recruitment into training, and the training itself.
Institutions will be asked to review the services rendered, the
staffing relationships, the interaction with other institutions,
independence and responsiveness to community need.
Governments will
be asked to investigate their allocation of funds, evaluation procedures, program decision making and coordination with non-public
bodies .
In every instance the expert must expect to be questioned
by the "beneficiary", or his advocate, in this case the sufferer
from the deficiencies of the system, and r e ply as to wh e ther his
action or position is to benefit his narrow interest or the larger
Aware of prevailing health conditions in t h is country's
metropolitan centers, and the d r astic effect of these condit i ons
on the quality of l i fe in the inne r cities , the Urban Coalition
b el i eves that :
Effo r ts mu s t be r edoubled in each city to mak e it possible
f o r a ll cit iz e n s to h ave access to modern medica l care.
Thi s wil l
require t ha t :
Ea c h c ommuni t y, wi t h t he aid o f Fede r al a s si s tance fo r
"comprehensive health planning", sho u l d diagnose available health
�- 10 -
resources and identify the areas and the groups for whom medical
care services are most needed and least available;
Coordinate existing services so as to eliminate dup-
lication and make more efficient use of resources;
Initiate programs where now lacking, or introduce trans-
portation where required to offer access to health services;
Extend existing services, particularly making clinic
services available at opportune times;
Involve community residents in planning and delivery of,
and outreach services, particularly use of the poor in reaching
the non-users of care.
While no single method or plan will fit all communities, no
potential opportunity must be overlooked.
More convenient clinic
hours, b etter transportation, more facilities nationally interrelated, more effici e nt use of Federal a nd o ther public f unds,
more realistic use of staff available and production of necessary
manpower locally should all be explored.
Concentration on improvement o f special programs with
particular relevance to the needs of poor people.
Here action is
n eeded on the part of all re l a ted health agencies to extend and
improve prenatal care and infant care services, school health
s e rvices, cas e- finding of handicapping conditions and coordination
of health service to treat orthopedic handicaps, provide glasses
and other appliances.
Major emphasis must be to improve mental
11 -
health services and community programs for care and rehabilitation
of the mentally retarded and emotionally disabled, returning them
to homes and jobs as quickly as possible.
More home health care
is urgently needed. Family planning efforts must be intensified.
For all health services related to children, for example,
the school can be used as a center for identification of cases,
provision of care, and community involvement in health care. ·This
will require a new focus on the part of granting agencies, planning
groups and health service agencies.
However, the school is where
the children are, and where mothers can be reached.
While the
present turmoil in education might be prejudicial to adding this
concern to the already complex discourse, it may also offer a readymade v ehicle for change in health services.
It deserves serious
No child should go hungry. No adult should be without needed
To ensure these ends will require :
Consolidation of local resources to eliminate hunger. Every
community must have a supplemental f ood program , and a cas e- fi nding
prog r am to identify a ll families and indi v iduals whose resou r ces are
in suffi c ient to provide them with the minimum required basic sta ndard
nu t ri men ts .
b) Exi st ing
Fede r al aid should be ut i l i zed to the fullest .
That wil l n ecessi t ate t he shar i n g by gove rnmen t s, in the a dministrative c os t o f stamps , c ommodities o r fr ee l unches a n d bre akfasts,
and nutrition education.
Private r e s o urces, in addition, sho uld be sought and used
where needed.
�- 12 4.
Environmental hazards and disease-producing agents must
b e eliminated.
This requires that large scale air pollution and
waste disposal problems must be more vigorously attacked by public
This attack should include the establishment of more
r igorous nationwide legislative standards and aiding and requiring
p rivate business to eliminate their pollution of the atmosphere.
Much of the clean up, rat control, garbage disposal and elimination of pests and nuisances that make the surroundings of life in
poverty unpleasant and prone to added illness, can be dealt with
t hrough added specialized manpower:
housing aides for inspection,
s anitation aides for education and clean-up.
Expand the essential supply of health manpower through
i nteraction with local educational institutions and health service
b odies.
A great deal of the community work that needs to be done
i n taking care of the non-professional aspects of personal health
c are, such as home health aides, interpreters, new kinds of techn i cians, the elimination of environmental hazards and the casef i nding aspects of nutrition and handicapping conditions, the educa t ional aspects of health, and nutrition can be carried on by
s p ecially trained local people.
In addition, through community con-
f eren c es with medical school leaders and sch ools of public health ,
t h e oppo r tunities can be developed for increasing the supply of phy si c ian s , nurses and public health wo rk e r s.
This should apply pa r ti -
c u l a r l y to the possibility of r ecru i t ing l o cal poo r a n d d isadva ntag e d
i nto the se health care e rs .
�- 13 -
6. Modification of Federal policies for health facility
construction and modernization.
In order to provide the health
facility base from which the improved and expanded health services are to be delivered, the present Federal health facility
policy as exemplified in Hill-Burton legislation must be modified.
Facilities grants must be less retrictive, more applicable to
the needs of the inner cities, offering a larger Federal share
and directed toward compre h e nsive service s, particularly ambulatory
care components.
Loans and loan guarantees will not benefit public
hospitals sufficiently because of the problem of tax e xempt bond
Loan and intere st repayment inf late per d i em costs.
large city hospitals serving the poor, grants of up to 100%
be needed.
Grants will have to be avai l able directly to cities,
or priorities in the Fede ral l e gislation or administration changed
to favor big city hospital moderni z ation and ambulatory care service
construction .
Ex pansion of Fe d e ral h ea lth programs is e ssential to
me eti ng t h e h ealth needs of u r b a n dwelle r s.
There is spe c ial need
for :
Increas e d insuran c e a nd Fed eral f unds through Ti tle s
XVIII and XIX a n d o ther programs for the money req u ire d to pay for
added needed s ervices to t he poor;
Impro ving t he o rgani z atio n o f h e alth services f o r all ,
but e spe ci a lly the poor th r ough ·n e ighborhood health c e nters , a nd
�- 14 continuity of care especially in the stimulation of group practice,
particularly with prepayment.
The modification of medical education to hasten the in-
crease in enrollment of waiting applicants to medicine.
Improving the wage and employment conditions of health
workers so as to attract more young people and particularly the
disadvantaged, into health careers.
Correspondingly improving the junior college and college
opportunities for training in the health careers.
Expanding food programs that are geared to established
scientific standards and not arbitrary means tests.
Eliminating air and water pollution.
Improving the total environment.
In brie f, the Coalition will strive to:
--Ai d local communi t ies to ma k e the b e st possible us e o f
existing resources;
--Bring about expansion of h e alth services f or mothers and
c h ild re n;
- -Intensify Federal efforts to assist local communities in
i mproving the i r health facilities and s e rvices ;
--Ohtai n add i t ional app ropriation t o f ina nce me d ical care
f or the residents o f the inner cities;
--Elimi n a te barrie r s t o ac ces s t o a d equate supplie s o f food;
--Strengthen Federal programs designed to add heal th manpower
to the pool
available for service to residents in the inner cities;
15 -
--Press for greater citizen participation in community health
service decision making and operation.
Short-term, immediate objectives should include all local
efforts to improve clinic services keeping in view the long-term
objective of comprehensive group practice, prepaid, possibly
through neighborhood health centers; developing realistically
defined entry level job opportunities coupled with health career
development opportunities; improved food distribution programs combined with emphasis on long-term objectives of pay or public assistance
programs of whatever kind that provide enough money to buy enough
of the right kind of food.
To achieve these goals, the Urban Coalition is developing and
will shortly publish, a "Rx for Action", offering local coalitions
a wide range of choices in various areas of action to improve health
services; technical assistance through publications that will aid
in accomplishing the ends prescribed in the manual; and consultant
services to stimulate and support local coalition health activities.
1819 H Street, N .W . • Washington , 0 . C. 20006
(202) 293-1530
Chairm an
Co -chairm en
Executive Director
April 25, 1969
Mr. Dan Swe:et
Office of the Mayor of Atlanta
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Dear Mr. Swert:
Mr. John Gardner and Mr. J. Irwin Miller testified
yesterday before the Senate Subcommittee on Employment ,
Manpower and Poverty. At the request of the subcommittee chairman, they were the lead-off witnesses.
They stressed the importance of significantly expanding
antipoverty efforts in both urban and rural communities.
We believe you will be interested in their prepared statements.
/4L-ULI!. ~~
Lowell R . Beck
�Statement by
JOHN W. GARD NER, Chairman
The Urban Coalition Action Council
before the
Subcommitte e on Employment, Manp ower and Poverty
Committee on Labo r and Public Wel f are
United States Se nate
April 23, 1969
Mr. Chai rman, we are pleas e d to b e h ere on behalf of the
Urba n Coa lition Ac t ion Council.
The Ac t ion Council brings to g ether
v a rious l e ad e rs f r o m s e gments t hat do no t n orma lly coll a bo r ate
for the purpose o f r eaching a gree me n t or s ol ut i ons t o ou r n ation ' s
dome stic pro b l e ms.
We a r e h ere tod a y t o disc u s s poverty i n the
Un i t ed S t ate s .
By cu rr e nt Soci a l Secur ity Administration c r i t eria th ere
are 2 2 milli o n poor p e op l e i n the Un ite d St at e s .
ha s d e c l ine d from 3 9 millio n in 1 959 .
The numb e r
To l ift 17 mi llion p e o ple
out o f pover t y i n 1 0 y e ars is a cons i der a b l e ach i eveme nt, worth
b earing in mind i n th ese d ay s of d i scou rageme nt.
It s houl d g ive
u s cou rag e and co n f i d e nc e t o tac k l e the rema i ni n g t a s k.
To le t the a c hi e vem e n t l e ad t o a s l a cke n ing o f effo r t
would b e t h e worst ki nd o f fo lly .
Twe n ty- t wo millio n p o or peop l e
repr ese nt a t reme ndous amount o f human misery a nd depriv ati o n.
-2In his excellent paper entitled "Who are the Urban Poor?"
Anthony Downs offers some highly relevant data.
Of the urban p oor,
the majority are white
almost half are in households that cannot be expected
to be self-supporting:
the aged, the disabled, the
mother with infant children
forty-one per cent are children under 18
nearly one-third a re in househ olds h e aded by employed
men whos e earni ngs are below the poverty leve l.
It is worth r eminding ourselves that the poverty remaining
after dec ade s of unp recede nted a fflu ence is riot like the poverty
th a t wa s once widespread in thi s count ry .
that rema ins.
It is the h ard-core
It is not the g e ntee l, thre a dbare but benign
poverty of the 19th Century clergyman or t each er.
It is poverty
at its mo s t stub bor n, pov erty rooted in th e s oci a l d i sintegration
of urban a nd rura l s lums , poverty linked to s evere cultu ra l
deprivation, poverty complicated by illite racy , phy ~ica l handicap,
advanc e d age , or me nta l r e t a r dation.
In s uch p overty , hung er a nd
ma lnutri t i on warp t h e no r ma l course of c hi ld develo pme nt; p hysica l
ai l me nt s go untreat ed and turn into li fe long h a ndic ap s; child re n
are n ever exposed t o the s timu l a tion t hat would e n s u re t heir
in te ll ec t ual deve l opme nt; the enviro nment breed s h opelessness a n d
l aw l essness.
It is a wor l d of v i c tims and it breeds v i c t ims.
An individual born into s u c h an environment does not--cannot-enjoy th e opportunity we regard as t h e birthr i ght of every
American child.
I f o u r commitment to the values we so proudly
profess doesn't move us to right that wrong, our self-interest
Out of all proportion to their numbe r s in the population,
the children of poverty become, in later life, economic burdens
on the rest of the community.
If we are unwilling to spend the
money to cure the problem at its source, we spend the money
later anyway--in the social cost of crime, narcotics addiction,
social unrest, mental illness, lifelong phy sical handicap and
so on.
The attack on poverty must be far broader and more varied
than is generally recognized.
We have to begin with management of the e conomy and with
attention to economic growth and full emplo yme nt.
Back of
every thing we seek to accomp l ish is the economic strength of
the n a tion.
That strength mak es our social programs p ossible .
It provides the jobs and pay ch ecks that enable most Americans
to e a t well, keep their childr en healthy and funct i on as
ind ependent citizens living thei r lives as they please.
We often fa ll into the h abit of t alking about ou r economy
as one thing and our socia l p r ograms as a completely d i fferent
subj e ct.
They are th e same subject.
main social program.
Economic growth is our
The freest and best money a ma n receives
is the mone y in his pay envelope.
The bes t program for creating
i ndependent and confident citi ze ns is a vital, full-employment
Therefo r~ we must expec t the Administration and the
Congr ess to use the tools of monetary and fisca l policy to
avoid inflation or recession, to facilitate capital growth
�-4where possibl e , to e xp and job o pportunities and job t r ai n ing,
to seek wag e -price stability , to encour a ge the development o f new
products and s~rvices and the adv ancement of science and
technolog y , to foster increased prod ucti vi t y , and to protect
natural resources.
The a ttack o n pov erty also calls for adequate progr a ms
of income mainte n a nce - -unemp loyme nt insur a n ce, social secu r i ty ,
public assistance, and probabl y new forms t o come.
These prog r ams
hav e no t be e n surrounde d with t h e glamou r that has touched some
othe r aspects of t he attac k o n p over t y ; ind e e d t h e publ i c
assis t ance pr o gram s h av e be e n the su b j e ct of widespr e ad ho st i lity.
But it is a p l ai n fa ct th a t mos t o f t he p oo r a re too ol d or t o o
young or t oo si c k o r disab l ed t o enter t h e j ob marke t .
No ma t ter
how bri l liant l y we pursue reme di a l prog rams , t h ere wil l a l way s
remain a large numb er wh o can only be aid ed by providing c ash
i ncome.
A comprehen s ive attack on poverty a lso requir e s that we
rehabili ta te the victims of poverty and e liminate the urban and
rural slums where poverty is bred.
To h e l p t he indi v i dua l we
mus t h ave adequate l y funded programs of educat ion, job training,
he al t h care and social services.
To ch ange the environment
involves massive urban efforts f suc h as the programs called for
in the Housing Act of 1 968 ; as well as region a l and rural
development activities such as the Appalachian Program.
In short, the total effort to deal with poverty reaches
into every domestic department of government.
As you know, the
Office of Economic Opportunity has controlled something less than
-58% of all federal antipoverty funds expended during its life.
Agencies with far more resources at their disposal are concerned
with. housing, manpower, health and other needs of the poor.
we do not adequately fund those broader programs, the attack on
poverty will be crippled.
1 would place particular emphasis on
modernization of the e x isting welfare prog r am,
including Fed e ral support of national welfare
standard s , and hopefull y , early consideration of
a more thoroug hgoing revision of the national income
maintenance s y stem
a stepp e d -up training p r o g ram with built-in incentives, bett e r t ai lor ed to the n eeds of the s e ver a l
c a t ego rie s of poo r , e.g ., t he we l fare mothe rs, the
uns ki l led t eenager, t he employed l ow earning family
he ad
Jo b creat i on--an exp a nded JOBS program t o i n c re a se
p r i vate emp lo yme nt, a nd a publ ic serv i ce emp loyment
p rog ram
educa tion , h e alth a nd nutritio na l progr am s to
c ounter the e f fec ts of pov e r ty on th e con s i dera bl e
number o f ch i ldr e n g r o wi ng u p in poo r f amili e s.
We mu s t beg in to t h ink i n terms of mu ch hi ghe r l e v e l s o f
fu nding in are as affec t ing t he poor .
Actua l appro priat io ns
ge ne ra l ly are significant l y be l ow a u t ho rized appropriat i ons,
We o ften h ea r t ha t pover t y programs are failures; t hat t h ey d o
not work.
And yet, they se l dom are given the necessar y funds or
�-6the long-range commitment to insure their success.
Some examples wi ll show the glaring disparities between
authorizations and appropriations.
The Model Cities program--
intended as a coordinated attack on blight and treating social
as well as physical problems--was given $625 million last year
although more than $1 billion was authorized.
This year only
$675 million has b ee n requested, with an authorized amount of
$1.3 billion.
The home o wne r ship and rental assistance provisions of
the Housing and Urb a n Development Act called f or $150 million
the first year , and onl y $50 mi llion was appropriated.
funds have been fully committ e d f o r several months, and many
are beginning to quest io n serious l y t he gove r nment I s c o1mn i tme nt
under the Ho u s in g Act .
The Nix on Adm in istratio n is re questin g
full fu nding for th e se prog ram s a nd Congress must act o n this
reque st i f the Ho u s ing Act i s to meet i ts p r omise.
Th e Off i c e of Economic Oppo rt u ni t y has consistently
failed t o sec ur e full appr o pr i at io ns.
And in educ a tion and
he a l th, the re h as bee n a no t ice a ble f a ilure to spend the
amoun t s n e c e s sary to have a n imp act o n pove rty.
Title I of the
Element ary and Se c onda r y Educ a tion Act, which pro v ides fede r a l
funds to s chool d i stri ct s tha t have sp eci a l pro j ec t s f o r disadv an t age d ch i ld ren, r e c e i ved a n author i za tion of $2. 7 2 6 bi lli o n
i t was a llowed o nly $1.1 2 3 b illion i n a p propr i ated f unds .
And so the story goes .
It i s u nreal i stic to believe we c an
s ol ve ou r nation ' s problems i f we do not prov i de even the auth orized
funds after long and studied debate over proposed solutions.
7 -
And now let me tu r n specifically to e x tension of the
Economic Opp o r tun ity Act a nd the Offi ce o f Economic Opportunity.
Mr. Chairman, in preparation for this testimony , I
revi ewed the history of the Office of Economic Opp or tunity
since 196 4 , a nd I must s a y that I am impre ss e d with the role
that t h is Committe e ha s pl a y e d.
and in s i g ht.
The Committee has shown concern
It h a s worked h a rd to educa te itsel f a nd to se rv~
as a n advo cate f or t h e poor.
It is e a s y to critici ze the hectic e a rly years of the OEO.
But wh en the smo ke cl ears away; I b el i eve th a t history wil l r eco r d
si gnif i cant achievement s .
The OEO ' s vigor o us efforts stirr ed a
concern for the victims of poverty tha t made p o ssible a
mobilizat i on of resources r eaching far beyond t he agen c y its e lf.
Programs in beha l f o f the poor in every othe r dome s tic d e p artme nt
be n ef itte d by the g enera tive f o rce of t his new e ff ort.
that, the OEO has inj ec ted a n ele ment o f innovation into a
numbe r of programs addressed t o the problems o f th e poor; it has
ide nti fied and f o stered community l eadership a mong the poor and
among minorities; a nd it h as enabled m~ny of us to ga in valuable
insight s into the imp a ct o f insti tutional inade quacies on the
li ves o f the poor.
Looki ng to the f uture , I want to speak very briefly of
thr ee themes which were p romine nt in the ear l y concepti on o f
OEO' s function:
innova tion, community parti cipation and
The i nnov at ive approach must continue to characterize the
The infusion of " research and development" t e chniques
8 -
into social program areas should be firmly supported and
The innovative approach is well illustrated in the delive r y
of services to the poor .
Breaking out of the mold of
traditional agency patterns, the b es t poverty programs h ave
shown that legal and heal th services, pre-school education,
multi- service progr am integration in n e ighborhood centers and
other te chni ques could in fa ct reach p ers ons long con s i dered
unre achab le.
It is not gene rally reco gn i zed th a t t he innova ti ve
activi ties o f OEO had a far- r each i ng imp a ct on the old- l ine
departme nts.
The latter would b e loath to admi t
it , but many
p r ograms undertake n by the old -l ine departme nts betwee n 1 965
and 1 96 8 we r e inf l uenced by t he philosophy of the OEO.
At th e h eart of th e controversy surrounding the OEO has
b een th e ques tio n of public power for the poor.
The "War o n
Poverty " provi ded t h e first ma jor t ools wi th which the poor
could seri ously affec t some po lic ies and programs at both the
national and th e local l evels.
It is t r u e that in a typic a lly
Ame ric a n burst o f e nthusiasm, the OEO wen t at this task with a
maximum of energy and a minimum o f reflect i on.
But perhaps
su c h things c an only be a ccomplished in a burst of enthusiasm.
I a m thoroughly fami li ar with the problems, inconsistencies,
ten s ions and mi stakes that h a ve arisen fro m appl icati on of
the requirement for "max imum feasible participation."
But we
are more skillful in handling thos e prcblems today than we were
two y ears ago, and we are still learning.
It was wise to seek
9 -
to give a voice to the poor, particularly wi se in the case of
minority groups
(because of their systematic prior exclusion).
I believe that we will move towa rd incr easing l y sound and
effective f o rms of citizen pa rt icipation .
Eve n today, as my own staff mo~es about the country
helping to organize local urb a n co a litions and se e king the
cooperat ion of le aders from the bla ck community, we find that
many of th e ablest local lead e r s we can r e cruit for our purposes
ar e me n and wome n who had t hei r first tast e of leadership in
th e Community Action Programs .
I h ave emphas i z e d th at the attack on poverty , broad l y
con ceived, r eaches into every dome s tic d e partme nt.
multif a rious a cti v ity cr i e s out for coord inat ion, and of
cour s e the OEO was p l a ced in th e Ex ecut ive Offic e of the
Preside nt to ac c ompl i sh jus t t h at.
As we all know, it n eve r
di d , p a rtl y b e c a u s e it s energ i e s went in to op er a ting new
prog r a ms, and p art l y b ecaus e coord in at ing Ca bine t me mb e rs is
a difficult t ask a t b es t .
OEO' s achievemen t s in coord i na t i o n hav e not b ee n
alto ge th er neg l ig i b l e.
I t h as wo r k ed out che c kpo i nt pro ced ur e s
th r ou g h which federal agencies , grantees, st ate agenc i es and
lo ca l c ommunities engage in mutua l consu l tati o n before grants
are made.
And i t has developed joi n t projects such a s th ose
i nvolv i ng displaced farm workers i n th e Mississipp i De l ta,
I ndians, and migrant workers.
But much, much more is needed.
I believe that my views
on the coordination of domestic programs are fairly well known.
�- 10 \
I do not accept the widely sh a r e d notion that Cabinet membe rs
cannot be coordinated.
The y can b e .
The first requireme nt
is unflinching de termination on the part of the Preside nt to
bring abo ut that r es ult.
The second is a suitable instrume ntality
(and I may say p are ntheti ca ll y th a t the Economic Opportunity
Council, properly u sed , wou ld h ave bee n quite a dequat e to the ·
purpo se ).
The t hird requir eme nt is that th e instrumen tali ty
must b e h eaded by a ma n o f stature, implicitly t~ust ed by the
Pres ident .
There i s a serious quest i on as to wheth er OEO can ever
fill t his coordi nat ing function so long as i t
is an o p er a t ing
ag ency -- and th eref ore, in a se ns e, a compe titor o f th e
departme nts it hopes to coo rdinate.
So we may h ave to look to
Preside nt Nixon ' s n ew Urba n Affairs Council to accomplish
the d e sired result.
It will do so onl y if the President hims e l f
takes an active inter es t
in it , and o n l y i f a s trong and
subst ant i al professional staff is prov ided to pl a n, ev a luate,
sift p r i or iti e s , develop a lterna tive cour ses of action and make
recommenda t i ons to the President.
Whil e we 're on t his s u b j ec t
I wan t to say a word abo ut
rural poverty, because it involves the question of coordination.
We wi ll not solve our most pressing urban prob l ems as long as
widespread rural poverty exists .
The h eavy migration from rural
America to the blighted areas of our major cities clearly shows
how b ad economic and social conditions are in rura l areas;
de spite the privations felt by the urban poor, dehuman izing
urban conditions continue to represent a substantial improvement
�- 11 -
over life for the poor in rural communities.
With improving agricultur a l technology, ever more per~ons
will have to find employ ment outside agricultur e .
Already the
great majorit y of the rural poor are not in any way involved
in farming.
Industri a l de v elopme nt in rural ar e as should be
vastly e xpande d wh e r eve r suffici e nt potential e x ists .
State s a r e unique l y situated to combat rural poverty .
Programs of eco n omic a nd co~munity d e vel opme nt in rural ar ea s
frequently require multi - coun ty planning a nd coordination.
Federal funds, includin g CAP fun d s, shoul d encour a g e the
deve lopme nt of s ta te -coo r d ina t ed d e mon st r ati ons in rur a l ar eas
-- p e r haps s evera l in each s t at e -- with s pe cial emp hasi s on
economi c deve l opment and o n tr a i n ing o f admi ni s t rat i ve and
pro gram personne l for a ll ph a s e s o f community d evelopment ,
fro m pub l ic admini s tr a tion t o staff for socia l we l fare agencies.
Such d emonstrations should extend to educ a tion, h ealth,
i ndustrial d eve lopment, tra n sportation and al l o th er re l evant
fie l ds .
Obviousl y , programs o f th a t scope are not t h e a ppr opr i a t e
primar y function of the De p ar tment of Agri cultur e a lo ne ; rath er ,
th ere shoul d be a coordinated attack b y the Dep artmen t s o f
Agricult ure, Labor, Hous i ng and Urban Development, Transportation,
Health, Education a nd We lfare, and the Economi c Development
Administratio n.
The OEO mig h t conceivably be t he in strumen t for
accomplishin g such coordination a lthough -- as indica ted
earlier -- its capacity to oper ate and coordinate at the same
time remains in doubt.
In the fin a l analys i s , subst a ntial economic d evelopment
is the key to e nding rur a l poverty .
There is at p res e nt no
fed e ral policy g uiding the app licati o n o f the nation's
con s ide r a ble potenti a l in this are a .
Re sources of the
Ec onom{c Deve lopme nt Admi nistr a tion c an be broug ht to b ear only
where the most s e v e r e cond iti ons alre ady e x ist, a nd even then
there is virtually n o coord i nat i on be t wee n the Ec onomic
Deve l opment Ad mi nis t r a t i o n and ma jor fede r a l age ncy
p r ocur e me n t a n d cont racting f u nct i ons .
There h a s been much d i scu ss i o n o f wh e ther t he v ariou s OEO
p r ograms s hou ld be move d to the regular departme nts .
I be lieve
that some definitely shoul d be t ransferred under c arefully
d rawn cond iti ons.
I con fess t ha t I am equal l y i mpat i ent with
thos e who are tot a lly ho s til e to the OEO and tho se who want
to preserve it u nder g l ass, utterly uncha nged .
I need not remind th i s Committee that about 40 % of the
funds appropriated u nder th e Economi c Oppor tunity Act have
a l ways gone i nto programs delegated among variou s federa l
age n cies.
The great bulk of these funds h as gone into a series
of wo rk and training programs, a n d th ey have been the basis for
much innovation wi th in the receiving agencies .
I am keenly conscious of the problems involved in transfer.
Fo r example , federal departments presently function heavily
through state agencies; they do not, in the main, have stron g
relationships to local l eadersh ip and organization.
If the
departme nts receive programs from OEO they must continue to
foster the new constituencies developed around the programs
�- 13 -
at the local level, and Congress must encourage them to do so.
Similarly, they must protect th e innovative values of the
transferred programs.
If these programs cannot survive in the regular agencies
as the latter are presently org anized, then th ere is something
gravely wrong with the regular agencies, something that
should be corrected forthwith.
To insure an appropriate outcome, it seems advisable that,
at least initi al l y , delegation should be favored over outright
Transf er should occur only as the regular agencies
prove their capacity to nurtur e the delegated programs.
�- 14 -
I have been asked my v i ews on how ma ny years the present
legislation should be extended.
I do not have fixed views on
that sub j e ct, provided th at two princi ples are ob se rved .
first i s that eve ry program should be open to pe r iodic r evision
as experience is ga ine d .
The s e cond is that the nation s hould
exhi bit an unwaveri ng commitment to fight the poverty battle
continuously , thi s yea r a n d nex t and the year after , never
relenting until t h e j ob is d one .
It is not an of f- aga in - on -
again kind of prob l e m and it do e sn 't me rit tha t kind of answer.
In c losing , gen tl emen , let me reve r t again to the
tota li ty of the gover nme nt's effort in combatting p overty.
am firmly convinced t h at mo re billions mu st b e p o ure d i mmed i ate ly
into th e broad s pectrum of hou s in g , edu ca tion , h ea lth, ma n p owe r
d eve l opment , a nd othe r federa l pro grams which make up the
broader anti-poverty package.
Millions are st il l hu ngry, or
live in i nadequate ho us i ng ; the ma j ority of p oo r head s o f
households work ful l time ; hea l t h services are still i naccessib l e
to millions ; school systems and entire ci t ies across the country
are facing bankruptcy whi l e provi ding minima l services to needy
We can and must dea l with those p roblems at once.
�Statement by J. Irwin Mi ll er , President, Cummins Engine Company
and Membe r, Policy Council, Urban Coalition Action Council
before the Subcomi71itte e on Employme nt , Manpower and Poverty
CoITLrnittee on Labor and Publ ic Welfare
U.S. Se nate
April 23, 1969
Mr. Chai rman:
I appreciate the o pport unity to ap p ear wi th Mr. Gardner
on behalf of th e Urban Coali tion Ac t ion Council in support of
extension and adequate funding of t he Economic Opportu nity
I endorse Mr. Gardner's statement, particularly his
conclusions and proposed Congress i ona l action.
There are two points ma d e by Mr. Gardner to wh ich I wish
to call s pe cial at t e ntion.
The first conce rns the fact th a t
we -- business, l a bor , mayors, religion, minority and ci v ic
groups - - r e presen t a broad -b as e d n at ion a l coa l i tion of
norma ll y diverg en t i n t e rest s .
The Urban Co a l i tion Action
Council was fo rmed b e c a us e of our conce rn with the futur e of
t his incre a s ingl y ur baniz ed so ci ety, and th e l e gislation
ne e d e d to me e t t he challe nge s of such a soci e t y .
The Economic
Opportun i ty Ac t i s one of the l e g is la tive too ls mee ting thos e
chall e n ge s .
Notw ith stan ding our divers ity o f v i ews on many
issue s we r e co gn i ze t he rol e th e Eco nomic Opp o r t un ity Ac t h a s
play e d not only in mater ia l l y imp ro v in g , but in gi v ing
sub s tan r ~ to th e lives of ma n y of th e po o r a n d d i s advantage d
citi zens in our s o cie t y.
There shoul d b e no tho u gh t g i ve n to
cut t ing ba c k , re t renchi n g o r limiti ng the as si s t ance the
Fede r a l governmen t c a n p ro v i de through l eg i s l ati o n s uch a s
th is .
In s t ead, t he Fede r a l governmen t . sh o u l d be ge nu inely
concerned t o make cert ain th e f un ding i s e no ugh to d o the j ob
within r.easonab l e t i me.
2 -
Th e s eco nd po i nt I wi sh t o make , and a g a in one Mr . Ga rdne r
d eve loped i n hi s testimony, concerns the ro l e of com..rnun i ty
a c t ion in the overal l ant i poverty effort .
It seems t o me
essen t ial that t he Congress give full support i n t his problem
The poor and d i sadvantaged
t o l o cal community i nvo l vement.
are more concerned today than ever before in gaining an
effect i ve role in determining their own destiny.
They no
longer see themselves as helpless a n d powerless before the
u nyielding and unchanging institutiona l forces of our society.
They now h ave a dire ct and significant i mpa ct on these
i nstitutions.
Although not all view this impact in the same way ,
I p ersonally beli eve th at greater invo lvemen t by the
disadvantaged in social action programs is nec essary, and
that resul ts to date have been favorable.
concept should be encouraged.
Expansion o f this
There is also no question in
my mind but th at community action programs, fostered and
nurtured by community action agencies, wil l turn out to have
been th e forerunners of a much wider range of community
involvement by the poor.
For this we have the Economic
Opportuni ty Act largely to thank.
I j oin Mr. Gardner in urging Congress to continue its
support of this legislation by giving it not only the ex~ended
life it deserves, but the funds, i n the form of appropriations,
it needs to prosper.
Summary: The Urban Coalition proposes a national advertising
campaign to promote better understanding of ·the problems
of the cities and the people who live there, and also
to go the next step toward causes and the possible solutions.
The campaign would seek to maintain the momentum of the
Advertising Council's massive "Crisis In Our Cities"
campaign of 1968.
(The Advertising Council estimates
total space and time donated to this campaign was worth
approximately $12,000,000.)
Importantly, however, the
proposed 1969 campaign would indicate the potential for
meaningful action by a concerned and informed citizenry.
The campaign-would stress the many resources, federal,
state and local, available to a community. However, on
the presumption that an effective grass roots attack on
local problems is not possible unless the important
leadership elements in the community are together, the
campaign would cite the potential of an Urban Coalition to
help achieve coherent dialogue and to help set goals
and priorities.
The campaign would be timed to begin in the Summer of 1969
and would run one year. The Advertising Council would
donate agency services and media time . space. The Urban
Coalition requests $128,000 for production costs and
$22,000 for support material.
�... .
2 -
As the year 1969 opened, discussion of the "urban crisis had
reached an almost unprecedented scale. Magazines, newspapers,
radio and television devoted columns of editorial space and hours
of prime time to the problems of the cities.
Now, however, it is the position of the Urban Coalition that the
time has come to lead the discussion to a new plateau and to begin
the process of education toward a larger citizen involvement, or
at least understanding of the solutions of that crisis. A national
advertising campaign must be a major part of this educational effort.
Progress has been made in some areas. In almost no areas is that
progress enough or has it come rast enough to lead any informed.
person to believe that the crisis is anything but heightening.
The crisis must be met at all levels--federal, state, and local,
and it must be met both nationally and locally increasingly by
the private sector as well as the public sector.
It is the mobilization of the private sector, particularly at the
local level, that is the special concern of the Urban Coalition
and urban coalitions already established in 42 U.S. cities.
The Urban Coalition, at this point in our nation's history, seems
to be the single organization or movement dedicated to assisting
in the re-establishment of coherent local communities.
Today the typical American community is split into a variety of
different worlds that are often wholly out of touch with one
The suburbs are out of touch with the central city. Business,
labor, and the universities are three wholly separate worlds.
City Hall is usually out of touch with the ghetto and often out
of touch with the ablest and most influential people in the city.
The most ominous rifts, of course, are the rifts involving various
minority communities, most commonly the black community, but in
some parts of the country the American Indians or Mexican-American
Nothing is more clear than that no major city can or will solve
its problems without first repairing some of those devastating
gaps in communication. Obviously, no single advertising campaign
can accomplish this kind of repair. The reconstruction must be
fo r ged slowly and carefully by citizens working together to under stand a n d solve the i r problems . But this proposed advertising
c amp a i gn , we t h i n k, can increase public unde r standing of a n impor tant r esour ce t o he l p mak e a beginning .
3 -
The Urban Coalition was formed to re-establish communication.
But to fulfill its potential, it must be used. And before
it will be used, it must be understood.
It is important
to emphasize the importance of the coalition principle.
Some people think of the Coalition as just another organization
tackling the rough urban problems of the day. But it is
unique. The distinction is that it brings together segments
of American life that do not normally collaborate in
the solution of public problems.
Because of the need for such collaboration at the local level,
the national organization has helped to form local coalitions.
There are now local coalitions in 42 cities and organizational
efforts are underway in approximately . 30 others. As . in the
case of the national, each local organization .includes
representatives from a variety of leaderwhip segments in
the community--the mayor, business, labor, minority
groups and religion. The participation of other relevant
elements is encouraged--the universities, the schools,
the press, the professions.
There are many substantive problems of the cities.-"'."'"fiscal
and grivernmental pro~lems, housing, jobs, education,
health services, economic development and . so on. The Urban
Coalition is interested in all those problems, but it is
not free to choose the particular problems to which it .
must give its attention. There are priorities which . are
thrust upon us all. There are issues so e xplosive that
if they are ignored, we shall be overtaken .by events--and
then every problem on the list will be infinitely harder to solve.
The goal that takes precedence over all others is to begin to heal
those rifts that are now making many American cities quite
incapable of any kind of healthy problem solving. Those rifts
can be healed.
We can heal them through the process of coalition, if the most
influe-ntial citi z ens in the community will _lend their . strength
and their presence, if all significant elements in the community
a re fairly represented and if all concerned are unsparingly honest
i n facing the toughest issues .
In a number of American cities today those condi tions are be i ng
met in local urban coalitions -- the most influen tial cj, t.i zens have.
ste p ped fo rwa r d , al l s ignif i cant elements in t h e .community a r e
r e pre s e nt ed a nd t he toughest issues a r e be i ng f aced .

The Propos e d 196 9-7 0 Urba n Coali t i o n Adve rti s ing Camp a ign
The foregoing has b e en a n a tte mpt t o d emons t rate the n e ed a nd the
potential of the Urb a n Coa liti o n. What follows is a d e scription
of a specific multi-medi a a dver~i s ing cam~ai~n.designe d to make
the Coalition known and understoo d by a significant segment of
' ~he .American public so that it will be used.
4 -
The first and foremost objective of the 1969-70 campaign is to
establish the Urban Coalition as the focal point of effort by
local business and community groups in solving the crisis in the
The main thrust of the campaign will be to tell in detail the Urban
Coalition story: the coalition principle of collaboration of all
concerned groups in tackling specific problems; its stress on local
initiative and effort; its record of success.
A second, and equally important, objective is to convince both
business and community leaders--as well as the general public-that the problems don't stop just because the riots are dispersed
or contained; that is, we must counter any idea that the crisis
has passed, or any let-City-Hall-do-it attitude.
The third objective is to create the advertising materials in such
a way that, in addition to their use by the Advertising Council in
national media; they can also be used by Urban Coalition groups in
local media to assist with the national campaign, for organization
and support of new or existing Urban Coalitions.
The primary target audience includes the broad spectrum of opinion
leaders--from corporation presidents to black student militants
to garden club members--from whose ranks the Urban Coalition draws
active participants.
The second audience includes those among the general public whose
understanding and support can assist the efforts of the Urban
Coalition groups.
Major mass audience magazines
Major market newspapers
Pacesetter publications (i.e., HARPERS, THE ATLANTIC,
Business press
Network TV and radio


5 -
3-b/w ads suitable for newspaper and magazines
3-adaptations for use by local Urban Coalitions
3-b/w ads special for Business Press campaign
1-"car card" for transit adve rtising
1-24 sheet billboard ad
2-:60 TV commercials, with :30, :20, and :10 adaptations
2-radio cornmerc ials
Magazines and newspape rs
Company publications
Business Press
24 sheet billboard ads
car card transit ad
1 1 ,000
Tele vision spot s
Radio spots
All purpose support k it fo r use by
local o r g anizations a nd coal itions
to s t i mulat e placement
Response booklet "What Can I Do?"

Estimated b y s t aff of the Advertis ing Coun ci l

Those o f us invo lved in the f o r ma t ion and o peration o f the Urban
Coalitio n b e lieve it rep resents a grea t re source f o r the American
cit y. We believe i t is a r esour ce which s h ould be u nd ers t ood b y
as many c o ncerned cit izens i n as many American communi t ies a s
~ossible. It is for this reaso n that we propo se this advertising
campaign and ask you r suppo rt in prov iding funds for o perating
and support costs. The Advertising Council estimates that these
costs will amount to $150, 000 . The Council estimates that this
investment will result in the dona t ion of $2 0 , 000 ,00 0 worth of
time and space by the media.
Advertising Council reprint on Crisis in Cities
List of local ~oalitions and officers
Annual Report of the Urban Coalition
f .___________
7""" _ _ _ _ _ _ __
· -·
-- ---



181 9 H Street, N.W.
Woshing to n, D. C. 20006
T elephon e: (202) 223-9500
L-~------~--- -~------·- ·------ ~ - '
CHAI RMAI\I : Johr;i W. Gardner
CO-CHAI RMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A. Philip Handolph
April 9, 1969
The Honorable Iva n Alle n, Jr.
Mayor o f th e City o f Atl a nta
City Ha ll
Atla nta , Georg i a 30303
· Dear Ivan:
I am e nc losing f o r your i nf o rmat i o n th e F ir s t Annua l Repo r t
of t h e Urban Coa l i t ion. I f y ou wou l d like additi o na l c opies
please do no t h es i tate to ask.
I also am enc los ing th e proposed d es i gn o f a ma j o r adver tising c ampa i gn whi ch we are n ow dis cussing wi th th e
Adverti sing Counc il . The c ampai gn ' s p u rpose is t o s u stai n
t he momentum o f l ast year ' s c a mp a ign on " Crisis in o ur
Cities" and wou l d res ul t i n over $20 mi l lion o f contr ibuted
advert i sing space . Before proceeding f u rth er with d e t a ile d
di scussions , we wi sh to a l ert y o u to our i ntentions. We
wou l d appreciate receiving any comments and sugges t ions
you may h ave o n t h e matter.
Sincere ly,
Peter Libassi
Executive Vice Preside nt
Mr. Da n Swe a t
�House Will Act Soon on Bill
Continuing Urban School Aid
A bill extending for five
years the most important federal
program for urban schools -- the
Elementary and Secondary Education
Act -- is ready for debate in the
House. ·The Education and Labor
Committee of the House approved
the bill (HR 514) March 18.
The cities look to Title I of
the Act for money to support compensatory programs for their disadvantaged children. Title I distributes federal appropriations
directly to school districts that
have large numbers of children
from low-income families, urban
and rural.
In reporting the bill to the
House the Education Committee over
rode the request of HEW Secretary
Robert H. Finch for only a twoyear extension of the Act. He
said the Nixon Administration
needed time to study proposed
changes in the Act and in the
meantime, a two-year extension
through June 1972 would provide
adequate continuity for present
programs. Most committee Republicans supported Finch's request
and promised to fight the fiveyear extension when the bill is
debated in the House.
Two changes affecting urban
schools were recommended by the
committee. One would make about
$ 300 million more a yea r available
to school districts in which there
is considerable public housing.
The other amendment calls for participation by pa r ents and communi ty groups in the planning of Title
I school projects.
I nad equate Fund ing
Throu ghout the commit tee
hearings on HR 514, the bi ll ' s
spons o r, Commi t t e e Cha irman Car l
D. Perkins (D Ky.), pointed out
the n eed f o r l arge r a p p r o pri a t ions
for Title I of the Act . Hi s c omContinue d on Pa g e 2
March 25, 1969 -- Vol. I, No. 3
States Hold Back Anti-Crime
Funds from Cities, Report Says
Where are crime problems the
most serious? Under the Omnibus
Crime Control Act of 1968, American Samoa gets $3.54 per capita
and Vermont 31¢ per capita, while
New York and California receive 7¢
per citizen. Similarly, a rural
Georgia county gets 14¢ per capita
while the metropolitan Atlanta region receives less than 3¢.
These are figures produced in
a study of the Crime Control Act
in operation, released by the National League of Cities March 18.
When Cong r e ss pass e d the Ac t
last year, it directed that most
of the funds go to the states in
block grants, to be distributed
according to plans drawn up by a
state agency. Urban groups urged
in vain that most of the money go
directl y to the 370 cities with
population ove r 50 , 000 , where
c r ime is t he most prev ale n t .
The League of Cities r epo rt
say s that i n s t ead of focu s ing dollars on t h e prob l e ms o f crime i n
the s t reets , pla nn i ng f u nd s a r e
thi n l y spread a mo n g r ural a nd urb a n a r eas and "di ss ipated" among
t hre e levels o f b u r e aucr a cy.
The Action Council Letter reports legislative developments 1n the urban field . It is published by the Urban Coa lition
Action Council, which seeks needed urban legislation .
�Continued from Page 1
mittee is responsible for authorizing the education programs, but
the amount of money that actually
goes out to the schools is determined primarily by the separate
Appropriations Committees of the
House and Senate.
Under the present law about
$2.5 billion a year is authorized
for Title I grants but Congress
has appropriated only $1.1 billion.
In fact, last year's appropriation
was $68 million less than the previous year's, while the number of
children eligible for the programs
was increasing, and so were education costs.
Rep. Perkins has pointe d out
that in the f irst three years of
Title I, the appropriations per
child have decreased from $210 to
$170. Some school superintendents
told the House committee that an
effective, comprehensive program
for disadvantaged children would
need $600 per child.
A new federal program to
help local school districts prevent teenagers from dropping out
of school has proved popular.
In fact, 356 proposals h ave been
submitted t o the Off ice o f Education, of which only 5 can be
There is $30 million authorized for drop-out prevention programs, but Congress has
appropriated only $5 million.
The f unds will be granted for
innovative plans that show unusual promise of success in pre venting drop-outs.
The budget submitted by
Pres ident Johnson before leaving office proposes $24 million
for the program in the nex t fiscal year. The 356 proposals
submitted to the Office of Education would cost $68 million.
HEW estimates that of
children who entered 9th grade
in 1967, 23%, or 900,000, will
drop out before graduating from
high school.
Rep. Ca rl D. Perkins (D Ky.) and his Education and La_bor
Comm ittee are moving ahead with elementary educat ion,
school lunch and poverty leg islation.
Bill to Improve School Lunch
Program Is Passed
For the second year in a row,
the House is trying to increase
the number of needy children who
get free or reduced-price lunches
through the school lunch program .
As it did last year, the House
passed without opposition March 20
a bill (HR 515) to require all
states to put some of their tax
money into school lunches . Presently, some states contribute
nothing to the program, requiring
the children and local schools to
put up all of the money needed to
match federal funds on a 3 to 1
Last year, spurred by publication of a report by the private
Committee on School Lunch Participation showing that less than 2
million of some 6 million needy
school children got reduced - price
lunches (see chart), the House
�Free School Lunches
Free lunches I
( doily a ve rage)
District of Columbia
Ka nsas
Montana 3
Neb raska
Neva da
New Hampshire
Ne w Je rsey
New Me xico
New York
North Caroli na
North Dakota
Ore gon
Pe nnsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
West Virginia
Wyomi ng
70,2 13
4 ,9 14
2, 180
4 ,752
6 ,480
10 ,294
24 ,911
34 ,671
Needy childre n 2
not rece iving
free lu nch
165,5 22
51 ,833
34, 129
__2-_Ql , 9 45
13 1,830
124 ,111
220 ,232
8, 180
3, 185
3 ,61 4
8 ,781
117,38 2
71 ,100
6 ,787
10 ,000
11 ,000
4 ,969
9 1,571
179, 174
154, 129
3 15,2 16
3 ,559
11 4,922
5,3 17
I Numb er of free or reduci'd· price lu nches.
2 Need., chddren were those of O#"·" 5 to 17. from hnm e.-. wit h les,fi than °J.000
annual 111com P.
.1 No figure" were a vailable from stal e ,o;chool lunc·h authnrit1 e.-.. whn !;upplied
information for the surney. Howet:er, a citiuns Committee on School lunch
Partici{XJt1011 April 16 r eport Pd that M ontana had J6.9iH ...dwnl-aJ.fP ch ildren
from familie.,; earnin,: $2,()(J() a \'ear or r P<·eiuinµ welfare aid. f Jnl ,· 6, /60 reu•if.Jed
free or redu<.·ed -pr,ce lunch e.-.
SOURCE : House Education a nd Labor Committee
survey (H Rept 1590), June 26 , 1968 .
passed a bill similar to HR 515.
More importan tly, the House
also passed a bi ll to add $ 1 00 million a year for meals for nee dy
ch i ldr en. The Senate p a ssed neit her bill, but it d id agree t o
app r o priate an extr a $ 45 million
for free lunches.
This year, the House Educat i on and Labor Commi ttee, which
sen t HR 51 5 to the House floor ,
a l s o expec ts to approv e a gain the
$ 100 mi ll ion free -lunch bill (HR
51 6). Wh a t wi ll b e d o ne by t he
Senate Agriculture Committee,
which h as jurisdiction over the
schoo l lun ch pro gram, remains to
be seen.
Congressional Hearings
Poverty -- The House Educ atio n and Labor Commi ttee has begun hearings on the Office of
Economic Opportunity and its antipoverty programs. Chairman Carl
D. Perkins (D Ky. ) has introduced
HR 513, to extend the programs f o r
five years and authorize $ 2,18 0 ,
0 00,000 for the m in the fiscal
y ear that begins July 1 . For the
c u rre nt y ear Congress a ppropriate d
$1 ,9 4 8,000,000.
Ho s pitals -- Hearings on the
Hill -Burton Act , held by the Publ ic Hea lth Subcommittee of the
House I nter state a nd Fo re i gn Commerce Committee, are b egin ning .
Two main bills are b e fo re the Sub c ommittee . HR 6797, introduced by
Committee Chairman Ha r ley O. Staggers (D W.Va. ) , propo ses ma j or i nc reas e s in fund s f or h ospital con-
�struction and modernization, with
priority to be given, in part, to
outpatient facilities in low-income metropolitan areas. The other bill, HR 7059, sponsored by
high-ranking members of the Health
Subcommittee, authorizes less
money than Staggers' bill and does
not single out urban medical
Medicaid, WIN Regulations
Chairman Russell B. Long (D La.)
of the Senate Finance Committee
has said his committee intends to
take "a good hard look" at regulations issued in January concerning Medicaid, welfare eligibility,
the work incentive program (WIN)
and others. Some of these, Long
said, "run counter to Congressional intent."
No plans for hearings have
been announced. The regulations
were issued by the Administrator
of HEW's Social and Rehabilitation
Serv ice, Mary E. Switzer. Long
made his statement in introducing
a bill to make the ne x t Administrator's appointment subject to
confirmation by the Senat e . The
Senate passed the bill (S 1022)
March 4 and sent it to the House
Ways and Means Committee.
Minority Business Enterprise
Coordination Is Estab lished
President Nixon signed an
e x ecutive order March 5 that
established an Office of Minority
Business Enterprise in the Department of Commerce.
The office is to stimulate
business ownership by minority
groups and coordinate -- but not
take over -- existing government
programs. Secretary of Commerce
Maurice H. Stans estimated there
were 116 programs in 20 government agencies concerned in one way
or another with helping minority
Directors of the new office
were named March 13. The director
is Thomas F. Roeser, who has been
director of public affairs for the
Quaker Oats Co. and before that,
press secretary for Rep. Albert H.
Quie (R Minn.). The deputy director is Abraham S. Venable, a graduate of Howard University and
formerly a conciliation specialist
in black-white relations for the
Community Relations Service, which
was a Commerce Department agency
until moved to the Justice Department.
In announcing the new office,
Hearings Available
-President Ni xon said: "Black,
Congressional hearings on
Mex ican-American, Puerto Ricans ,
t wo subjects of growing importance
Indians and others must be increasingly encouraged to ente r the
i n the urba n field -- income main~e na~ce ~nd the r ol e of financial
field of business , both in the
institu tions -:-=--w_ere _held-l at.e- in ---~ re as-whe-re they now l i v e- a nd i.n
the last session of Con g r ess .
the larger commercial community -Summar ies of these hea r ings , a s
and not only as workers but also
well as the Action Council ' s pamas managers and owne r s "
ph let briefly rev iewing Urban Af ·
fa i rs Legislation i n the 90th
The Urban Coalition Action Counci l
Co ngre s s , a r e a v a ilable without
charge to anyone who wi shes to
1819 H St., N.W.
write f o r t h em t o the Ac t ion
Washingto n, D.C. 20006
Counci l .
Tel : 202 293-1 530
The s umma r iz e d h e arings are:
Chairman : Jahn W. Gardn er
Financial Institution s and
Co-Cha irmen , An drew Heiskel l
A. Phil ip Ra nd olph
the Urban Cri s i s . He arin gs by the
Exec utive Di re ctor , Lo we ll R. Beck
Senate Banking and Curr e ncy ComLegis lative Assoc iates: Joh n P. Lagomarcino
Ro nald J . James
Assi stant for Legis lat ive Information ,
Income Mainte nanc e . He a rings ·
Georgianna F. Rathbun
by the Joint Economic Committee.
�The Urban Coalition
1815 H Street, N.W.
Wash ington , D.C. 20006
Telephone : 347-9630
CHAIRMAN : John W. Gardner
CO -CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A . Philip Randolph
March 18 , 1969
The Honor able Ivan Allen , J r .
M yor of the City of Atlanta
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia
Dear Ivan:
During the last year t he Urban Coalition has grown rapidly
in both numbers of staff and the programs and activities
we are cur rently carrying out . The time when I could
singlehand dly manage both the external and internal affairs
of the Coalition has long sine passed. For this reason,
I have instituted several internal changes which I believe
will significantly improve our capacity to c rry out our
responsibiliti s during the forthcoming year. Th se
changes include tho following:
1 . I have ppointed Peter Libassi, formerly Vice
President for Local Coalitions, to be th Executive Vice
Pr sident of the Urban Coalition .
2. I have revised th internal proc du:res by which
polici sand progr is were developed by e~tablishing
Policy Committee which I will chair. The oth r embers of
the Poiicy Coromitt
will be C rl Hol n, Vice President
for Policy and Progir
D v lopment, and Pet r Liba-s si .Sincerely,
John w. Gardner
Ch inn n
Mr. Dan Sweat
�Systetns, Inc.
606 STATE ST. · L AWRENCEVILL E . ILL. 62439 · TEL. 943-3311
Manaqement. Actuarial and
Pension Consultants
March 17, -1969
Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr.
Mayor of Atlanta
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia
Mr. Mayor,
I would like to call your personal attention to the seminar
described in the enclosed brochure.
In view of your involvement with THE URBAN COALITION, I believe
you will want to attend or send someone to report to you on the
I'm tired of going to conferences on Negroes and youth where all
we have is white adult speakers and a couple of name Negroes. I
and about Negroes
want to hear about youth from youth
from Negroes.
The rules for this conference were that it had to provide direct
interaction between adults and white youth and black youth. It
is the youth that make the program good.
For the first time, business and educators and students will be
in one program o this subject .
ES: mt
Roon y
�_,.,.,...1'_,,..,... -.' ..... .....
." ,,
. ,.,.....,.., ~·
Turmoil on the College Campus
-- Seminar
What we are seeing develop on the college campuses is at least as
significant to business as the American labor union development.
In fact, the development is in many respects similar to the development of American labor unions in the 1920's and 30's. Both have their
connnunist rad i cals . Both have been commonly described as an anarchistic
conspiracy. In both cases the rest of society initially wanted to
b e lieve "only a small minority" was involved.

' '
Already, a union or caucus of Negro business executives has been
formed in New York, the Council of Concerned Black Business Executives. At this conference, one of its organizers will tell us why ,
and their objectives.
Young white moderates -- elected leaders, not self-appointed radicals -will te i l you how they intend to change the business community. These
are men that most of us would want to hire.
As with the l abor union movement, the clergy are playing an important
r ol e i n the n ew deve lopment of youth attitude s. On the whole , the
c le r gy that are involved with the youth are very much in support of
t he new s t ud ent a t t itudes . That's not to say that the clergy always
suppo r t a ll of the student tactics. The clergy are included in this
semina r because of their specia l role in advising students on the
sub ject of "right a nd wrong."
'/ t·
• f
The obj e ct of the seminar is to examine the turmoil the "easy" way -- ,' 1\,,!~·
by l e arn i n g fro m troubl e d educational institutions before we inhe rit
( i. e . , hire ) t he pr oblems.
Bus iness ' has giv en much t hought to the hard core unemployed.
' '
., I
f ...
on the J:ollege
Corporation ?
A National Conference Dedicated to Understanding Student Unrest
�cut yourself in for a piece of the action
your jirni
... he1p'< bridge the
�A National Conference
Ded·cated to Understanding
and its IMPLICATIONS for Business
Here is a conference to stimulate a candid discussion between business;
college administrators, faculty and students. It will attempt to clarify the
issues now confronting university officials -- soon to confront corporate officials -- as a result of changing attitudes .
This will not be a seminar of adults meeting to discuss the problems and
challenges of youth. Rather, an outstanding and diverse group of speakers
representing all points of view, students included, will examine the uprisings now occurring on college campuses throughout the country. Following
these discussions, panel is ts including students, college administrators, and
corporate executives will discuss the implications for the business community .
For business executives this conference will be invaluable in providing:
discussion of how the corporation can attract and
retain the top college graduates.
communication with students, black and white, moderate and activist, on how and why they are changing
the university -- how and why their impact will be
felt in the corporation.
an understanding of the issues at stake on the
university scene, and their implications for business.
suggestions as to ways the business community can
use i ts organizational abilities and financial
strength to effect social changes.
"Ethically Sensitive"
By the fact of sheer numbers alone, your firm will hire many of the college seniors. Their attitudes on their right to govern society are totally
different from the graduates hired only 2 or 3 years ago. In most cases, job
interviews will not reveal this, since students frequently guard their remarks
in recruiting interviews.
The current "ethically sensitive" students demand a right to a part in the
management of all institutions in which they participate. Students want a
"piece of the action" in college administration; graduates are already demanding a similar participation in corporate affairs.
April 14-16, 1969
Sheraton-Jefferson Hotel, St. Louis, Mo.
�Analysis of Campus Turmoil-·Commentary in Depth
There are 22,800 ,000 America ns age s 18-24.
An understanding of the campus situa tion is crucial in comprehending
the changes which are a lready occurring in business . Monday morning
commenta ry will be presented by :
-- acknowle dge d a uthoritie s on the subject, includin g college administration and faculty .
-- whi te s tu dent lea ders .
-- black stude nt le ade rs .
-- the Student " New Left. "
Monday a ftern oon pa ne li s ts of students, colle ge adminis trators, a nd
facult y will lo ok at busi ne ss in li ght of demands made upon the university. Why and ho w will the corporate communit y inherit th e turmoil ?
Sep arate wo rkshops will be held with sp e ak ers t o allow closer communication between audie nce a nd p anel.

== Lun cheon Speakers =
U. S. Senator (New York)
recently appoi nted t o Robert
Kennedy vaca ncy.
2nd younges t Rep ublic a n
in Se na t e .
Young Negro leader of
Ge orgia Challenge at
Democratic Na tional Convention.
Georgia Legisla to r
THOMA S A. MARTIN Presiden t
Chann ing In vestmen t Mgt. G ro up
New York
Ka i ser Indu s tri e s
Oakl and, C a lifo rnia
Gen e ral American Life Insu rance
Comp any, St. Louis, Mo.
Direc tor o f Civic Affairs
Se ar s, R oebuck & C o mp a ny
Forme rly co-ch airman of Black Students
Stan fo rd University, Califo rnia
now i n business
P reside nt
Carson, Pirie, Scott & Co.
Chicago, Illin ois
Pres ide nt
Vice P residen t o f Tim e, In c. and
P ubli s h e r of Sport s Illu s trate d
New York , N. Y .
Pres ide n t
Midas Intern a tion a l
Chicago, Illin oi s
Canteen Corporation
Chicago, Illinois
EUGENE M. LANG Ch airman
Nationa l Bu sinessmen' s Counci l & P r es.,
R esources & F acili ti es Co rp . (N. Y. )
Black Caucus of M. B. A. students
University of Chicago
National Organizer
Students for McCarthy
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass .
N. Y . Puerto Rican Student Alliance
Brooklyn College, New York
Factory Equipment Supply Corp .
Los Angeles, Calif. Formerly National
Co-Chainnan Bus. Exec. Move for
Vietnam Peace
Editor, St ud ent News p ape r
Stanford University, California
All-America n Swimmer, 1963-64
Leader in Ro b t. Ke n nedy campaign , Calif.
M. B . A . Student, H arvard Business Schoo l
M. B . A . Student, University of Chicago
E xec. Vice-Pres.
Urban Investment & Developmen t Co.
Chicago. Exec. Com., Anti-Defamation League
"Young coll e ge graduate s a re very much in demand , and they are pressing the ir adva ntage . In response , good corporations are finding ways
to accommodate them, rather than re sisting. " FORTUNE magazine
(Concurrent with session BJ
Student Role in College /University Government
Ne w s tudent fre e dom and student participation in institutional government indicate s th a t corpora tions will face similar challenges . Students
hired today will s oon demand a ne w role in corporate polic ymaking. An
unde rs ta nding of the ir de mands can be e nhanced by examining present
cha nge s bein g ma de in unive rsity go vernment.
A. Joint st a teme nt on student rights and freedoms presented by
the American Associ a tion of University Professors .
B. State ment of the American Civil Liberties Union .
C. Stud ent c omments on the adequacy of the two preced ing statements .
D. The role students des ire in institutional government.
(Concurrent with session
After Graduation, What?
A. The "socia ll y consci ous" corporation's attraction to students .
B. Less ening anta gonism be tween "ethically sensitive" students and
and the business community .
C. Allev iat ing, what white s tudents feel is the principal s ymptom of
failure in bu s iness a nd unive rsity -- the underprivileged position of
black s .
D. New me thods of ma na ge ment development. L e ngthy training programs vs . immedi a te responsibility.
(Concurrent with session D)
Minority Group Students and the Business Community
(Concurrent with sess io n FJ
Public Relations and the New Youth Attitudes
Communication to a lumni . Role of s tud ent newspape r.
Effect of radio a nd te levision on student revolts .
Effe ct of student confrontations on a lumni contributions .
Sh ould bus ine s s pro vide moral support t o the university in time of
re be llion?
(Concurrent wi th sess io n EJ
Campus Clergymen on Stude nt Protests
Reli gious _lea ders a re play in g a significan t role in the socia l cha nge s
i n our -country. Clergy me n played a ma jor role in the developme nt of
the la bor union move ment in the U. S. They have bee n key fi gures on
the ca mpus . They will e xpre s s thei r attitud es on :
A. Uni versity obli ga tion to the blac ks .
B. Ri ghts a nd freedoms of s t ude nts .
C. Stud e nt s it-ins and occupa tion of buildings .
D. Protes ts over milita ry recruitin g, CIA, Dow Chemic al.
E . Draft protests .
Attend this National Conference in St. Louis
you will pick up helpful understanding
of the Youth Action of today.
Prominent Faculty Nego ti a to r
Co l umbia Univers ity
Author o f "The Univ e rsity R e b e lli on"
De an
Center for the Study of Democra tic
Institution s
Santa B a rbara, C a lifornia
There a re now 400,000 Black s tudents in college - as well as many
Mexican-Ame rican , Pue rto Rican and othe r minority groups. As they
ente r bu sine s s, wha t cha nge s w ill ta ke pl a c e ?
A. Employ me nt re cruiti ng of minority group stude nts .
B. Reac tion of minority group students to pl a c e me nt in c ommunity
re la tions jobs , regardless of their c ollege tra ining.
C. Busine s s use of its economic power to a ssure a de qu ate housin g
fo r gra duates it hires .
D. " Bla ck Stude nt Ca ucus es " hav e wrought ma jor chan ges on the
co llege c ampus . The Council of Conce rned Black Executives has
been for me d in New York City. As bl a cks in bus ines s unite to help
their own pe ople, wha t ch ange s will take place?
Bla c k Stude nt Leader
N o rth w es t e rn Univers ity
Pro mine nt l eader in Studen ts for
De mocra ti c Society
(Concurr e nt with s e ssion
POWELL , JR. President
Na tional Student As so ciatio n
Washington , D . C .
Financing Higher Education- A Possible Solution
to Student Unrest
A. Use of fina ncial grants to stud ents rather than to schools .
B. The fate of priva te co lleges under a new fi nancing s ys tem .
C. Studen t freedom of choice in where and ho w to purchase education
Chapl a in , South ern University
Baton R ouge, La.
Exec . Committee, Bl ac k C le rgy C au cus
Hillel F ound ation
B 'na i B' rith
University Chaplain
Massachusetts Inst itute of Technology
Chaplain to SDS members
Uni ve rsity Pastor, U . C .L.A .
Member, Commission for study of
Higher Education & Urban Society
Vice Pre s ide nt for Aca de mic Pla nnin g
Stan fo rd University
Stude nt Body Pres id e n t
No tre D a me Un i v e rsity
C ornell Universit y, Ith aca , N. Y .
Pres ide nt
De ve lo pm e nt and Alumni R e l a tions
Co lumbia Uni ve rs ity
New Yo rk
Association of American Colleges
Washin gton, D. C.
Blac k stu dent leader
Chi e f
We ste rn El e ctric , N . Y .
C ounc il of Concer.n e d
Bl ack E xecutiv es
Edito r, Alumni N e ws
Un ivers i ty of Illinois
U rba na, Ill ino i s
Deputy Sec re tary
Departmen t of Hea l th, Education & Welfare
Washin gton , D . C .
Studen t Bo dy President
Member, ACLU Committee on St ude nt Rights
Academic Dean at
Hunter Co ll ege, New York
Vice Presiden t
National Student Association
Washington , D. C .
Ame rican Association of Uni ve rsity Professors
Was h ington, D . C .
Student Body President
University of California - Berkley
Chap lain Vanderbilt University
Nashville, Tennessee
Senior Vice-Pres.
Manufacturers Hanover Trust Co.
New York, N. Y .
�Mail to: Executive Systems, Inc., 606 State St., Lawrenceville, Illinois 62439
Please make __ reservations for "Turmoil on the College Campus"
April 14-16, at the Sheraton-} efferson Hotel, St. Louis , MissourL
Complete th e form and return to Executive
Systems in advance of the seminar. Registration will be limited, and applications will be
accepted in the order received . Because of
enrollment limitations it is suggested that
reservations be made as soon as possible.
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Hotel. When you send in the attached reservation card we will return a registration card 1
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�Biographies of a Few Student Participants
S.AM BROWN, JR., age 25. Presently Fellow in the Institute of Politics, Harvard University. Student Body President, University of Redlands (Calif.) 1964-65. Chainnan of
National Supervisory Board, National Student Associati on 1966-67. Master's degree in
Political Science, Rutgers University 1966 (Eagleton Fellow). Chainnan of Alternative
Candidate Task Force, 1967 (the effort to replace President Johnson). New York Times
Man-in-the-News" March, 1968. National organizer of the Youth for Senator McCarthy.
Presently member of the board and executive corrnnittee, Robert F. Kennedy Memorial
Foundation. Member, Steering Corrnnittee of the New Democratic Coalition.
THOvlAS A. BOURELLY, age 28. Negro. Presently ~andidate for degree of Master of Business Administration, University of Chicago. B.S. degree from Illinois Institute of
Technology, in Chemistry and Biological Science. Research chemist for Sherwin-Williams
Paint Company since 1962. Presently Chairman of the Black Student Caucus in the Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
PHILIP TAUBMAN, age 20. History major at Stanford University. Editor (elected) of the
STANFORD DAILY, the Stanford student newspaper. 1967-68, Chainnan of the Orientation Program for Entering Students (approximately 1700 students). Member of Joint
Student-Faculty-Administration Study Corrnnittee to Re-evaluate the University. Last
surrnner was employed as a student intern in business by Hewlett-Packard Company in a
program designed to see what roles in business are attractive to the student activist .
JOHN GAGE, age 26. Presently candidate for degree of Master of Business Administration,
Harvard School of Business. All-American Swimmer 1963-64. Director of Corrnnunity Projects Office, University of California, Berkeley, 1966-68.
Bachelors degree from
Berkeley in economics. Co-chairman of Robert F. Kennedy Campaign, Alameda\ County,
California (California's second largest county). Delegate to the Democratic National
GIARLES PALMER, age 24. Student Body President -- University of California, Berkeley.
Honors student in Political Science. Member of Mexican-American Student Federation.
Member, Steering Corrnnittee of Student West Oakland Project (a tutorial program in Oakland city schools). Deeply involved in development of student-owned and controlled
economic projects, "In which, " he says, ".students learn about business by being in
BERNARD H. GUSTIN, age 21, son of a French-Canadian industrialist. Gustin plans to
spend his career in the U.S. Presently candidate for Master of Business Administration,
University of Chicago, and for doctorate in Sociology. 1966-67 Chainnan, Student Committee on University Development, Wesleyan University (Connecticut). Was a non-partisan
observer on the Columbia University rebellion, and at the Paris student revolution, May,
1968. Has just been designated Assistant Dean of Students (eff. Jlille, 1969), University
of Chicago Graduate School of Business.
and Its Implications for Business
Sheraton-Jefferson Hotel
St. Louis, April 14- 16
Management Consultants
606 State Street
Lawrenceville , Ill.
contact: Richard L. Merrill
Phone 618/943-3311
�The Urban Coalition
1819 H Street , N.W.
Washington , D. C. 20006
Telephone : (202) 223-9500
CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner
CO-CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell / A. Philip Randolph
March 11, 1969
Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr.
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Dear Ivan:
On behalf of Joseph Keenan, Walter Reuther, and David
Rockefeller, I wish to thank you for sending your representative to the February 26 meeting of community
development officials called by the Urban Coalition
Task Force on Housing, Reconstruction and Investment.
The meeting explored the potential for increasing the
volume of construction of low- and moderate-income
housing through the pooling of a portion of low-income
housing starts by several cities -- the pooled market to
be supplied by large-scale, efficient developers and
The discussion was very productive, and the consensus of
the meeting was that the Housing Task Force should move
rapidly in concert with mayors, governors, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development to refine the concept
into a specific working proposal.
We- are now proceeding with this tas k and Messrs. Keenan,
Reuther, and Rockefeller will be taking an opportunity
to present the proposal to you in the near future.
John W. Gardner
�Gardner Describes Pri ori ty
Programs for Federal A ction
Action Counci l Chairman John
W. Gardner has described "jobs,
housing and education" as top priority items for federal action.
He was interviewed o n the CBS
"Face th e Nation " r:: r og ram Jan;2 6 .
Legislative and administr2 tive actions urged b y Gardner included:
- - Adequate funding of the
Housing Act of 1968, the elementary education program for children
from low-income families and manpower programs.
--Vigorous enforcement of
school desegregation guidelines .
- -Economic development of th e
black community .
- - Extension of the tax surcharge.
- - Support for private enterprise activities in the inner city
as a supplement to _federal programs.
Gardne r s a id his tas k as head
of the Action Council is to make
v i v id to p e ople throughout the nation the problems that confront
the citi e s and the ste ps l e ading
to solutions. This in turn will
bri ng th e Congressional action
that is nee ded, he said.
February 25, 1 9 69
Senate Hunger Committee Is
Extended With Full Funding
The special Senate committee
studying hunger in the United
States has been extended through
this year and given $250,000 for
its investigations. Mea.nwhi le,
Administration officials ha v e responded to the committee hearings
by initiating actions to combat
malnutrition problems.
The impact of the committee's
hearings, which have been going on
since December, was clear when
Senators on February 18 took the
. The Urb an Coa lition Action Council was formed, and incorp orated
separa t e l y f r om th e Urban Coaliti o n, in the sp rin g of 1968 to mobi li ze p ublic support for n e eded urban l e gislation. The Action Coun cil is a nonprofit tax exemp t organi z ation. Gifts ar e ge n e rall y no t
t ax d educti b l e to t he donor .
The Action Council works closel y with many other inter e sted
org a n iz a tion s and indi v iduals in p ressing for Cong ressional action
to mee t the urg en t needs of the cities . Leg islation it has supp orted include s the Housing and Urban De ve lopment Act , fai r housing,
t h e ta~ s urc h a rge, and a public serv ice job p ro g r am as we ll a s pr i v at e en t erpris e' s ef fort s to hire and trai n the hard-c o r e u nemp l oyed.
I t h as s ought , and c ontinue s to se ek, mor e ad equat e fu nd i ng o f
educa t ion, h o us i ng, ma npowe r a nd anti po ve rty le g islati on.
· Thi s is th e fir st i ss ue o f the Ac tion Counc il Letter .
It wil l
be pub l ished o n a time l y b asi s t o r epo r t l eg islati v e deve l opment s
in the urban fi eld.
rare step of rejecting the recommendations of the Senate Rules
It had cut the hunger
commit.tee's fund request to
Sen. Georg e McGovern (D-S.D.), chairman of the hunger
committee -- officially, the Select Committee on Nutrition and
Human Needs -- said the Rules
Committee cut would nullify hiE
plans to coll e ct f ull statistics
showing "the inadequaci e s of our
present fooc. programs. " Without
a roll-call vote, the Senate agreed to the full $250,000 McGover~ had asked for the study.
So f ar, the highJ_j_ght. of
committee t e st i mony has been a
p relimin a r y report b y a gove rnment surveJ group on the prevalence of hunger in four states
studied for a National Nutrition
Survey. Dr. Arnold E . Schaefe r ,
chief of the nutrition progra m
of the Public He alth Serv ice ,
testi fied Janu ary 22 t hat i n v estigations had uncovered widespread maln utrition in low- i ncome
are as. He said that 1 6 to 17
p e r c e nt o f the pe r son s examine d
were in n eed o f me dical a tt e nti o n
f o r p robl e ms associat e d with
starvat ion .
Earlier, the outg oing Se c retary o f Agriculture , Or v ille L.
F r eeman, t e st if i ed that t h e g o v e rnmen t wou ld h ave to s pe nd $ 1
billion more th a n the $1.l billion now b e ing spe n t i f h u n ger
i s to be wiped o u t . Fr eeman s a i d
a c ruci a l p r ob l em i s " t o ge t the
food t o whe re i t i s need e d. "
Administrative Actions
Describ i n g fe d e r a l programs
for the p o or as "wo e fu lly inadeq u ate ," HEW Se c re t a ry Robe rt H.
F in c h a n n ounced February 17 th a t
h e h ad o rdered a o e·p a rtme nt -w i de
r e view of possible pre ventive
a nd reme d i a l a c tions to d ea l with
ma l nutrition a n d its c ons e que nc e s .
F i nc h a l so as ked for f ull
da t a on the relat i onship be t ween
menta l ret a rdation and improper
nutrition in children's early
The first free food stamps
for the poorest of the poor were
authorized b y Secretary of Agriculture Cli ff o rd M. Hardi n February 19. The pilot p ro j ect in t wo
South Carolina counties, if approv ed b y local officials, will
prov ide free stamp s for persons
who cannot p a y the $3 required in
those counties for stamps that
can buy $45 o f f ood in local
The action had been urged on
Hardin b y McGov ern and Sen. Ernest
F. Hollings (D S.C.), who h ad made
his own inv estig ation o f h unger in
his state .
ESEA -- The House Education
and Labor Committe e has b e e n
holding h e aring s since Janu a r y 15
on a bill (HR 514 ) to ext e nd the
El e me ntar y and Secon d a ry Educ a tion Act f or fi ve yea r s . Committee Chairman Car l D. Perk i n s
(D Ky .) r e portedly p l a ns t o h a ve
the f ull Committee c o n side r t h e
bi ll as soon as hear i ngs end ,
with t h e hope th a t t h e Hou se wi ll
pa s s t h e bill b efore Easte r.
HUD Appro p r i ati o ns -- The
f irst a p propri a tion h e arin g s of
t he ye ar h ave b egun b e for e the
Hou se Su bcomm i ttee o n I ndependent
Off i ce s and the Department o f
Hou sing a nd Urban Deve lopme n t .
Th e s u pp l e me ntal a ppropr i ations
r equ e sted for t he se a g e nc i es by
Pres i d e n t J ohnson b e for e he lef t
off i c e are the sub j e ct o f the
c los ed - do o r h e arings being h e ld
by the Appropriations s ubcommitt ee .
Subcommi tt ee h earings on the
prop os e d fisc a l 197 0 b u dget f or
the s e age n c i es , covering the fi s ca l y e ar tha t be g i ns J ul y 1 , wi l l
start i n l ate Ma rch .
Re location and Land Ac quisi tion - - Se n . Mu s ki e ' s Su bcommi ttee on Inte r gove rnment a l Re l at i ons has begu n hear ings on h is
Uni form Relocati on Assis tance and
Land Acquisition bi ll (S 1 ) .
�Urban Affairs Council Meets
With Action Council Leaders
Chairman John Gardner and a
group of Action Council leaders
met February 17 with President
Nixon and his Urban Affairs Council to discuss a number of proposals. The list was not made
public, but Gardner told newsmen
that among the proposals were
federal standards for welfare
payments, expansion of pre-school
and early education programs and
revitalization of the attack on
poverty. Full funding of the
1968 Housing Act and manpower
p rograms also were urged,
Gardner said.
While the President made no
commitments, "the reaction was
fa v orable, I believe," Gardner
added .
A statement by the President
was released b y the White House.
It described the meeting as "most
productive," warmly praised the
Urban Coalition's efforts, and
called on business leaders "to
lend active support to the Urban
Council Studies -- The first
product of studies by the Urban
Affairs Council was made public
February 19 when President Nixon
sent Congress a message asking
for a one-year extension of the
present anti-poverty agency.
That would allow time for a comprehensive study of the future of
the Office of Economic Opportunity, Mr. Nixon said.
As a first step, however, he
has ordered the transfer of several activities from OEO to regular departments. The Head Start
program for pre-school children,
neighborhood health centers and
the foster grandparents plan will
be delegated to the HEW Department by July 1. The Job Corps
will be administered by the Labor
The President's Counci l for Urban Affairs: standing from left to rig ht, Sec retary Sh ul tz, Budget Burea~ Direct~ r May o, Coun se llo r
Burns, Attorney General Mitchell, Secretaries Volpe and, hidde n, Finc h, Vice President Agnew, Secreta ries Hardin a nd Ro mney, Executive Secretary Moyn ihan , Secretary Stans.
�Among other issues now under
study by the President's Council
on Urban Affairs is whether to extend the Model Cities program to
more than the 150 cities now participating in it. The y have received funds to prepare plans for
a concerted attack on all aspects
of blight in selected inner city
areas and will receive additional
federal aid when their plans are
completed. The 1968 Housing and
Urban Development Act authorized
inclusion of additional cities in
the program, but the fiscal 1970
budget submitted by President
Johnson before leaving office recommended funds only for the 150
programs now under development.
Mr. Johnson proposed $750 million
for supplementary grants in fiscal
1970 and an advance appropriation
of $1.25 billion for the next
year, to aid the cities' long-term
John Gunther of the U.S. Conference of Mayors talks with
Wayne Smithey of the Ford Motor Co . while, in the back,
Mark Keane of the International City Managers Association
and Tom Hannigan of the Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
talk together .
Action Council Discusses
New 91 st Congress
Member s of the Action Council
staff met January 8 with Washington representatives of Policy
Council members to discuss the outlook for urban legislation in the
new Congress. With little change
in membership from the previous
Congress, the 91st Congress is not
expected to make radical changes
in e x isting programs but will need
considerable encouragement to move
forward fast enough on current
problems, it was generally agreed
at the meeting.
The most urgent need is for
full appropriations to carry out
major programs for the cities that
previous Congresses have authorized, many participants said.
Among those participating in
the meeting was a good cross section of the Action Council's constituents.
Included were representatives of municipal groups,
business, labor unions and spokesmen for civil rights and religious
The Urban Coalition Action Council
1819 H St., N.W.
Washington , D.C. 20006
Tel: 202 293-1530
Chairman , John W. Gardner
Co-Chairmen: Andrew Heiskell
A. Philip Randolph
Executive Di rector: Lowell R. Beck
Legi sla t ive Associates : Joh n P. Lagomarcino
Ronald J . James
Ass istant for Legis la ti ve Information:
Georgianna F. Rathbun
Ronald J . James, an attorney in Waterloo, Iowa , and
former executive director of that city' s Com mission on
Human Rights, joi ne d the staff of the Urba n Coali tion
Action Council Feb. 17. A graduate of the University of
Missouri, Jam es worked for Congressmen Rum sfe ld
(R Ill.) and Bromwell (R Iowa) whi le studying fo r hi s
law degree at American University .
�House Hearings on Poverty
Forecast Floor Fight on OEO
Hearings on legislation to
extend the antipoverty programs of
the Office of Economic Opportunity
(OEO) for five years began in the
House Education and Labor Committee March 24. Comments at the
opening hearing made clear that
committee members will be sharply
divided over a one-year or fiveyear extension of OEO.
President Nixon has asked for
a one-year extension, saying that
would allow time for his Administration to conduct a comprehensive
review of antipoverty programs.
However, the House chairman, Rep.
Carl D. Perkins (D Ky.), favors a
five-year extension and has introduced HR 513 to accomplish that.
Continued on Page 2

Employment status oF non-disabled,

non-aged household heads
April 11, 1969 -- Vol. I, No. 4
HEW Proposes Increased Funds
For Community Health Centers
Much larger federal grants
for outpatient clinics, neighborhood health centers and skilled
nursing homes have been proposed
to Congress by the Department of
Health, Education and Welfare.
HEW Secretary Robert H. Finch
asked the House Subcommittee on
Public Health and Welfare March 25
to rewrite the Hill-Burton Hospital Construction law to put increased emphasis on outpatient
health care.
"The distances traveled and
hours spent in waiting for such
services by millions of our people
testify to the critical nature of
this need in almost every community," Finch said.
Sen. Jacob K. Javits (R . NY)
has introduced a bill (S 1733)
that carries out the HEW propos als.
It authorizes $150 million
this year for allocation by the
states to the facilities Finch
However , the present
federal program of grants for
acute - care hospital beds would be
changed to a federally guaranteed
loan program , without interest
subsidy to the hospitals.
The Action Council Letter reports legislative deve lopments in the urban fie ld It is published by the Urban Coalition
Action Counci l, which seeks needed urban legislation
�ty Action Program and closely related activities , such as VISTA .
Other programs should be trans~
ferred to established Departme n ts ,
the GAO report said .
Comments by Sen . Nelson
Continued from Page 1
In opening the hearings, Rep.
Perkins said a one-year extension
would be "demoralizing" to the
poor who have found hope in the
government's antipoverty efforts.
He said that OEO programs needed
the "stability" that a long extension provides. He also criticized the President's plans to
transfer four OEO programs, including Head Start and the Job
Corps, to long-established Departments.
GAO Report
A lengthy and generally f a v orable report on the OEO was is sued March 18 b y the Gene ra l Ac coun ting Offic e. The GAO, which
i s often ref erred to as Cong r es s'
"watchdog" over the e x e c ut ive departments , was di r ected by Cong r ess in 1967 to dete r mine the
efficiency of OEO p rograms and the
e x te n t to wh i ch t h ey a ch i eve t he
obj ec tiv es o f the Econ omic Oppo r tunity Act , the basic antipo v e r t y
law of 1964 .
The ma j o r reco mmendati o n o f
th e GAO wa s that the P r esident es tab lish in h is Ex ecu t ive Office a
wel l - s t aff e d off i ce respo n sible
f o r broad plann i n g , coo r d i nation
and evaluati o n of all the g o v e rnme nt ' s a n tipove r ty effo r ts.
OEO would c ont inue as an indepe nde nt agen cy to ope r a t e the Communi -
The report was dismissed b y
Rep. Perkins as "not worth the paper it is written on , " b ut mo r e
favorable comments came from h is
Senate counterpart , Gay lord Ne l son (D Wis.) . Se n . Nelson is
chairman of the poverty subcommittee of the Senate Labor and Publi c
Welfare Committee .
In a statement Mar ch 19 Nelson said : "Some enemies of the war
on poverty apparen t ly h ad h o p e d
that this report would j u st i f y a
surrender of this u n der - f inanced ,
late-starting effo r t to he lp millions of Americans escape from
poverty .
It does n o s u c h thing .
" It simp ly t e ll s t h e White
House that fighti n g pov e rty i s
such a big tas k th a t i t mu s t be
supervise d b y t h e Pre side nt a n d
t h at t h e f i gh t mu s t be coord inate d
throughout t h e vast fed e ral bur eaucracy.
I t tells th e Con g r ess
th a t programs c annot functio n if
approp r i ati o n s are wi thh e l d o r
s er ious l y delay ed .
I t te ll s b oth
OEO a nd the many age n c i es -- f ederal, s tate and local -- with
whi ch i t work s that met iculo us r e co r d k ee ping a nd evaluat i o n a r e
vita l if the p o ve rty prog r am i s t o
achieve its objec tives . "
Nelso n said the GAO's recommendati o ns o n t h e whole were "construc t ive and fo rward - l o oking."
Discrimination Study Cites
Obstacles in Upgrading Jobs
Th e n e ed to upgrade emp l o yme n t opportunities for membe r s of
mino r ity gro up s is getting inc r ease d atte ntion.
It is b u ttresse d by
s t atistics in a recent g ove rnme nt
r e port showing that racial di s crimination , rathe r than lack o f s kills
or education , holds back the ad-
�vancement of Negroes, Spanishspeaking Americans and Indians.
The president of the National
Alliance of Businessmen, Donald M.
Kendall , told an April 1 meeting
of bus i nessmen participating in
the JOBS program for the hard-core
u n employed that the major need is
to provide jobs with marketable
s kill s , not just menial jobs. As
e vidence of discrimination in
u pper- l evel positions, Kendall
s ai d that of some 50,000 corporate
o ffi c ers in this country, only two
dozen are blacks.
Th e statistical report on discr i mi n ation was issued in March by
the Equal Employmen t Opportunity
Commi ss i o n. Amon g industries
where discrimination is most prevalent, the report said, are those
with a large proportion of wellpaid employees with better-thanaverage educational backgrounds.
The EEOC found that minority group
employees who succeed in getting
jobs in such companies "can expect
few promotions."
Proposals for developing marketable skills in lower-level jobs
were made in the General Accounting Office's review of antipoverty
It found that "intensive classroom and work-experience
programs" are essential to develop
skills needed to rise above the
helper and laborer categories for
Congressional Liaison Men Named for HEW, HUD, Labor
The Depar tments of Health,
Educat ion and Welfare, Housing and
Urba n Deve l opment, and Labo r h ave
n e w appoi n te es in c harge o f car r ying their legislat~ve programs
t o Con gre ss.
Th e Ur ban Coalition Ac ti o n
Council ha s had me e ting s with
these officials a nd plans to k e e p
in close touc h with the l e g i slative programs t h ey deve l o p.
HEW liai son with Congress i s
in charge of Cree d C. Black, Assis tant Secretary for Legislati on. A
newspaperman and editor, with an
M.A. in political science fr om the
University of Chicago, Bl ack was
executive edito r o f the Chicago
Daily News unti l h e joine d HEW .
His principal d epu ty, with
responsibility for educati on leg islation, is Charles B. Saunders
Jr. Saunders has been assistan t
to the president of Brookings I n stitution since 1961, and b efor e
that was an assistant to fo r mer
HEW Secretary Arthur S. Flemming .
The Assistant for Congressional Affairs for the HUD Secretary ,
George Romney, is Jack Woolley ,
former director of government relations for the TRW Systems Group,
a Redondo Beach, Calif., space and
defense contractor. A graduate o~
Two Deport mentol Congressional Liaison Officers
Creed C. Block, HEW
Jock Woolley, HUD
t h e U.S. Me rchant Marine Ac ademy,
Wool ley g a ined Was h i ngton expe rience as l egis l ative affairs as sis t a nt to the Secre tary of the Navy
a n d to the Se cre tary o f Defense in
t h e Eisenhower Administration.
The La bor Departme n t 's new
Special Assistant for Legislati v e
Af fai rs is William L. Giffor d, a
f o r me r stude nt o f the law a nd politica l re p or t er. From 19 59 to
196 8 he was t h e admi n is t rat ive assistant to t h e n -Representat ive
Char l es E . Goodel l , now a U. S.
Senator from New York . Gi ffor d is
a graduate of Fordham Un i versi t y .
�Democratic, GOP Urban Plans
Issued by Economic Commit tee
dividual and the economy and
should be expanded and improved:
-- consolidate various approaches into single comprehensive
-- insure that MDTA programs
train people for skills in demand;
stimulate job training
through Federal tax credits;
-- improve job information
and worker mobility;
-- recognize that overly rapid increases in the Federal minimum wage may reduce employment opportunities;
-- intensify efforts to reduce discrimination in employment.
Welfare and poverty:
-- recommend guaranteeing employment opportunity rather than
guaranteeing income as best approach to alleviating poverty;
-- study national minimum
level of welfare assistance with
increased Federal support;
-- e x pand efforts to stimulate welfare recipients to become
more self-sufficient.
Improving the urban community:
-- e x pand resources available
to State and local governments;
-- revenue sharing should be
seriously considered;
-- enlist the help of the
private sector in community development through approaches such as
the Community Self-Determination
-- improve the quality of
housing through activation of th e
National Cor poration of Hous i ng
Partnerships and fair housing ,
zoning and tax r eforms .
Recommendations for action
in the urban field were made in an
April 1 report by the joint Congressional Economic Committee.
Democratic Recommendations
Employment, manpower and
training programs should be expanded and improved by:
-- providing comprehensive
coordinated assistance;
-- meeting critical skill
shortages such as medical services
and housing;
-- adding to the JOBS Program, conducted by private business, a public sector program to
hire the disadvantaged for public
service jobs.
Income maintenance (welfare)
programs for those unable to work
are underfunded and uncoordinated.
They must be improved by:
-- provision for equal treatment of every needy citizen regardless of location;
-- establishment of a single
local office or representative to
whom the needy can turn with assurance for assistance.
The highest priority must be
given to developing programs for
a massive environmental reconstruction of urban and rural America, including :
- - allocation of the necessary resources, both public and
private , to economic development
of max imum social impact;
-- achievement of the goal of
a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American famil y, as provi ded for by the
Housing and Ur ban Development Act
of 1968 ;
-- i n c r eas e d funding for
an t i poverty progr ams , especially
o n t he neighbo rhood le v el , and fo r
the mo de l citi es prog r am.
The Urban Coalition Action Council
1819 H St., N.W.
Washington , D.C. 20006
Tel : 202 293-1 530
Chairm a n: John W. Ga rdn er
Co-Ch ai rme n: Andrew Heiske ll
A. Phi li p Rand ol ph
Exec utive Director , Lowe ll R. Beck
l egis la ti ve Associates: John P. Lag om arcino
Rona ld J . James
Ass istant for Legis lative Information :
Georgianna F. Rathbun
Republican Vi e ws
Employment , manpower a nd
training prog rams b e n e fi t t h e in ~
�Kerner Commission Findings
After One Year Reviewed
"One Year Later," a review of
what has been done, and not done,
to meet the urban crisis since the
Kerner Commission report of March,
1968, has been issued. The sponsors are two private, nonprofit
organizations, the Urban Coalition
and Urban America Inc.
After presenting up-to-date
data on social and environmental
problems in the nation's inner
cities, the review concludes that
"we are a year closer to being two
societies, black and white, increasingly separate and scarcely
less unequal."
Copies of "One Year Later"
may be ordered, for a small charge,
from the Communications Division
of the Urban Coalition, 1819 H
St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20006.
Reprinted Jrnm "Tlte Herhlnc k Gallen ·," Si m on and Schus ter. / 96R .
March 7, 1969 -- Vol. I, No. 2
Funds for Low Income Housing
Head Action Council Agenda
Supplemental appropriations
for the low-income homeownership
and rental programs of the 1968
Housing Act, and for administration of the fair housing law, are
a priority goal of the Action
Council . The two laws were enacted by Congress last summer but
received only partial funding -far less than was needed for a
good start .
The new programs for lowincome families are k nown , in
housing law jar gon , as Section 2 35
and Section 236 .
Pri v a t e f ina ncing , b u t t r essed
b y fede r a l inte r es t s ubsid i es , i s
the k ey to both t h e homeowne rs hip
prog r am , Sect i o n 2 3 5, a nd t he
r e n ta l p r ogr am , Sect i o n 2 3 6. Low
and mode r ate - inc ome f a milies will
be able to b uy hou ses f o r up to
$15 , 000 , spe n d 2 0 % o f the ir mo nthly i n come o n mor tgag e p ayme nts,
a n d t h e FHA wil l pay t he remaining
mo r t gage co s ts . Similarly o n Sec ti o n 23 6 rent a l units, the Govern me nt will pay to the nonp r ofit
s po ns o rs the difference between
the inte rest cost of a conventi o nal mortgage and an interest
rate of 1%.
The first homeownership in-
�terest contracts were made in October. On the average, they were
for houses costing $12,152. The
average interest subsidy was
$33 . 88 a month, for owners with
monthly income of $430.
The Housing Act authorized
FHA to sign contracts for $75 million under Section 235 this year.
Congress, however, allowed only
$25 million. The same figures also were set for the Section 236
rental program.
A House Appropriations Subcommittee is now considering budget proposals submitted by former
President Johnson requesting an
additional $50 million contract
authority for each of the two programs . His request for the nex t
fiscal year, starting July 1, was
$100 million for each program.
The fair housing law received
an appropriation of only $2 million from Congress.
The Johnson
budget proposes a supplemental $2
million for administration of the
law plus $14.5 million for the
ne x t year.
Sen . Ra lph Yarborough Becomes
Chairman of Labor Committee
The Senate Labo r and Publi c
Welfare Committee, which han dles
manpower, a n ti p o vert y, educati on
a nd health l e gisl a t i o n, i s u nde r
n e w leaders h i p t h is year.
Ret i reme n ts and election defeats have
produc e d n e w c h ai r men f o r t he f ul l
committee a n d for its eigh t sub comm ittees . De moc ra t s r e main in
t he ma j o r ity o n t h e c o mmi ttee but
the Re p ubl ica ns have o n e addit i ona l seat thi s ye a r.
Se n. Ralph Yarborough of Texa s i s t he n e w c ommi t tee chairman.
He al s o ha s taken over as head of
t h e Subcommittee on Health .
Other key s ubcommittee chairmen include: Claiborne Pell (D -R.I.), Education; Gaylord Nelson
(D Wis .), Subcommittee on Employment , Manpo wer and Poverty ; Harrison A. Williams (D N.J . ) , Labo r;
Senator Ralph Ya rborough
and Walter F . Mondale (D Minn.),
Migratory Labor.
Sen. Jacob K. Jav its (R N.Y.)
remains the top-rank ing Re p u bl ic an
on the committee . Th e n e w GOP
members, all f r es h men , are Willi a m
B. Sax be (Ohio) , Richard S . Sc h wei k er (Pa . ) a n d He n r y Be l lmo n
(Okla . ) .
The new De moc ra t s a re fr es hmen Thomas F. Eag le t o n (Mo .), Alan
Cranston (Cali f. ) and Har o ld E .
Hughes (Iowa) .
Re l ocat io n and Land Acquisition - - Senate subcommittee heari ng s have been completed on the
Unif o rm Relocation Assistance and
Land Acquisition bill (S 1).
The Ac t ion Council suppo rts
t h e bi ll , which would provide rel ocation payments and other assistance to persons displaced by
any federal program or any federally aided state or local program.
The last Congress approved this
kind of aid on federal highway and
housing projects and the new bill
would extend this to other pro grams on a uniform basis. Post
offices and other federal buildings and federally aided projects
such as hospitals and college
Continued on Page 4
�Congre ssmen Take City Tours
To Learn of Urban Programs
Small groups of Congressmen
are mak ing two-day trips to major
c ities to learn at first hand of
u rban problems and programs. The
tours are sponsored by the U.S.
Con ference of Mayors for the benef it of Congressmen from rural
a r e a s and small cit ies. Members
o f the Urban Coalition Action
Council staff are participating in
t h e tours .
Visitin g Atlanta, Ga., Jan.
31 a nd F eb . 1 were fi v e Represent a tive s -- We ndell Wyatt (R) of
Astor ia, Ore., J ames F. Hastings
(R) of Al l egan y , N.Y. , W. s.
Stuc k e y (D) of Eastman , Ga . ,
J a mes R. Ma n n (D) of Greenville,
s.c . , and Pau l Mcclos k ey (R) of
San Mate o , Ca l if .
The five wer e g i ven an i n t roduction t o Atlanta' s prob lems by
Mayor Ivan Allen, who i s on t h e
Action Council ' s b oard. Allen
t old the group t h at t h e city ' s
p rogress in urban deve lop me nt was
due in la rge part to f unds appro priated by Co n gre s s .
After hear ing other city of-
ficials discuss their programs the
Congressmen toured the Model
Cities and urban renewal areas and
visited antipoverty agencies .
Afterwards, Rep. Wyatt commented
that there is no
, domestic problem
"more urgent than that of the
American city . "
A similar trip was made to
Dayton, Ohio, Feb. 21-22. The
city's Congressman, Charles W.
Whalen (R), was host to the group,
which included Rep. Mann and three
others -- Rep. Bill Alexander (D)
of Osceola, Ark., Robert C. McEwen
(R) of Ogdensburg, N.Y., and William L. Hungate (D) of Troy, Mo.
Among the programs the Congressmen studied was the coordin a ted manpower programs oper ated
by the federally funded local CEP
office. CEP stands for Concentrated Employment Plan. It tries
to concentrate a v ailable job resource s within areas o f hig h une mployment and pove rty.
I n both cit ie s the Congr e s smen got a glimpse of crime problems by riding in police cars for
a nigh t-time tour of pote nti a l
trouble spots.
Lat er trips a r e p lanne d f or
New York and Bo s t on .
In Atlanta City Ha ll, Rep. McCl oskey takes notes as Rep. Hastings, on the far left, listens. Clockwise, fac ing t he camera, are
Rep. Wyatt, Vice Mayor Sam Massei!, Reps. Man n a nd Stuckey, Action Council executive di rector Lowel l Beck and Janet Ko hn
of the Conference of Mayors.
�Continued from Page 2
buildings are examples of programs
that often displace inner city
residents and businesses who badly
need help in relocating.
Provisions similar to those
in S 1 were passed by the Senate,
but not by the House, in the last
Congress. The House Public Works
Committee held hearings late last
year on similar relocation bills
but took no action on them.
As yet, the House committee
has not scheduled further hearings
for this session.
Senate passage
probably will come first.
Urban Coal ition Action Counci l
Adds 2 1 New Members to Board
An expanded Policy Council,
the policy body for the Urban
Coalition Action Council, met for
the first time February 26.
Twenty-one new members joined the
Council, bringing the total membership to 59. John W. Gardner
is the chairman.
Of the new members, si x are
women -- the fi r st to serve on the
Council. They are Mrs . Bruce B.
Benson, president of the League of
Wome n Voters of the U. S . ; Mr s .
Amalia V. Betanzos , e x ecutive dir ector of the Puerto Rican Commun i t y Dev elopment Project in Ne w
Yo rk City; Mr s . Fr e d R . Harr is ,
chai r man o f the Women 's Counc i l on
Pov e r t y, OEO; Mrs . Patr icia R .
Harri s , Howard Unive r sity Schoo l
o f Law; Miss Do r o thy I. Hei ght,
pr e sident of the Na ti o nal Council
o f Negro Women; a n d Mr s . Ai lee n C .
Hernandez of San Francisco , fo rme r
member of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
The 15 other new members are
Julian Bond, Georgia state legislator; Paul W. Briggs, superintendent of schools for Cleveland,
Ohio; Daniel J. Evans, Governor of
the State of Washington; Herman E.
Gallegos, executive director of
the Southwest Council of LaRaza;
Ernest Green, director of the
Joint Apprenticeship Program in
Brooklyn, N.Y.; Richard G. Hatcher,
Mayor of Gary, Indiana; Dr. _Vivian
W. Henderson, president of Clark
College, Atlanta, Georgia.
Also, Richard J. Hughes, Governor of the State of New Jersey;
Roy Innis, national director of
CORE; Dr. Howard Johnson, president of MIT; Edgar J. Kaiser,
chairman of the board of Kaiser
Industries; Robert S. Powell Jr.,
president of the National Student
Association; Carl B. Stokes, Mayor
of Cleveland, Ohio; Rev . Andrew J .
Young Jr., e xecutive director of
SCLC; and Dr. Mark Shedd , superintendent of schools for Philadelphia .
Before adding the new membe r s
the policy group consisted of 13
businessmen, 6 union officials ,
and 19 may ors, civil rights and
religious leaders .
The Urban Coalition Action Counci l
1819 H St., N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Tel : 202 293-1530
Chairman: John W. Gordner
Co-Chairmen: Andrew Heiske ll
A. Philip Randolph
Execu tive Director: Lowell R. Beck
Legislative Assoc iates : John P. Logomorcino
Ronald J. Jomes
Assistan t fo r Legislative Information :
Georgia nna F. Ra t hbun
On the left, new Policy Council members Mrs. Benson
of the League of Women Voters and Mrs . Betanzos
of the Puerto Rican Com mun ity Development Projec t,
wit h Mayor Cavanagh of Det ro it. On the right, Rev .
And rew Young of the Sout hern Christion Leade rship
Conference, also a new Council me mbe r.
This Is a fast message
unless its d eferred ch aracter is indicated by the
proper symbol.
DL = Day Letter
NL=Night Letter
LT -Internatio nal
- Letter Telegram
The filing time shown in the dace line on domestic telegrams is LOCAL TIME ac point of origin. Time of receipt is LOCAL TIME at point of destination
408p EST DEC 21 68 AA~ 7
9 11 202 223 9500.
,I: ~ Y
ct1;t~ y,\ . ~
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2121 7
FE" 4 6S AE27g CTC~~O
1!!TH ?RES!D9!T
)(;..__ ~~
1619 H STREET. N. W.
Community Self-Determination Act of 1968
Senate Democratic Version
s. 3875
Senate Republican Version
s. 3876
House Democratic Version
H. R. 18976
House Republican Version
H. R. 18460
Title I
(All Title references are to S. 3875)
Title I creates a National Community Corporation
Certification Board (NCCCB) and outlines the procedure and
purpose of individual Community Development Corporations
(CDC's). The NCCCB acts much like the National Labor Relations
Board in its union certification procedure.
It will be composed of five members, and its primary functions will be the
issuance of corporation charters, conducting and supervising
referenda, service as counsel to the CDC's and as an information
center for parties interested in forming CDC's. A National
Advisory Commission advises the NCCCB but does not have direct
impact on the latter's specific activities.
Section B of Titl~ I states the structural outline of a
local CDC. This is the heart of the Act.
It would have a broad
social improvement purpose as well as the promotion of business
activity. CDC's operate in areas in which the 16-year and up
population ranges from 5,000 to 300,000. The geographic area
within which a CDC would operate is designated by the applicants
for a CDC charter . Any resident within the designated area
may be a shareholder of the corporation, but the Act requires
that a minimum of 10 per cent of the 16-year-old and up population residing within the area hold stock in the CDC. The shares
would have a par value of $5, and each shareholder would have
one vote in corporate matters, notwithstanding the number of
shares the shareholder a ctually holds.
The functions of a CDC fall into si x categories. First ,
neighbo r hood services and community improvement , including but
not limited to public welfare programs , day ca r e centers ,
T E LE PH ON E : 20 2 29 3 -153 0
�-2consumer education, job placement, legal aid, etc.
Second, it
would own stock in businesses in the CDC area. Third, it would
sponsor, own, or manage housing facilities within the CDC area.
Fourth, it would be an advocate planner for neighborhood and
community renewal projects. Fifth, it would serve as a
representative of various community interests in other areas
of public policy and concern.
Six th, it would encourage
various other elements of the community such as business,
labor, religion, and so forth, to become active in voluntary
community self-help efforts.
A CDC would be financed by earnings from affiliated
businesses, grants from community development funds, foundations,
trusts, etc., and from contracts with privately owned businesses,
government agencies, and other entities for specified services or
The CDC would have nine directors and two additional
directors for each 10,000 shareholders of the corporation in
e x cess of 25,000. The directors of the corporation would
select the executive officers as well as the Business Management
Board. The latter's p r imar y f unction i s to p r ovide ove rall
manage me nt exp e rtis e and a s sistance t o thos e af filiated businesses owned . by the CDC.
The full area of responsibility of
the members of the BMB would be spelled out in the CDC charter
but would be phrased primarily to afford the BMB max imum latitude to manage CDC owne d busine ss e s and allow fo r the purchase
o f othe r e nterp ris e s.
CDC' s can be orga ni zed b y a ny fi v e o r more re side nts o f
a speci f ic area covering a population range from 5,000 to
300,000, 16 years and older. For any designated area to be
eligible for a CDC, howe v e r, the r a t e o f unemploy me nt must be
h igher than the n a tional ave r age or t h e med i a n family in c ome b e
propor t i ona t e l y lowe r th a n the national a v e r age . Af t e r a ppl ication is made f o r a CDC c h arte r , a 6 0 -day period mu st e l apse so
as to allow any other interes t e d group within the same area, or
an o ve rl a pping are a, the opp ortunity to o rganize its own CDC .
Before the NCCCB will grant a f inal c h a rter to a g r oup of
a ppl icants , the a pp l i c a n ts mu st h ave received ple d ge car ds f o r
the p u rchase of stock from a min i mum of 5 per ce n t of t ho se
eligible to purchase stock within the designated area of
operation. This insures a minimum l eve l of community support.
If the applicants cannot obta in pledge cards from the minimum
5 p er cen t, the char t er appl i cati o n i s rejec t e d . Once the
p l edge cards are received from 5 per cent of the population,
a conditional charter i s i ssue d. At that p o int, the CDC has
45 days in which to obtain additional pledge cards covering
10 per cent of the area's population. F ive hundre d peop l e
must have paid in at l east $5,0 00 f o r CDC stock. During t h e
45-day period the pledge money is kept in escrow pending
further action toward issuance of a final charter.
During the period in which a CDC attempts to raise the
minimum level of funds, an additional determination is being
made which indicates the relative economic need of the area
in question. A Development Index is figured for the area.
The Index is the lesser of two ratios: First, the ratio of the
national rate of unemployment to the area's unemployment rate
x 100, or second, the ratio of the nation's median family
income to the area's median family income x 100. If the
Development Index of a conditional chartered CDC is found to be
90 or above, the charter is dissolved because the CDC is considered too close to the national average of 100. A special bonus
is afforded those rural areas from which outmigration is contributing directly to specific urban tensions.
If only one
conditional CDC is left within a given area, a vote is then
held in which a majority of those voting must approve the applicants.
If a majority of those voting do approve, the final
charter is granted; if a majority disapprove, the charter is
In the case of competing CDC's within a given area,
referenda are held for each competitor, starting with those
representing the geographic area encompassing the highest
level of population.
If none of the competitors within the
largest given area are accepted, a vote is held for those
CDC's competing in the next smallest geographic area, etc.,
until such time as one CDC is approved by the requisite majority
of those voting. At least 10 per cent of the eligible voters
must actually cast a ballot for any referendum to be valid.
Once a CDC is established, a one-time seed money grant is
made to the corporation in an amount equal to its current
paid-in capital.
Title II
Title II provides for the establishment of Community
Development Banks (CDB's), which are organized by CDC's . CDB's
operate in an area of 25,000 or more people, 16 years and up,
and concentrate on financial services to the area in quest ion .
They provide both business financing and consumer credit to
indi vidual CDC shareholders.
Equity capital is obtained through the sale of stock to
the Secre tary of the Treasury (Class A),
any groups or individuals other than the
Federal Government and CDC's (Class B), and
stock sold only to CDC's (Class C).
Class A stock would be nonvoting and repaid by a franchise
tax on the CDB's net earnings. Class B stock would be nonvoting but receive dividends. Class C stock would not receive
dividends. The latter point is made so that the CDB becomes a
necessary financial mechanism for the establishment and proliferation of CDC activities but does not become a source of
Income bonds would be issued to the public to provide
additional equity and debt capitalization.
CDB net earnings would be first applied to make up any
bad debts and restore any impaired capital. The payment of
stoc~ dividends is a lessor priority.
Loans are made to the following individuals and businesses:
CDC shareholders for normal consumer
a small business, 75 per cent of which is
owned by resident CDC shareholders;
a small business, less than 75 per cent
of which is owned by CDC shareholders,
so long as the CDC in whose area the
business is located is given the right
of first refusal when the business is
a subsidiary of a CDC, 51 per cent of
which is owned by CDC shareholders;
outside corporations with turnkey contracts
with a CDC;
cooperatives, 75 per cent of whose members
are CDC shareholders; and
nonprofit housing sponsors operating within
the community serviced by the CDB.
An applicant for a business loan must have a minimum level
of business experience and exper tise, or have contracted with
a company or service to obtain the necessary business training.
Loans of up to 90 per cent of the required capital may be made
on terms of up to 20 years for repayment . Housing sponsors can
receive money for "front-money" or construction loans.
Unorthodox and high risk ventures are encouraged as long as they
would yield significant community benefits. Participation loans
are encouraged.
-5The primary purpose of a CDB is to channel capital to
business ventures.
Its secondary purpose is to provide normal
banking services to people in impoverished areas.
Title III
Title III creates a United States Community Development
Bank, which would serve as a secondary financial institution
and as a source of technical, financial, and managerial expertise
to CDB's.
It would serve also to promote economic development
in those poverty-stricken areas where no CDB's exist. The USCDB
would have the same relationship to CDB's as a federal intermediate credit bank has to local commercial banks. The
USCDB would have the same relationship to those areas not
serviced by CDB's as the World Bank has to underdeveloped
countries. Although not an instrumentaility of the Federal
Government, the President would initially appoint the incorporators
and first directors of the USCDB. Eventually CDB's holding stock
in the USCDB would name some of the directors.
Capitalization would be provided through stock sales.
The Secretary of the Treasury would hold nonvoting, nonpaying, Class A stock purchased through funds provided by a
Congressional appropriation. Class B stock would be held by
anyone other than the Federal Government, CDB's being eligible
to purchase such stock. The USCDB is authorized to issue bonds,
debentures, and other certificates of debt up to 5 times its
paid-in capital and surplus.
Its primary functions are to
provide secondary banking services to CDB's through discounts,
loans, notes, advances, and so forth, and to make loans for
business and community facilities or public development
facilities in low-income "investment areas," designated by the
Secretary of Labor.
It provides interim construction financing
for facilities which it may also plan, initiate, own, and
manage until such time as the facilities are purchased.
provides management assistance to CDB's as well as other
borrowers and generally creates new investment opportunities by
bringing together facilities, capital, and management.
A CDB may establish branches.
USCDB earnings are to be applied in the following order :
restoration of any capital impairment ,
creation and maintenance of a surp lus
payment of a franchise tax with re f e r e n ce
to the amount of Class A s t ock h e l d b y t he
Secretary of the Treasury ,
establishment of contingency rese rves ,
dividends on Class B stock up to
6 per cent of earnings, and
retirement of Class A stock held b y the
Title IV
Title IV authorizes certain Federal tax advantages for
CDC and turnkey corporations. All tax advantages granted to
CDC's are applicable until the Development Inde x for the
designated CDC area reaches the national average for fi v e
Title IV would amend the Internal Revenue Code to
permit each corporation in a group of CDC subsidiary corporations to retain its individual surtax exemption and pay its
regular corporate tax on any thing over the $25,000 at a 22 p er
cent rate rather than 28 per cent.
Tax rates and surtax
exemptions are liberalized depending upon the area's Development
Inde x , with provis i ons for greater tax advantages to those
CDC's operating in areas with the lowest Development Inde x .
In addition, the Internal Revenue Code is amended to
attr act turnkey companies into the CDC area. Turnke y comp a nies
can tak e advantage of rapid amortization schedules for its
facilities . Again, the rate of amortization depends on the
rate of the Development Index with the shorter periods of
amortization being made available to those companies which
inv est in the poorest areas. A 10 per cent tax credit on wages
and salarie s o f CDC shareholders e mploy ed in the turnk ey
facili~y is granted to the turnke y company . This is called a
human investment tax credit . The 10 p e r cent figure comp ares
with the 7 per cent investment credit on machinery investment,
though is higher b e cause of the impermanence of the inve stment
in human skills .
It is a r gue d that the credit must be highe r
to induce the tu r n k e y corporation to i nvolve its e lf in impover ished
are a s .
The turnkey comp any is not r e quire d to pay c apital gains tax
on th e s a le of a turnkey fa c ility if t h e sale p rofits are
rei n v e ste d in another turnkey o pe r a tion or in Class B stock o f
a COB . A tu rnkey co r porati o n would b e e ntitled to a sustai ned
profita bility t a x credit eq u a l to 15 pe r c ent o f the profit s
g enerated fr om t u rnkey o pera t i o n s fo r f i v e ye ars af te r t he sa l e
of a faci l ity to a CDC . Th is latte r p r o vi sion p r e sumably
gu a r antee s th e de v e lopme nt of the stronge st fi n an cia l operat i on
th e t ur nk e y c omp a ny can en c o u rage .
Title V
If a CDC is no t a d i v idend-p a ying c o rp o ration , it can be
treated as a CAP agency under t he Ec o nomic Opportunity Act .
The Sma ll Busines s Admi n istration is a uthorized to make
grants to CDC ' s o f up to 9 0 per cent of th e cost of technical
and management assis t ance and training programs . The grants
may be made for a number of programs , some o f which are as
follo ws :
the identification and development
of new business opportunities, joint
ventures, and turnkey agreements;
marketing surveys;
planning and research for business
plant design, layout, and operation;
marketing and promotional assistance;
business counseling, management training,
and legal and other related services with
specific emphasis on management training,
·using the resources of private business;
encouragement of subcontracting to CDC's
for establishing business and cooperative
efforts to train and upgrade CDC personnel.
�A P P E N D I X
S. 3875 Sponsors:
Senators Nelson (Wis.), Bayh (Ind.), Harris (Okla.), Hartke (Ind.),
Church (Idaho), Mondale (Minn.), Hart (Mich.), Magnuson (Wash.),
Metcalf (Mont.), Moss (Utah), Pell (R. I.), Randolph (W. Va.),
Ribicoff (Conn.), Williams (N.J.), Young (Ohio), Muskie (Me.),
Tydings (Md.) and McGovern (S. D.).
S. 3876 Sponsors:
Senators Percy (Ill.), Baker (Tenn.), Boggs (Del.), Brooke (Mass ·.),
Case (N.J.), Fong (Hawaii), Griffin (Mich.), Javits (N.Y.),
Jordan (Idaho), Kuchel (Calif.), Pearson (Kans.), Prouty (Vt.),
Scott (Pa.) and Tower (Tax.)
H. R. 18976 Sponsor:
Rep. Fraser (Minn.)
H. R. 184 60 Sponsors:
Reps. Goodell (N.Y.), Curtis (Mo.), Widnall (N.J.) and Taft (Ohio)
Although there are at least three versions o f the
Communi ty Self-Determination Act, the differences are in
fo rm only. Whatever structural differences are found in
the bills are primarily because of political reasons.
short, familiarity with the concepts and proposals of any
one bill will be equivalent to a n e xamination of all of the
�The Urban Coalition
1819 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D. C. 20006
Telephone : (202) 223-9500
CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner
CO-CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A. Philip Randolph
December 13, 1968
The Honorable Ivan Allen, Jr.
Mayor of the City of Atlanta
City Hall
Atlanta, Georgia
Dear Ivan:
We had an extremely successful meeting with the President-elect
today. We were scheduled to spend an hour with him and he kept
us for an hour and a half.
Mr. Nixon said that at the appropriate time he would like to have
a meeting in the White House which would mobilize business support
for the Coalition. He also said that he would like to have us
meet with the Cabinet members who make up his new Urban Affairs
Council. And he asked Arthur Flemming and myself to give our
advice to Pat Moynihan on the organization of the Urban Affairs
The President-elect listened attentively to what we had to say
and repeatedly expressed his cordial interest in working with us.
He referred to the Coalition as "the key organization in the
pri,vate sector," and also said it was the first organizational
group that he had met with since his election.
@John W. Gardner
Cha irman
�De cember 12, 1968
Mrs . Henrietta M . Canty
487 Lynn Valley Road , S . W .
Atlanta , Georgia 30311
Dear Mrs. Canty:
Thank you very much for your words of encouragement and your
concern about the City of Atlanta and its urban p roblems.
As you might know, I have be n involved a a member of the
Steering Committee of the national Urb n Coalition since its
W have also h d a Ste ring Committe at the loc 1 level for
some months but have found no real d mand for expanding it on
formalized program basis until recently.
We re in th di cussion stages now about the possibility of
formalizing a Coalition in theAtl nt
r a and your comments
nd support r appreciated .
Sine rely,
Ivan All n,, Jr.
M yor
Ivan Allen-, Jr.
For your information
Please refer to the atta ched corre s pond e nce a nd make the
necessary reply.
FORM 25-4
A d v i s e me th e s t a tu s of the a tta ch ed .
�487 Lynn Valley Road, S. W.
Atlanta, Georgia 30311
November 22, 1968
The Honorable Mayor Ivan Allen
City Hall
68 Mitchell Street
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
Dear Mayor Allen:
We are proud of our Atlanta and the progress it has made under your fine
One dared not dream of this Atlanta a decade ago, but here we stand today
poised to move in one of three directions. There are those who would
prefer to live in the past, those who feel things should remain as they
are - and those who want to forge forward. Atlanta, like the lyrics of
the Negr o Spiritual I'll Never Turn Bae~', can not afford to look back.
Although we are proud of our progress to date, we are still beset by too
many ills and inadequacies to stand still for a brief moment. Under these
circumstances, there is but one acceptable route open-and that one is
labeled Forward March.
Miracles in urban crises seem to have occurred in many urban connnunities
like ours by local Urban Coalitions. I've followed their programs for
some time and would like to see such an organization functioning here in
The National Alliance of Businessmen in its massive attack on hard-core
unemployment this past summer, is an e xcellent ex ample of the t ype of
returns we could expect from committed concerned businessmen.
Unfortunatel y the NAB is limited to job placement for the hard - core unemployed. An Urban Coalition would enable groups of civic and business leaders
to operate in the full spectrum of urban problems of education, transport ation ~ housing, race relations, etc. This, to me , could be a most fruitful
�I would like to see Atlanta organize an Urban Coalition.
this is desirable and/or feasible?
With Warmest Regards,
Mrs. Henrietta
Do you think
,!E15:24, 29 December 2017 (EST)AS•x15:24, 29 December 2017 (EST)
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·.,. .•/' .

1270 C1 - !!511
�T E L E G R A M
Mr. Dan Sweat
0:ffic e of the Ma.yor
City. Hall
Atlanta., ~eorg i a.
.. -
,!I ·•
�The Urban Coalition
1815 H Street, N.W.
Washington ,.. D.C. 20006
Telephone : 347-9630
CHAIRMAN : John W. Gardner
CO-CHAI AMEN: Andrew Heiskell /A.Philip Randolph
Public Relations Society of America
The Public Relations Society of America, a 21-year-old
organization of public relations professionals with 6,000
members of 63 chapters, has offered its assistance as
a communications resource to the Urban Coalition and has
urged its members to assist coalitions throughout the
country. The program is being coordinated by the recentlyformed Public Service Council of PRSA, which is
encouraging and enlisting aid for coalitions as its
first major national project. PRSA members already
are playing key roles in some coalitions. Their
experience and expertise could be a valuable continuing
asset to many others in the crucial job of gaining
broad community acceptance and understanding of the
Coalition and its principles.
If you have not already made contact with your local
PRSA chapter, and wish to do so, you may obtain the
name of the chapter President and further information
from the Associate Director for your area.
. ..... .
1815 H Street, N.W.
Washin gton, D.C. 20005
Telephone: 347-9530


CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner
CO-CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A . Philip Randolph
November 7, 1968
The attached material was sent out this afternoon
to the members of the Steering Committee for the Urban
Coalition and Urban Coalition Action Council:
Included is the following:
Legislative Summary
Report of the Local Coalition Task Force.
As indicated in Mr. Gardner's telegram to the
Steering Committee members, the Steering Committee meeting on Novembe r 13th will be held at the Madison Hotel,
15th and M Streets, N.W., Wa s hington, D. C. A reception
will start at 6:00, dinner is planne d for 6:30, and the
me e ting is sche duled for 7:30.
Again, please call me at {202) 223-9500 if you
have any questions about this mate rial or the me eting.
Thank you.
~ IWlo~
£ AJu71
Timothy E . Wir th
Assi s t a nt to the Cha i rman
�I .
Steering Committee Agenda
November 13, 1968
Opening Statement by Chairman Gardner
A Panoramic View of Prospective Legislation on Urban
Affairs in the 91st Congress
Appendix A enumerates specific bills and issues on each
of nine fields likely to claim major attention in the
next Congress. Discussion will focus on setting Action
Council priorities.
Meeting with the President-elect
On October 7, 1968 the Exe cutive Committee agreed that
a delegation from the Urban Coalition should meet with the
President-elect. We seek the Steering Committee's reaction to this proposal and as to the issues to be discussed.
Progress in Building Local Coalitions
Appe ndix B, the Report of the Local Coaliti on Task
Force, presents a recommendation that the Steering
Committee resolve to devote further effort as a body and
as individuals, to aiding the staff in stimulating intere st
in establishing local coa litions in twelve "target citie s."
Cons ideration of Nomin ees for Me mbe rship on the Steer ing
The Nominating Committee h as met thre e times and will
present the n a me s of individua ls recomme nded f or membership on the Steer ing Committee
Administrative Matters to be considered
Stat u s o f Budget and Fund Rais ing
Selection o f Audit o rs
Other Business
.November 7, 1968
Steering Committee
Local Coalition Task Force
Report on the Organization and Establishment of
Local Urban Coalitions
In the national statement of goals, principles and commitments
adopted by the Emergency Convocation, the Steering Committee
called for the establishment of local urban coalitions throughout the country.
The Task Force on Local Coalitions has been
assigned the responsibility of overseeing developments and
progress of these local coalitions.
At its meeting on October 17, the Task Force heard reports
from the Local Coalition Division staff on its activities.
While most of the staff has been on board little more than
three months, visits have been made to all of the cities where
coalitions were reported to have been in some state of organization or existence.
In addition, the staff has been to 72 cities
where .interest has been expressed by one element or another in
establishing a coalition.
The staff reported the status of coali-
tions as follows:
Applying the tough new standards established by the
Task Force, one-third of the original coalitions (11 of
34) failed to meet the minimum criteria .
. b.
The remaining 23 coalitions are proceeding with staff
�Report on the Organization and Establishment
of Local Urban Coalitions

assistance to organize task forc~s, develop programs
and engage in fund-raising.
Sixteen strong new coalitions, meeting Task Force
standards, have been established giving us a total
of 39.
Thirty-two additional priority cities have been
identified and are the focus of staff organizing
The staff is moving forward steadily establishing new coalitions
and strengthening those we already have.
However , the staff is
encountering sign~ficant impediments to their organization efforts.
There has been a clear and noticeable shift in national
pubiic opinion.
The sense of urgency concerning the urban crisis
which existed in 1967 and early 1968 has diminished.
There is
greater reluctance to engage public and private resources at the
local level in a coalition movement, particularly at this time . A
quie t summe r has contributed to thi s shift of ipinion, but so too
has the political c a mpaign.
There is occasi onal lack of support from the top leadership
,n ecessary to form a coalition.
Wh ile busi nes s , labo r and ma yor s
in many communities are providing leadership and support, the
staff has b een encountering reluctance by key individuals o f one
or more o f these e l e me nts to the establishment o f coalitions in
some cities.
�Report on the Organization and Establishment
of Local Urban Coalitions
The establishment of quality coalitions takes on special importance
since the national credibility of the Urban Coalition in part will
be determined by thi role, image and status of the local urban
To be effective, local coalitions must have as their
active members the most influential and highly regarded leaders of
each of the various elements .
Despite the best efforts of the staff, itjs not always poss1ble
to engage the attention and support of these key individuals
without the direct, personal involvement of Steering Committee
Where· national Steering Commit tee members have become
involved whether by a telephone call, letter, visit, or the
convening of a meeting, the organizing effort has moved far more
rapidly and has attracted key leaders.
For these reasons we wish to recommend with the utmost urgency
that the Steering Committee adopt a resolution calling on each
member to accept increased responsibility for the organization
of local coalitions and when called upon to do so to be of _
assistance in the following ways:
Advise the staff of key leaders in priority cities
who are known to Steering Committee members and who could
be instrumental in the establishment of a coalition.
At the request of the staff, write or telephone
individuals urging their support of a ~oalition.
�Report on the Organization and Establishment
of Local Urban Coalitions
Accept speaking engagements in local communities
on behalf of the organizing effort.
Advise the staff on general strategies to be followed
in particularly difficult situations.
In public appearances and speaking engagements,
identify with the Urban Coalition and urge support
for the local coalition movement.
In order to help meet immediate organizing needs of the coalition,
Steering Committee members are requested to list on the attached
list the name s of one or two key individuals in the cities who
are known to Steering Committee· members and who could be instrumental in the establishment of a coalition.
The staff will call on
the se individuals to enlist their support and cooperation.
Steering Committee members may leave the attached form following
the meeting.
Buffalo, New York

Cincinnati, Ohio

Corpus Christi, Texas
Forth Worth, Texas
Kansas City, Missouri/Kansas



Little Rock, Arkansas

Madison, Wisconsin
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
St. Louis, Missouri



- - - - - -- - - - - -- -
San Antonio, Te x as

Se a ttle , Washington
Utic a , New Yo rk

- - - -- - - - - - -- - -
- - - - - - -- -- - - --
Steering Committee .Member
-.- ---
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181 5 H Street, N .W.
Washin gton , D.C. 20006
~- ··-··--
Telephone: 347-9630
CH AIR MAN: John W. Gardn er
CO-CHAIR M EN: Andrew Heiskell/ A. Philip Randolph
November 6, 1968
Te l egrams have b een sent to the me mbers of the
Steering Committee of the Urb a n tion and Action
Council, outlining the timing of the meeting on
November 13th at the Madison Hotel, 15th and M Streets,
N.W., Washington , D. C. A reception will be held at
6:00; dinner wi ll be served at 6:30; the business
meeting will start at 7:30. An agend a will follow by
Members of the Nominating Committee have been
notifi ed of a meeting at 4:30 in the Urban Co alition
conf erence room , 1819 H Street , 8th floor. Memb e rs of
the Exe cutive Committee have b ee n notifi e d that the
Exe cutive Committee meeting h as been cance lled .
Pleas e call me at (202) 223-9500 if you have any
qu estions.
Sincere ly,
~ Jt~
k; /Jui
Timothy E. Wirth
Assistant to the Chairma n
October 4, 1968
1819 H STREET, N . W ,
WASHINGTON, D . C . 20006
Education, - Labor ' and Antipoverty Funds. Congress has
cleared the final appropriations f6r the HEW and Labor
Departments and the Office of Economic Opportunity, the
antipoverty agency. The antipoverty appropriation was the
largest Congress has ever approved, but funds for schools
attended by educationally deprived children were below last
year's appropriation.
The House narrowly defeated a Southern-backed provision
that would have encoura g e d resistance to desegregation of
schools. The Urb a n Coa lition Action Council joined other
organizations and HEW in working for defe a t of the segregation provision. ·
Budge t
(in million s o f dollars)
Title I
$ -77.
Teache r Corp s
31. 2
Preve ntion
-25 ..
Biling u a l
10 .
- 22.5
OEO Antipoverty
Manpower Training ,
Labor De p artment
1,87 3.
2,08 8.
1,9 48 .
- 23 2 .
- 13.
Th~ Title I f unds for sch ools teaching edu cationa l ly deprived childre n -- an important program for schools in big
cities -- were $68 mi llion l ess th a n l as t year's appropriation
and a llowed the schoo l s on l y 32 % of the amounts t hey received
for the past school year. Co:1gress also gave advance au t hority
for appropriations in fisca l 1970 but limited the f unds to 90 %
of the amo unt received this yeai. This was inte nde d to h e l p
TELEPHON E: 202 293·153 0
2 -
schools plan their programs before the opening of schools next
The Teacher Corps appropriation was the largest Congress
has allowed so far, and the funds for teaching bilingual
children and for preventing school dropouts were the first
made for these purposes.
The antipoverty a ~p ropriation, which was not earmarked
for any specific OEO programs, was $170 million more than
Congress allowed last year. Funds for OEO have risen each
year since the first appropriation in fiscal 1965.
The Labor Department's manpower app ropriatipn was only
$1.5 million above last year's fiscal 1968 figure but some
manpower training programs, such as JOBS and Concentrated
Employment, are financed from OEO appropriations.
Funds Exempted from Budget Cut. HEW's education funds
will be exempted from the o ver-all $6 billion spending reduction requi r e d under the tax surcharge-budget reduction
law if Congress has its way. A section o f the vocational
education bill (HR - 18366) that Congress sent to the President
October 3 exempts education appropriations from the $6 billion
reduction in s pending and th e $10 billion r eduction in obligations (.committed money ) vote d for all Government agencies
in June. However , the Preside n t still retains authority to
hold down spe nding on any education program no matter what
amount Congress may have appropriated.
Segregation Amendment. The key part of the Southern
provision opposing d e s e grega tion of school s prohibited HEW
from "forcing " childre n to attend any particular school ag a inst the choi c e of the i r pa rent s . The provis ion was
sponsored by Mississippi Rep. J amie L. Whitten (D), a hi gh ranking member o f ' the Appropriations Cammi ttee. The Senate
amended this provision by adding language th at prohibited
forc e d atte ndance at a particular school "in o rde r to overcome
racial imbal a nc e ."
Thi s phrase v!as a l ready a p art o f c i v il rig h ts l a w . It
allowed the Government and the courts to put an end to freedom of choice " school plans that we re p e rpe tuating racinl
discrimina tion.
Whe n me mbers of the House a nd Se n ate Appro pr i a tion s
Committees me t in conf e rence on th e Labor-HEW appro pr i ation
bill, Sou t h erne rs h ad a ma jo r ity o f the v otes a nd they stru ck
from the bill the Se nate lang u age limiting the prohibition to
pl a n s to overcome racia l i mba l a n ce .
In effect, ·w hit te n' s
p u rpose was achi eve d .
3 -
Action Counc il Chairman John W. Gardner wrote Rous e
Speaker John W. McCormack (D Mass .) and the Republican leade r,
Rep. Gerald Ford (Mich.), October 2, asking them to help defeat the Whitten amendment on the House floor.
He said the
amendment "ra.ises the real threat of resegregation in many
Southern school districts" and "implicitly sanctions racially
dual school s ystems ."
On a clos e , 167-175 vote Octobe r 3, the House rejected
the Appropriations Committees ' recommendation and adop t ed the
Senate language nullifying Whi tten's amendment. This wi ll enable HEW to continue to withhold funds from school d istricts
that are not making re~l progress toward desegregation.
New Housing Funds . The President sent to Congress Oc tober
3 a request f or supplemental · appropriations that included
funds to begin some of the programs in the n ew Eousing Act
and to administer the fair housing law . These were his
housing proposals:
Home Ownership Contract ~uthority
$75 million
Rental Housing As sistance
75 million
Grants for Tenant Services
15 million
Planned Ar e a wide De v e lopment
5 million
Low and Mode rate -Income Spons or Fund
5 million
Fair Housing Program
8 mi llion
Flood Insurance Administration
1.5 million
The Hou se is exp e cte d to t a k e u p the supp l ement a l appro priation bill Oc t o be r 7 or Oc t obe r 8 and the Se n a t e will a ct
shortly thereaft e r .
HUD Pe r s onne l. Another attemp t i s e xpe cte d t o b e made
next week in t h e Sen a t e to exempt the De par t me nt o f Housing
a n d Urban De ve lopmen t f rom th e cutback i n p erso n n e l r e qu ire d
by the tax surcharge- budge t reduction law.
For the e ff ect
the law now has on a dministration of the new housing p rograms,
see the Se ptember 27 Le gisl a t i ve Re po rt of the Ac t ion Council.
1819 H STREET. N . W.
WASHINGTON. D. C . 20006
September 27, 1968
Housing. Final action on appropriations for the HUD
Department was taken September 25 when the Senate agreed to
the disappointingly low figures for key housing programs
without dissent.
(For figures, see September 20 Legislative
HUD Under Secretary Robert C. Wood September 25 said
decisions would be made within a week on whether to make
across-the-board reductions or selective cuts in HUD programs. Congress cut the Department's requested funds by
one-third -- from $3.1 billion to $2.1 billion.
Wood, in an interview with editors of Housing and Urban
Affairs Daily, singled out four programs where the Congressional
cuts especially hurt. These were:
Urban renewal grants. As these are for the next
fiscal year, fiscal 1970, more funds may be sought
next year.
Model Cities, for which $625 million instead of
$1 billion was approved.
Urban inf ormation and technical assistance -- a
small program to help states and cities carry out
urban projects. Congress refused to grant any of the
$5 million requested for the program.
Fair housing enforcement, f or which all funds were
denied on grounds HUD already had suffici e nt p e rsonne l
working in the civil rights fi e ld. The $9 million the
Senate had provided would have enabled HUD to hire
about 690 investigators across the country to enforce
the new fair housing req uirements written into law in
Apri l .
Several organizat ions h a ve p rotested the denial o f funds
to e nfo r ce the · fa i r housing act and ther e is a poss i bility
that HUD will ask Congress to reconsider its acti on. This .
h inges, h owever, on a d ecision the Ad mi n i s t rat ion mu s t ma ke
soon on whether to send requests f o r .supp l emental appropri-
T !;,LE PHON E : 2 02 293-153 0
�- 2 ations to Congress this fall. Although that is the usual
procedure late in the session, the economy mood in Congress
may be so strong just before elections that the Administration
will not ask for additional money.
The major new programs in the 1968 housing law will be
delayed at least six months if no supplemental appropriations
are requested from or voted by Congress.
HUD Personnel. Another factor that might delay the new
housing programs is the Congressional directive in June that
HUD, and all other federal agencies, cut back on their personnel. HUD had hoped to add 1,600 employees this year.
Instead, it will have to reduce its staff by 900 -- not by
firing employees but by filling only 7 out of 10 vacancies
that develop as employees resign or retire.
Senator John Sparkman (D Ala.), chairman of the Senate's
Housing Subcommittee, tried unsuccessfully September 23 to
win Senate approval of an e x emption for HUD from the personnel
cutback. Unfortunately, exemptions f or other age nc i es were
tacked onto Sparkman's amendment and the major sponsor of the
personnel cutback,. Senator John Williams (R Del.), fought the
amendment bitterly. It was defeated, 23-37.
It is anticipated th a t anothe r attempt will be made to
e x empt HUD f rom the seve r e personne l limitations before
Congress adjourns.
Education, Labor and Antipoverty Funds. Final appropriations f or e ducation, manpower training a nd antipoverty programs will be announc e d Sept e mbe r 30. Me mbers o f t he House
and Senate Appropriation s Committees comp romi sed t heir d iffere n ces i n a Sept ember 26 mee ting b ut wi t hheld a nnounc e ment o f
the sums agreed upon. The differences in key appropriations
were listed in Appe ndix B of the Septembe r 13 Leg i slative Repor t .
Head St art . Members o f the House and Sen a t e e duc ation
committees, meeting in conference on the vocational e ducation
bi ll , h a ve a g ree d t o d rop an amendmen t b y Sen ato r Pete r
Domini ck (R Colo . ) that would hav e t r a n s f e rred the Head Start
pro gram t o HEW' s Office o f Edu cat i o n. The pro gram wi ll c o ntinue to be r u n by the independent antipovert y agency, the
Office of Economic Opportunity. Under the final version of
the vocational education bill, the President is asked to have
a study made of how Head Start can best be administered and
to report to Congress next spring.
1019 H srn E ET. N .
September 2 7, 19 6 8
WASHING T ON, D . C . 20006
Chairmen and Executive Directors of Local
Urban Coalitions
HUD App ropri a tions and HUD Personne l Limitations
As you will not~ in
Congressional action has
HUD a p prop riations. HUD
be t wee n the $1.2 billion
approve d by the Senate .
t his week's Leg i slative Rep ort,
been comp l e ted on Fiscal Ye ar 1969
was given $2.1 billion, a comp romi se
approve d b y the Hous e a nd the $3.1
No funds were given to implement the Fair Housing program which became law earli e r this y e ar, although HUD had
planne d a staff of 850 and h a d requeste d $11 million for this
program .
Nor do the se appro p ri a tions include f und s for the n ew
programs authoriz e d in the Housing and Urban De v e lopme nt Act
of 196 8 .
It h a s b een anticipa t e d th a t a supp l eme nt a l budget
reque st would b e s e nt to Congress to initi a t e s ome of the n ew
prog rams , includ ing Home Own ershi p a n d Ren ta l Ass i stan ce .
Th e HUD Act a utho r izes $75 million f o r each of t h ese p rog r ams
in the fi rst year . There is now some q u est ion whe t her t h e
supplemental r e que st will be made.
In addition to all of th i s, th e HUD pe rsonne l limita tions
present one of t he greatest prob l ems facing t h e housing a nd
u r b an f i e l d. An increase o f 1, 6 00 person s is proje cted to
administer t h e new HUD programs dur ing the n ext year , yet
t he Department will h av e to c u t its personne l by 9 00 u nde r
the limita tions i mpo sed by the Tax Increase - Budge t Cut bill .
All o f th ese d e v e lopme n ts point to b l eak times for our
c i t ies as they t ry to meet their n eeds in the months ahead .
We h ad not anticipated so many prob l ems with appropriations
in the hou s ing and urban field , b u t are now fac e d with them
because of t h e strong economy dr i ve in Congress and a general
lack of u nders t anding ab out t he n eeds o f o u r u rban centers.
You can b e very h e l pf ul by :
(1 ) Communic a ting with th e President, u rg ing the
Admini s tra tion to send Congress a supple me ntal budget
request for implementation of t he new Fair Hou sing law
and the new HUD Act programs (particularly Horne Ownership ahd Rental Assistance ) ; and by communicat ing with
your Se nators and Repres e ntatives , aski ng the ir s u pport.
T ELEPHON E: 202 2 93· ! 5 3 0
2 -
Explaining to your Senators and Congressmen
the special urgency in the urban field for a HUD
exemption from the ceiling on personnel .
It will be
impossible for the Department to begin its new programs
and effectively maintain its present ones if it suffers
the cutbacks currently anticipated.
We have called for your help several times in the past
few months on legislative issues relevant to the urban community. Your response has been very encouraging. Your
continued assistance is most valuable, and we hope that you
will at no time underestimate your importance in helping to
obtain needed urban legislation.
Sincerely yours ,
Executive Director
Enclosure (Weekly Legislative Report )
�The Urban Coalition
1815 H Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006
Telephone : 347-9630
CHAIRMAN: John W. Gardner
CO-CHAIRMEN: Andrew Heiskell/ A. Philip Randolph
'Give A Damn" Buttons
For those Coalitions considering the "Give A Damn"
campaign, we have received the following bids for the
production of buttons:
. Vendor:
Garrick Enterprises, Inc .
9 East Sixty-Second Street
New York, N.Y. 10021
Donald Abrahams
Cost/1000 - $27.50 in quantities
of 1000 - 10,000
Pelzer & Green, Inc.
343 Le x ington Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10017
Attention: Al Pelzer
Cost/1000 - $45.00
2500 - $43.00 per thousand
5000 - $32.50 per thousand
We have not seen the product of Garrick Enterprises .
October 4, 1968
18 19 H STREET, N . W .
WASHINGTON. D. C . 20006
Education, - Labor ' and Ant i poverty Funds. Congress has
cleared the fin a l approp riations for the HEW and Labor
Departments and the Office of Economic Opportunity , the
antipoverty agency . The antipoverty appropriation was the
largest Congress has ever app roved, but funds for schools
attended by educationally d eprived children were below l ast
year ' s appropriation .
The House narrowly def e ated a Southern- b a c ked provision
th a t would have encourage d res ista nce to d esegregation of
schools. Th e Urb a n Coa li tion Action Council joined othe r
organizations and HEW in working f or defeat o f the segregation provision.
Hou s e
Fina l
Be low
(in million s o f dollars )
Title I
$ - 77.
Teach e r Corps
Dropou t
Pre v e ntion
Bilingua l
- 22.5
OEO Antipoverty
Manpower Tra ining ,
Labor Department
- 10.3
2 ,180 .
1,87 3 .
2,08 8.
1,9 48 .
- 232.
4 00.
The Title I funds for schools t eaching educationa lly deprived chi l dr e n - ~ an important program for schools in big
cities -- were $68 million l e ss than l ast year ' s appropriation
and al l owed the schools on l y 92 % of the amount s they received
for che past school year. Congress also gave advance authority
for appropriations in fiscal 1970 but limited the f u nds to 90 %
of the amount received this year. · This was intended to h e l p
T E L EP H ONE: 2 0 2 2. 9 3-1530
2 -
ichools pl a n their progr a ms b e for e the op e ning of schools nex t
The Te a Gh e r Corp s a p p ropr iation was the larg est Congress
has allowe d so f a r, and the fund s for teaching biling ual
children and for preventing sch ool dropouts were the first
made for these purpos e s.
The antipoverty appropri a tion, which was not earmarked
for any spe cific OEO progr ams , was $170 million more th a n
Congre ss allowed last y e a r . Funds for OEO have risen e a ch
year since the first appro p riation in fisc a l 1965.
The Labor De p a rtme nt's manp o we r a pp ro p ri a tion was only
$1.5 million a b ove last y ear's fiscal 196 8 figure but some
manp ower training pro g r am s, ·s uch as JO BS and Concentrated
Employme n t , are fin a nc ed fro m OEO app r opriations.
Funds Ex emp ted from Budge t Cut. HEW1 s educ a tion funds
will be e xemp t e d from th e ove r-all $6 billion s pe nding reduction r equire d u n d e r the t ax sur cha r g e-b u dge t r eductio n
law if Con g r e s s h as its way . A s ec tion of the vo c a tion a l
e ducation bill (HR .18366 ) th a t Con g r es s se nt to t he Pre sid ent
Octob e r 3 exemp t s educ a t i o n app ro pr i a tions fro m the $6 billion
red u c t ion in s pending and th e $10 billion r edu ct i on i n o b lig a tions (comrnitted mo n ey ) v oted fo r a ll Gover nme nt a ge nci e s
in June.
Howe ve r, the Pr e side nt st ill r e t a i n s a uthority to
hold d own s pen d ing o n any educ at ion pro gram no ma tter wh a t
amount Co ng r ess may h ave a ppro p ri a t ed .
Seg rega tio n Amendme nt.
The key part of th e Southe rn
p r ovi s ion o pp6s i ng d e segrega tion o f school s p rohi b ite d HEW
from "fo r c i n g " c h ild re n to att e n d any par ticul ar schoo l ag a in s t the choice of the i r pa r ents. The pro v i s i o n wa s
s p o nso r ed by Mississ i pp i Rep . J amie L. Whitten (D), a hi gh r a n k i ng mernber o f t he Approp ri a t ions Comm itte e. The Se n a te
amend ed thi s provision b y a dd ing langu age th a t p r o hib ite d
fo rced at te n dance a t a particul ar sc h ool "in o r d er to o ve rcome
raci a l i mba l ance ."
Thi s p h rase was a lready a pa rt of civ il r ight s l aw .
a llowe d th e Gove r nment and th e c o u r t s to put an e n d to free d om o f choi c e" school p l ans th a t were perpe tu at i ng r ac i a l
di scriminati o n.
When members of t he Fouse and Senate Appropriat i ons
Cammi ttees me t in conference on t he Labor ·-HEW appro priat i on
bil l , Southerners had a ma jo rity of the v o tes and t hey struck
f rom th e bil l t he Senate l anguage l imiting the pro hib i tion to
plans to overcome raci a.l imba l an ce .
In ef feet 1 Wh i tt e n' s
purpose was achieved.
3 -
Action Council Chairman John W. Gardner wrot e Hous e
Speaker John W. Mc Cormack (D Mass .) and the Repub lican leader,
Rep. Ge rald Ford (Mich.), October 2, asking them to help defeat the Wh itten amendment on the House floor.
He said the
amendment 11 raises the real threat of res eg re gation in many
Southern school districts 11 and nimplicitly sanctions racially
dual school systems."
On a close, 167-175 vote October 3, the House rejected
the Appropriations Committees ' recommendation and adopted the
Senate language nullifying Whitten 1 s amendment .
This will enable HEW to continue to withhold funds from school districts
that are not making real progress toward desegregation.
New Housi ng Funds.
The President sent to Congress October
3 a request for supplemental appropriations that included
funds to begin some of the programs in the new Housing Act
and to administer the fair housing law .
These were his
housing proposals:
Home Ownership Contract Authority
$75 million
Rental Housing Assistance
75 million
Grants for Tenant Services
15 million
Planned Areawide Development
5 million
Low and Moderate -Income Sponsor Fund
5 million
Fair Housing Program
8 million
Flood Insurance Administration
1.5 million
The House is e xpe cted to take u p the supplemental appropriation bill October 7 or October 8 and the Senate will act
shortly there a ft e r.
HUD Personnel.
Another attempt is exp e cted to be made
nex t week in the Senate to exempt the Departme nt of Housing
and Urban Developme nt from the cutback in personnel required
by the tax surcharg e-budget reduction law.
For the effect
the l aw now has on administration of the new housing programs,
see the September 27 Legislative Re port of the Acti on Council.
September 20, 1968
1819 H STREET, N. W.
WASHINGTON , D. C . 20006
Housing Funds. Disappointing news came out of the conference of House and Senate Appropriations Cowmittee members
that reached a decision on HUD appropriations September 18.
The Senate had approved much more generous funds than the
House, but in conference the Senate gave in to a large extent
and the final figures were barely above the original House
Last Year's
Fiscal 1969 A.mount
(in millions of dollars)
Urban Renewal
(Fiscal 1970)
(Program Grants)
(50 0)
(Urban Renewal)
(5 0 0)
Urban Planning
Model Cities
Urban Research
Urban Information,
Tech. Assistance
Rent Supplement
Contract Authority
Fair Housing
11. 2
- ..
The National League of Cities protested to Congress Septewber
19 that the cuts in housing funds were "incomprehensible," but
the Hous e accepted the.conference recowme ndations without dissent . The Senate also is e x pected to accept the figur es next
Despite the fact that the fair housing law was enacted
only last April, the Appropriatio n s Committees said HUD and
TELEP HON E: 2 02 29 3- 15 30
2 -
other agenci e s alr e ady h ad e n ough p e r sonn e l working on civil
rights activities. The civil righ ts-f a ir housing law made HUD
responsible for administe ring t h e fair housing re q uireme nts,
which are to apply to all housi n g e x c ep t singl e -family home s
by the end of 1968. One y e ar l a t e r, most single-family
housing also will b e cover e d.
Report on the Cities a nd Fe deral - State Fina ncing. A
major, t wo-volume r e port o n the probl ems of the cities and
federal aid to states and local governments was released
September 19.
It was issue d by the Advisor y Commission on
Intergovernme ntal Relations, a bipartisan, high-l e vel group
whose me mber s hip include s gove rno r s, ma yors, federal cabi ne t
members and Congre ssme n, state l e gislators, el e cted county
officials an d private citiz e ns.
In-depth case studies we re made of 12 central cities and
their surrounding are a s. Among the findings · were:
Tax burde ns are growing faster in central cities
than in their suburbs.
Local tax es in central cities, measured against
personal income , ave rag e mor e than one -third
higher than suburban tax es.
Suburb s spe nd $135 mor e p e r school child than do
central citi e s, but the cities spend $100 more
per capita th a n do sub urbs for such services as
police and fire prote ction and sanitation.
The report found an untapp ed poten tial of $20 billion
annually in state and local tax es and the Commission emphasized
that all state s n eed both a strong s a les t ax and a strong income tax . Proposals for r e form of st a te and local tax systems,
particularly the property tax , were spe lled out.
Sharing by th e Fed eral Gove rnment of some of its tax
revenues with the states, on a per capita basis adjusted for
variations in th e state s' own tax efforts, was recommende d,
but onl y as p a rt of a r e vis e d s y stem of federal grants. The
Commission propos e d that grants for broad functions replace
th e curr e nt s y stem of parc e ling out money for spe cial, limited
prog rams.
It s a i d t he p r esent f ede r a l aid s yste m wa s suf fer i ng
f r om a pro gres sive "h arden ing of t h e catego r i ~s. " But a fe w
a re as o f nationwide c o nce r n, suc h as p ollu t io n, s h ould c ont i n u e to rece i ve earmarked f u n d s (so -ca ll ed c ateg o ri c a l grant s ) .
Single copies of the repo rt can be o rdered from the
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Rela t i o ns, Wa s h i ngton,
D. C. 205 75 .
�- 3 Public Service Employme nt.
Sen a te action has again been
postponed on the Public Serv ice Employment ame ndment that
Senators Clark, Javits and Prouty hoped to pres e nt. The bill
to which the ame ndment was to b e offered -- an e x tension of
a minor part of the Manp owe r Development and Tr aining Act
(S. 2938) -- may not be called up for Senate action at all
this year. The major sections of MDTA do not e x pire until
next year.
Education, Labor and Antipoverty Funds. Final figures
for education, ma npower training and antipoverty program
appropriations are not yet settled. Memb ers of the House and
Senate Appropriations Committee s have had one conference on
the Labor-HEW bill and will meet a g ain September 26. For
differences b e t we en th e original House and Senate appropriations,
see Appendix B of the September 13 Action Council Legislative

September 20, 1968
1819 H STREET, N. W .
WASHI N GTON, D . C . 2000 6
Housing Funds. Disappointing news came out of the conference of House and Se nate Ap propriations Committee members
that reache d a decision on HUD approp~iations Sep tember 18.
The Senate h a d approved much more generous funds than the
Hous e , but in conference the Senate gave in to a large e x t e nt·
and the final figur e s were barely above the ori g inal House
Last Year's
Fiscal 1969 Amount
.(in millions of dollars)
Urban Renewal
(Fiscal 1970)
(Program Grants)
(50 0)
{Urban Renewal)
(10 0)
(5 00)
30 .
Urban Planning
Model Cities
Urban Res e arch
Urban Information,
Tech. Assistance
Rent Supplement
Contract Authority
Fair Hous i ng
The National League of Cities protested to Congress Sep tembe r
19 t hat t h e cuts i n housing funds were "incomp r e h e nsibl e, " but
t he Hous e accepte d the conf e rence recommendation s without dissen t . Th e Senate also is e xpected to accep t th e figu re s n ex t
Despite th e fact th a t t he fa ir housing l aw wa s enacte d
only last April, the Appro pri atio ns Committees said HUD and
,"'· , .. ~
TEL E PH O N E: 202 29 3-1 530
It -
2 -
other agencies already had enough personnel working on civil
rights activities. The civil rights-fair housing law made HUD
responsible for administering the fair housing requirements,
which are to apply to all housing e x cept single-family homes
by the end of 1968. One year later, most single-family
housing also will be covered.
Report on the Cities and Federal-State Financing. A
major, two-volume report on the problems of the cities and
federal aid to states and local governments was released
September 19.
It was issue d by the Advisory Commission on
Intergovernme ntal Relations, a biparti~an, high-level group
whose membership includes governors, mayors, federal cabinet
members and Congressmen, state legislators, elected county
officials and private citizens.
In-depth case studies were made of 12 central cities and
their surrounding areas. Among the findings were:
_Tax burdens are growing faster in central cities
than in their suburbs.
Local taxe s in central cities, measured against
personal income, average more than one-third
higher than suburban taxes.
Suburbs spend $135 more per school child than do
central cities, but the cities spend $100 more
per capita than do suburbs for such services as
police and fire protection and sanitation.
The report found an untapped potential of $20 billion
annually in state and local taxe s and the Commission emphasized
that all states need both a strong sales tax and a strong income tax. Proposals for reform of state and local tax systems,
particularly the property tax, were spelled out.
Sharing by the Federal Government of some of its tax
revenues with the states, on a per capita basis adjusted for
variations in the states' own tax efforts, was recommended,
but only as part of a revised s y stem of federal grants. The
Commission proposed that grants for broad functions replace
the current system of parceling out money for special, limited
It said the present federal aid s ystem was suffering
from a progressive "hardening of the categories. But a few
areas of nationwide concern, such as pollution, should continue to receive earmarked funds (so -called categorical grants) .
Single copies of the report can be ordered from the
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations, Washington,
D. C. 20575.
3 -
Public Service Employment. Senate action has again been
postponed on the Public Service Employmen t amendment that
Senators Clark, Javits and Prouty hoped to present. The bill
to which the amendment was to be offered -- an extension of
a minor part of the Manpower Development and Training Act
(S. 2938) -- may not be called up for Senate action at all
this year. The major sections of MDTA do not expire until
next year.
Education, Labor and Antipoverty Funds. Final figures
for education, manpower training and antipoverty program
appropriations are not yet settled. Members of the House and
Senate Appropriations Committees have had one conference on
the Labor- HEW bill and will meet again September 26. For
differences between the original House and Senate appropriations,
see Appendix B of the September 13 Action Council Legislative

A Public Service Campaign of
Side 2
( 0 \
-~ _I
Time -- ~
Here, Kitty
30 Seconds
Split Level
30 Seconds
20 Seconds
20 Seconds
Volunteer Agency

A Public Serv[_c::~ Campaign of
Side 1
1. Father
60 Seconds
2. Mother
60 Seconds
3. Veteran
60 Seconds
4. Year 2000
60 Seconds
5;-- Aff!u ent Society
60 Seconds
Volunteer Agency

A Public Service Campaign of
Sfde 2
.30 Seconds
1. Time
30 Seconds
2. Here, Kitty
3 . Split Level
30 Seconds
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4 . 1930's
5. Rats
20 Seconds
Volunteer Agency
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Inc .
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