Box 9, Folder 5, Document 6

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Atla ta
.... The critical thing about the
service-learning concept is the
Lee Heubner
Staff Assistant
to President Nixon
.... When the Urban Corps interns came here in
June, we discovered there was no baseball
league for inner city kids and nearby
facilities were closed to them. \Ve called
a meeting, talked with some key people, and
now have two leagues operating for 200 young
Karl Paul
Atlanta Urban Corps Intern
Co ference
.... The need is to concentrate on ways of helping the young to realize the
potential of their new sense of purpose and spirit for service .... It places
upon our colleges and universities the obligation to examine their policies
and practices and to make those adjustments necessary for the proper
exercise of student participation .... Of the 35 0, 000 young people taking
part in the College Work-Study Program, most have been employed on
their campuses. We would like to see the ratio reversed, with the majority working off-campus.
James E. Allen, Jr.
Assistant Secretary for
Education and lJ. S.
Commissioner of
a r port
June 30 - July 1, 1969
Introduction ..•.••••..•.•••.•.••..•..••.•....•. 1
Address by Dr. James E. Allen, Jr •••.••.••....• 6
Ina.ugura.l Meeting Summa.ries .••••••••••••••••••• 14
Inaugural Meeting Work Group Reports •••••.•••.• 23
List of Participants •••.••••••.••••.•••••..•.•. 31
Further information on the Conference ma.y be obtained from:
Atlanta Service-Learning Conference
c/o The Atlanta. Urban Corps
30 Courtland Street, N.E.
Atlanta., Georgia 30303
The Service-Learning Concept
To serve and to learn ; these fundamental goals of our society are engrained in the American rhetoric.
But how to serve? and how to learn?
An institutionalized, bureau-
cratized 20th Century America has effectively limited the answers to these
For "servtce to country" America legislatively requires mili-
tary duty only, which many of today's young people find morally questionable.
For "learning" we have complex university systems with :!.imj_ted abi-
lity to respond to the individual and with oftimes old-fashioned views of
what is education and what is not.
However, considerable attention is currently being given to the role
of uni versitie s i n service to soci ety.
At one extreme, a r guments a r e
heard that community involvement by an academic institution thr eatens its
integrity and dra ins its r e source s.
At t he ot he r end of the spe c trum of
opinion i s the v iew of the unive rsity as a shaper of s oci ety with speci al
social responsibi lities
because of its objectivity , standar ds, and resources
of knowledge .
These arguments abou t campus - in- c ommunity may obscure fundamental
que stions of the r ole cf the community a s an educati resour ce.
Can the
univ ersity pe rform i ts primary func t i ons of education and t he discove ry of r;.,,,w
knowl edge without an involvement in s oc i e t y ?
Can educational institutions
dev elop the type of manpo~er needed by a r apidly changing soc iety, both as
professional s and as citizens in a democracy, without i n cludi ng the resources
of socie tal experience i n t he educational process?
How migh t community
service, sought by many student s, best be deslgned as a learnlng experiec1ce
and integrated with other. acpects of a total educational program?
It is the thesis of the ,::onvenors of this Conference--many cf whom
a t the interface between education aud community--that by combining the ne eds
and resources of education both will better be served.
It is hypotlies i zed
that the tensio~ between the practical urgent demands of community and the
requirements of disciplined rational thought of education can be a very productive force for the development of society and for l earning and the advancement of knowledge.
This combination of action and reflection, of experience and examina t:i.c,:-. )
this integration of service and learning can foster a style of life where
education and vocation are parts of the same fabric and the gap between
community and education is closed.
Simply stated, then, s e r vice-learning
is a n integration of the accomplishment of a needed task with educational
I t is clear tha t greater student involvement i n community affa irs i s
coming--it i s already here in many ways bu t i t i s grouing .
Student s want i t ,
agencies need their servi ces, colleges increasingly are encouraging it.
Na.tional l egi sla t i on to supplement Peace Corps, VISTA, Teacher Corps , and
o ::her programs i s under consideration in Washington:
a r e we prepared t o
utilize these growing opportunities productivel y f 0r all pa rties?
A new approach is both ne cessa ry and pos s ible.
It r equires new meaning
for upracticality," new openness to change, new commitment to experiment ation, new acceptance of the ability of youth, and indeed new social institutions and attitudes • • • • t o say nothing of competent human beings who
are prepared to function in the new s ociety.
It is to search for these new attitudes and processes that the Atlanta
Service-Learning Conference is convened.
Th2 Atla·,1ta Service-Learning Conference
Although there is a grow:!.ng incJ.i.nati.011 to accep t t he service-lear..1.i ng
concept a s a valuable element of a l earning expe·.dence, ther e is relatively
l ittle un.deratandi ng of how the abstraction can be t :rauslated into a pra ct icab l e model.
Local lea Gers recognized the urgency for develop i ng thb
Consequently, the Atlan ta Service-Learning Conf erence was organized
ir;. t h e s priu g of 1.969 to explore the i mplications c,f the serv:!.ce- l e arniue;
conce:pt, to define the elements necessary fo r a succe 3s ful program, a.r:.d t0
structure and implement a program in the Atlanta area to s e!'.'ve as a moo.el
for similar pr ograms in other urban center s.
The diversi t y of the spon-
s oring or ganizati ons is evidence of the broadly bas ed interes t and support
a t both national and local le,.,·els for the developmen t of t h is prog!.' am.
list of sponsors includes:
The Ci ty of Atlanta,
The Atlanta Urban Corps ,
Economic Oppor. tuni ty At lanta,
The Colleges and Universities of Atlanta,
Depar tment of Healt h, Educa t ion , and We l f are,
The Sout hern Regional Education Board ,
Vol un t eer s in Service to America, and
The Pea ce Corps .
With the a ddition of Atlanta businessmen a nd per sons f r om outs ide Atlant a ,
the s ponsor s ar e representati v e of the per s o~s who a re participating in the
confer ence .
In the o:.:gen:i.,laticmal me e t ing, the s p onsoring agen::::ies de c ided
on a six-month period for t he conference during which the participants rn:l s ht.
uti l i ze all avai lable resources and examine in depth se,,eral i mpor t an t aspec t s of the service-lear ni ng concept.
In order to faci l i t ate this t ype of
s tudy , the con fer ence has been div ided into s i~ wor k groups:
namely, s er vice,
learning, curriculum and i n ter- institutiona l relations , .:esear '!h, fin.nn ce,
and methods and progl'.'ams .
Each of the work groups will meet in a number of individual s~ssions
in order to study the topic, r aise pertinent questions, and suggest possible answers.
During the six-·month period each work group will chair a
formal session of the conference,
These sessions will have the dual roles
of first, allowing the host group to profit from the e.xperie:'.J.ce of the
other participants and, second, giving each participant the opportunity ~o
relate his area of interest and study to the complete work of the conference.
Having profited from this exchange of ideas, each work group will
produce a report to be submitted to a Steering Ccmmittee, composed of· work
group chairmen and re~,resentatives of the sponsoring organizations.
Steering Committee will chair the final session of the CuJ ference, to be
held in December,
At this session the integrated report will be presented
and a program will be proposed for implementation.
The first session of the Conference was held on June 30 and July 1
and attended by over 300 persons.
The format of t h e initi al meeting in-
cluded a number of speake r s, s eminars to introduce par ~icipants to the
concept of service-learning, and organi zational meetings of the work
The balance of this r eport contains the keynot e address by U.S.
Commissioner of Education, James E. Allen, Jr., s ummari es of o t he~ speeches
and discussions, and a list of participants who attended the inaugura l
Coincide nt wit h t he l aunching of the Conference has been the creation
in 1969 of t he At lant a Ur ban Cor ps , a gr oup of 220 student s ser ving ful l time throughout the summer with 15 city and 35 private non-pr ofit or ganizations i n Atlant a.
Most Urban Corps memb ers are fund ed on the ba sis of
80% frrjm the f ederal College Wor k- Study Pr ogram and 20;~ f rom t he employing
a gency.
The Souttlern Regional Education Board under gxauts from t h e
Economic Development Administration, Office of Economic Opportunity and Department of Labor is providing support along with the Atlanta businessmen and
foundations to cover administrative costs and stipends for interns not
eligible for the Work-Study Program.
VISTA has assigned 25 associate
positions to operate under Urban Corps auspices.
Sam Williams, director of the Atlanta Urban Corps, points to the
relevance of the educational aspect of the program.
Nine staff members
make up the evaluation team which is responsible for developing and
assuring an education dimension for each intern's summer assignment.
Five professors serve as counselors to lend technical c:.nd educational
assistance to individual interns and groups of interns , and one professio1m:1•
~nd three student staff members in the office plan seminars and coordina te
oi:h er means of helping the interns make their summer work experiences
e.,:ucationally relevant.
Each student is required to present to the Urban
Corps a report on his internship at the completion of his service period.
Thus the Urban Cor ps, in addition to accomplishing needed tasks in the
community and offering both a summer job and a relevant educational experj_ence to its members, provides a practical service-learning laboratory for
the Confer ence.
Through observation of the Urban Cor ps and participation
of its members, the Confer ence is assured the necessary dialogue be tween
theory and practice.
This is the setting in which the Conference is convened.
Each of a
variety of perspectives has a distinct contribution t o make to the enterprise .
Additional participants, assistance and information are welcome.
I t i s only a beginning.
But if theory and practice, students and faculty,
public and private bodies int eract in the manner outlined, the Conference
will have something significant to say to Atlanta and the nation by the eLd of
1969 .
Remarks by James E. Allen, Jr.
Assistant Secretary for Education
U.S. Commissioner of Education
None of you would be here today at this conference on service-learning
if you were not aware of how different the educational needs of young
people are today from those of past generations.
All of you know
that the needs of the new generation are defin°ed by its aspirations.
And that aspiration is the edge of the great divide between the
For past generations,--and I mean not only the parents but the
older brothers and sisters of today's young people--the touchstone was
The career as a means to the economic ends of material
The career as a means to the psychological ends realized
in achievement, success, and prestige.
Sometimes, of course, members of preceding generations thought
of the career as an avenue of service to conceptions beyond the
self--there are many professions with a humanitarian dimension in both
theory and practice.
But for most people, the furtherance of such ideals
as the betterment of society was accepted as an extra-curricular activity.
Something to be done after the serious business of the day, if time
permitted .
For large and increasing numbers of young people today this
sj_tuation is not only changed but reversed.
It is the pursuit of
goals beyond the self that comes first and the money and success that
take second place,
Clearly it will take a new kind of educatj_on to accommodate such
a change in traditional ways of thinking about man and society.
are still in the process of identifying it, but some things we know.
For example, we can be sure that an education that fits the needs
of young people today must be broader than the school.
Among the many
artificialities the young reject is the idea that the classroom and
the library are the best, if not the only, places for learning.
Today's youth is as bored with four wall abstractions as it is with
Today's youth want an education geared to realities more vital
t han eit,her· theory or things.
It is less interested in ideas than in
Young people want their education to take them past knowledge
to wisdom, and past wisdom to action--the kind of action that ca n
translate their energy and their vision into new patterns of life.
The "now" generation doesn't want to wai t for any of th is.
finds the old hierarchies an ineffectual structuring of society.
has no use for the protocol of power as we have known it.
The new attitudes of young people toward education and the life
for which it is presumably preparing them are sometimes crit:i.cized as
asking for.
But it is precisely responsibility that they are
Some people think youth wants to start at the top and
rearrange society without bothering to find out what makes our institutions operate.
In my opinion, it is the other way around.
people want first-hand experience with our institutions to teach them
their sociology.
They want to learn the mechanics of social change
by experimenting where it can actually happen.
This is the positive side of activism.
This is what has taken
students out of classrooms andaway from well-paid, conventional jobs,
leading them instead into the Peace Corps, Vista, and the Teacher Corps.
This positive activism has moved young people past the Peace Corps,
Vista, and the Teacher Corps; it has inspired them to invent their own
ways of reaching people who need help.
Store-front schools, street
academies and many other innovative institutions testify to their
By nm,,1 it is quite clear that the activism of the 1960's is much
different from that of other decades.
The meaning of the difference
has been captured in the words of Arthur Mendel, professor of Russian
. history at the University of Michigan "Youth no longer speaks for
itself; it defines an era."
At the same time, in all their eagerness for a chance t o deal
directly with the raw stuff of history, in the making, today's young
people continue to want what school in the old classroom-and-library
sense of the word should and can give them.
They want background
against which they can measure their experience.
They want an education
that breaks down the old barriers between school and community without
breaking down either the school or the community.
This is what work-study programs are all about.
There is no trend
in education more promising, and the Federal Government is wholeheartedly
behind it.
Secretary Finch and my colleagues i n the Office of Education
are convinced advocates of the work-study concept, and the Department
of Health, Education, and Welfare is actively involved in promoting it.
It is very much in line with President Nixon ' s emphasis on volunteer
effort as the key to community renewal.
The President has called for
a national clearinghouse on voluntary activities, with a computerized
data bank to make available information about what has been t r ied a nd
wher e , how well i t work ed, and what the problems were.
The student
emp loyees wor king at HEW this summer will hel p assemble i nformation
of t his kind on t he volunteer activi t i es of the young.
As you know, HEW is r e spons ib le for administering a pr ogr am of
Federal grants t o co lleges which pr ovide s s ome 350 , 000 s t udents with
the opportunity t o work on or off t h e campus duri ng their co l l ege ca reer.
HEW can pay ap t o 80% of the wages of t he s tuden t s as they partake of
the edu~ational expe riences of working in a wide range of socially
constructive projects.
the social scene.
The s cope of their activities is as broad as
Of the 350,000 young people taking part in such work-study programs,
most have been employed on their campuses, but increasing numbers are
employed in local government agencies, schools, hospitals and other
organizations, public and private.
We hope to learn from student community service activities wherever
they are taking place.
In Michigan, for example, we know that students
are leading the way in productive volunteer activities for various
segments of the population of their state .
Currently, some 10,000
student volunteers on the 27 differ8nt Michigan campuses, are engaged
in projects many of which they have developed on their own initiative
and maintain without much fin~ncial help from government sources.
an example of the varied and numer01.1s proj ,:,cts, agriculture students
from Michigan State University work together with inner city people in
developing community garden cooperatives.
Elsewhere in the nation we find students contributing
social service to their communities.
other types of
There is the Memphis Area Project
South which sponsors "clothes closets " for needy families.
this project, students also collaborate in planned parenthood programs
in South Memphis and help in nutrition classes for low-income people.
Your own city has always been noted for its progressiveness.
The fact that Atlanta is hosting the opening of the six-month conference
is a fine example.
It is equally encouraging to see Atlanta adopt the
program of the Urban Corps as a model to meet urban needs .
Last summer there were 76,000 students employed in programs
supported by Federal work-study funds.
This summer, the Office of Education will have 225 students on
its own payroll.
I should like to tell you something about the projected
activities of these summer employees.
A goal of the summer program
is to promote communication between government and the youth community.
Some students will be organizing seminars for the Office staff. on
topics of concern and "relevance" to students today.
Such topics
include curriculum reform, university administration, urban universities ,
and an urban extension service.
Other students will be researching
programs and practices of the Office as related to student and youth
In particular we hope they will gather and analyze
information on activities in the areas of work-study and volunteer
community service, in order to help us determi ne where Federal involvement might be most constructive .
t~e can already begin to see the shape of some of the problems to
be dealt with .
One is how to get more of the students involved in
work-study programs off the campus, into the communi ty.
We would like
to see the ratio of on- campus to off-campus work reversed, with the
majority working off-campus instead of t he opposi te situation which
prevails now.
Another problem is how to overcome the dilemmas and disadvantages
of t he work- study pr ogr am.
Such as the difficulty of int egr a ting new
people i nto es t abl ished or ganizat ions on a short- t i me basis.
accreditadon dilemma--it i s agree d tha t there should b e recognition
of service as a part of higher educa tion, ye t some univers ities have
found that formal accreditation of cot!lIIlunity work turns it into a
nine-to-five routine and diminishes dedication.
However, other
universities and colleges have developed means for granting academic
credit to learning-service activities , making them integral to the
academic life .
These are not impossible problems.
Like you, we believe that what
Aristotle said is t r ue , "What we have to learn to do , we learn by do_ing . "
We, too, will l earn by doing.
We feel that we are opening up avenues of many kinds--between
youth and the larger com.~unity, between youth and government , between
the generations.
We are committed to the new view of educational needs
that this implies.
The experience of gLoups like yours will be helpf ul to us as we
try to adapt the Federal Government's role to the changes taking place
i n our society .
We look forward to your r ecommendations as you r eview
and study the l e arning-servi ce concept i n the months ahead .
I hope we
~an draw on t he r eport of your del i berations as a source of new models
f or student contribu tion to community renewa l.
With so much of the business of Ameri ca
a nd the wor ld still
unfinished, it i s hear tening indeed to obser ve t ha t per ha ps t he
greates t awareness of this unfinished business exis t s in the young.
The need, therefore, is to concentrate on ways of helping the young
to realize the potential of their new sense of purp ose and spirit for
This involves intens ive efforts -- far greater than yet
It also places upon our colleges and universities the
obligation to examine their policies and practices and to make those
adjustments necessary for the proper exercise of student participation.
So rather than challenging youth, it is they who are challenging us
and it is, I believe, a most heartening and hopeful situation when
exhortation is more needed by age than by youth.

# # # # # # #

Welcome by Mayor Ivan Allen, Jr.
Atlanta.'s Mayor Ivan Allen opened the Conference on June 30 by
focusing on the problems of the cities and the effect t hat young

p0ople can have on the solutions.

Allen defined the foremost urban

problems as race, t r ansportation, and financing of city services.

He said tha.t although
the structure of government is capab1e of
coping with these problems ••• it is the failure of man to a.dapt
which prevents the solution. n
"Atla.nta, 11 Mayor Allen,
"welcomes the entrance into city government of a group of
concerned young citizens."
He concluded that if the need is going
to be met, it will be met by the youthful generation "that has
the concern."
Service- Learning in Action in Atlanta :
Cha.irman :
An Up-To- The-Minute Report
Sam Williams, Dir ector of t he Atlanta Ur ba.n Corps
Don Nel son , Georgi a Te ch Communi ty Services Coordi na.tor
Don Roe, Special Assi s tant to t he President of Ci tizens
and Southern National Bank
Charl e s Pyl es, Associate Profess or, Polit ica.l Science at
Georgia St ate College; Stern Int ern Coordinator
Tara Swartsel, At l anta Ur ban Corps I nt er n
Dan Sweat, De:put y Adminis t rator, Cit y of Atlanta
Atlanta Urban Corps
Sam Williams explained its purposes as:
providing students with the pra.ctical educational
expzrience of learning through servi,:!e to tne local
giving needed manpower to local agencies and community
encouraging students to not only learn about urban
problems but to pursue careers in urban affairs.
He said that the Atlanta. Urban Corps plans to grow from 220 interns
in the summer of 1969 to 1000 interns in the summer of 1970,
plans being made for a number of internships during the forthcoming
academic year.
Georgia. Tech Community Services Office
Don Nelson reported that the Georgia Tech community had thought
that money could solve the problems of urban America.
Now, he said,
we are discovering tha.t we can't live in a major city and not respond
with some kind of feeling or action.
It's no longer a question of
money but how one commits himself to what's happening around him
that really counts .
Dean Miller Templeton and he got together in November, 1969,
and found that fifteen or twenty programs were being spons ored by
Tech students,so the t wo of them formed the Community Services
Coordinating Staff.
Their primary objective was to coordinate the
pr ojects then operating and to try to get more students and f aculty
i nterested and i nvolved.
In the last few months he's had troubl e
j us t keepi ng up with what' s going on !
Some of t he pr ojects students are i nvolved in are :
Hi gh Step,
Free Universit y, Techwood Tutorial , YMCA Ins titute of Understanding
and the Te ch Acti on Committee.
£~£Bank Communit y Act ion Programs
Don Roe r eport ed that C & S Bank instituted the "Georgia Plan",
peo:ple to people proC:; ram
11 ,
i n May of 1968.
He said that it was an
action program on the part of private enterprise , without government
funds, to provide business opportunities to low income and disadvantaged
It is based on simplicity and sincerity and on four basic
Two of the fundamental principals of democracy are government
by reason, not force, and the most good for the most people.
Everyone wants to improve his standard of living.
The incentive method is the best way to accomplish things.
( 4)
Government steps in to f ill needs when business does not.
He -said that the 1'Georgia Plan" was inagura.ted in Savannah with a.
" spring cleaning" in wh ich most of the volunteers came from two local
colleges, Armstrong and Savannah State.
This was such a. success that
in ensuing months thirteen other Georgia. cities had clean-up operations.
In Atlanta., Vine City wa s the area affected.
Altogether approximately
74, 800 Georgians have participated in these clean-up endeavors.
he s aid , a one day clea n-up won't solve problems .
is most i mportant .
But ,
What comes afterwar ds
So t he C & S Community Development Corporation was
est ablished winter with a. budget of one million dollars.
purpose of t his organization is to pr ovide funds f or down-payment loans
so t hat first mortgage home f i nan cing can b e obt ai ned and to provide
equity capital f or new busine s ses .
So f ar, 1 ,000 fam ilies and t wenty
businesses have dir ectly bene fitte d f r om t hese loans .
The Ster n I nter ns
Charle s Pyl es reported t hat three ye ars ago t he Stern Foundation
approached t he American Societ y for Public Administration and said
that they had $30 ,000 avail able and would l i ke to sponsor an internship
program, specifically for black students in public administr ati on .
The challenge wa.s not met at that time, but in the summer of 1968
the Georgia. chapter decided to explore possibilities in this area.
After one year of planning fifteen students from eleven colleges and
five faculty advisors began a ten week work assignment . in state and
local government agencies.
From over forty applications, the students
chosen were selected on the basis of academic achievement, written
expression, personality and character references.
Manpower Survey
Tara. Swartsel reported that the Department of Labor is conducting
a survey to find out how student manpower is being used in Atlanta.
One student on each of ten campuses in Atlanta is researching to try
to find out what is now available and wha.t the potential is for
service-learning college.
When a.11 the reports compiled
the schools will be compared and variations will be considered.
The Service-Learning Concept looks good, she said, on paper and
looks like it would apply to everyone, but how can the concept be
applied on all campuses without the curriculum becomi ng "gimicky" ?
Curr iculum committees are jealous of t ime.
They don't want to
use a. professor's time and skills and have students taking time out
of the classroom unless they see definite re sults in the field work
as it r elates to t he cla ssroom.
She thinks t his is t he problem t he
participants of the service-learning conf erence must keep :for emost
i n their minds.
Atl ant a 's Urban Obs ervatory
Dan Sweat r eported t hat f i ve years ago Rob er t Wood, Under Secret ary
of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), saw a nee d f or involvement of
the academic community i n t he affairs of t he local community.
mechanism he envisioned wa.s a system of urban observatories in major
metropolitan areas.
The passage of the 1968 Housing Act enabled HUD
to assist in establishing urban observatories in Atlanta., Albuquerque,
Baltimore, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Nashville, and Washington, D.C.
The Atlanta Urban Observatory is based at Georgia. State College and
has a close working relationship with City Hall, from which it originated.
It is also in the process of developing linkages with the other colleges
and universities in Atlanta.
Mr. Sweat said he believed tha.t the Atlanta. program ha.s a headstart because the Urban Corps program, whose philosophy is so close to
that of the urban observatory, is already in operation in Atlanta.
Address by Lee Heubner
Lee Heubner, staff assistant to President Nixon, addressed the
Conference at the dinner session on June 30.
He struck a note of
caution, a note of perception and a note of hope for the participants.:
Let's be sure we have projects that make sense in
terms of the people being served and the person being
educated. Unless we're willing to do this rigorously
and precisely and uncompromisingly, I don't think the
service-learning program will be as successful as .it
really ought to be •..•
The critical thing about service-learning is
the hyphen .•..
One thing under discussion in the White House
is a federally- assisted program to support the
position of campus service coordinator, someone to
whom the students could visit to inquire about
specific opportunities in community service. Also,
the service coordinator would discuss with faculty
members questions regarding academic credit and
curricular changes related to community service.
Addl'ess by William Allison
Bill Allison, Director of Economic Opportunity Atlanta, spoke
on June 30 on the "Needs of Urban America."
are troubled times .
He said that 1'these
campuses witnessing a revolutionary
r esponse by young people who want to do something about the world
they live in.
Wha.t happens on campus cannot be separated from what
happens in the larger society. "
Allison urged cooperation between
the academic community, government, and private agencies to solve
t he problems of the cities.
He expressed a faith that the nAtlant-a
Service-Learning Conference is destined to spearhead the development
of t his union."
long ov-erdue.
He sai d that the idea. of cooperation and union was
"Now is the time for them to work together."
concluded that par ticipation is the key factor and, "service-lear ning
i s one way partici pation can be r ealized. "
Service-Learning and National Programs
The national and i nternational components of service-l earning
were highlight ed at a symposium that i ncluded Tom Houser, Deputy
Director of t he Peace Corps; H. Jeffrey Binda, Exe cutive As si stant to
the Director of VISTA; Paul Cromwell, Special Assistant to the Director
of the Teacher Corps and Michael Goldstein, Director of the Urban Corps
National Development Office.
Dr. Carl Wieck of Morehouse College was
the moderator.
Noting that the Peace Corps had been in the service-learning
business for eight years, Mr . Houser reported that "most returning
volunteers say they l earned more than they gave. u
Mr. Cromwell said
colleges could become more relevant by working with businesses and
government agencies in arranging work assignments linked with classroom
Mr. Binda stressed the service aspect, saying it was vital, when
arranging for aid to the poor and disadvantaged, to assign persons
who can do the job well.
Mr, Goldstein, former director of the nation's
first Urban Corps in New York City, outlined the program in which college
students serve with municipal agencies and are funded largely by the
College Work-Study Program.
The panelists agreed that experience in a service-learning
program would be valuable background for entry into a long term service
Also, it would help the participant to decide whether to
apply for such a service program.
Remarks by Edward DuCree and Arthur Hansen
The final session of the Conference dramatically focused on the
diverse and sometimes conflicting interests which must have a part in
determining the nature of a service-learning program.
Ed DuCree ,
director of Emory University's Upward Bound Program, called for the
examination of goals and effects of current service programs.
Quoting from Shakespeare's "Hamlet" , DuCree said the question
remains, "to be or not to be. 11
he s tated .
Black people want to be , to exist ,
Service programs which fail to help people to exist as
human bei ngs are of l ittle or no use, he said ,
For exampl e , he said
that some tutorial pr ograms i n whi ch white vol unteers teach black
ch i ldren have the effect of impr ess i ng on t he childr en the value of
being white rather than t eaching them t he a b e's.
Dr. Hansen, Pres ident el e ct of Georgia Tech, reminded the audience
of the university's traditisma.1 roles of learning and research.
Service to the community , ,·rhich became a major goal of many universities
following the land-grant a.ct of a century ago, is also a legitimate
goal, he said.
The question is whether service per~ is a learning
experience and therefore deserving of academic recognition.
said he would not want to accredit service experiences until he was
convinced of their learning inputs.
A small demonstration decrying the effect of Georgia. Tech's
expansion on nearby residents interrupted Dr. Hansen's speech and led
to an extended session in which heated debate gradually gave way to
some fundamental problems in the areas of service-learning and
black-white relations.
A partial report on the exchanges is contained
in 'M r. DuCree' s reply to a participant who described the role he was
.Mr. DuCree said,
you to be a. person."
';We don't want you to play a role; we want
Seminar Summaries
. :Midway through the inaugural meeting, seminars were held to discuss all
aspects of the service-learning concept and to assist participants in
selecting a work group.
The seminar chairmen were:
James Austin, Georgia. .Municipal Association
Robert Clayton, Spelman College
Clavin Cox, the Atlanta Constitution
Phillip~ Ruopp, Peace Corps
Russell Williams, Atlanta University
No conclusions emerged from the seminars, but among the comments and
questions were the following :
How is learning-by-serving different from learning-in-the-classroom?
The service-learning concept may lead to a radical change in the
concept of the university and education in general.
Government administrators mu·s t control service-learning programs,
not colleges.
A consortium of colleges should run the service-learning program
in Atlanta.
Can cultural empathy be taught?
High school students, drop-outs, and housewives should be in servicelearning programs.
Urban Corps interns should receive academic credit for their learning
Wha t er:iteria should be applied to matching an intern with an opening
to insure th::it pot~. p e r-fht·1nnnoe ;:ind 1An.rnine; wi 1.1 be a·t a high
These observations, t ogether with the questions posed in Section IV,
will be considered by the r e spective work groups.
The Conference is functioning primarily through its six work
service, learning, curriculm and inter-institutional
relations, finance,research, and methods and programs.
Each work
group is to marshal available resources, study in depth its assigned
topic, sponsor a session of the Conference, and submit a report
describing its observations and reconnnendations leading toward a
comprehensive model for a continuing service-lear n i ng pr ogram.
Sponsorship and dates of subsequent Conference sessions are as
fol lows:
F inance
Rese arch
Me t hods and Programs
Steering Committee
August 18
August 19
mid-Se ptember
Octobe r
Below are summaries of the first wor k group me et ings on July 1
and some of t he questi ons each i s exploring .
Service Wor k Group
Ross Coggins, Regional Dir ec t or of VISTA
Ros s Coggins opened the di scus s i on by a sking t hose pre s e n t to mention
what services students are now doing or could do in regard t o servicelearning.
The dis c ussion of this question raised many others, most of
which were left una nswered .
I t will be the purpose of t his group t o
answer such questions as :
What criteria define . relevant services and who should have
priority in determining the relevance or potential learning
experience of a service-type job?
Can agencies and colleges cooperate among themselves and with
each other in the rendering of services?
Who is to be served: the student, the college, the agency or
the people, or a combination of all?
Are universities attuned to the needs of the community and can they
accept the idea that a service career mode is vital to our society?
What should be the size of the service rendered, in comparison with
societal needs?
Should service be full-time or part-time and how long should it last?
What services can agencies accept and what
accept youth in service?
Does tutoring, etc., satisfy the needs of the "now generation" with
their sense of urgency and need to see quick results?
What do students think are the major service needs and will the
university allow the student to work for meaningful change in the
kinds of agencies can
Learning Work Group
Sally cantor, Atlanta Urban Corps Intern
The meeting of the section on Learning was begun by a description of the
Mars Hill Project, its origin and outline.
One enthusiastic professor was
given a grant to instigate and develop interest in the concept of servicelearning .
He looked into curriculum and local service oppor tunities .
with a tutorial program and then a recreational program,
work for physical education, sociology, etc.
It b'egan
This be came the ~i e J_n
The communi c1:1t.ion which is
necessary for this to come about smoothly is possible in a small school.
There is a problem in the structure of a large university which makes it almost
impossible to integrate this kind of learning.
How might this be overcome?
Many segments of society are concerned with this kind of l earning taking
Students are the l argest mass of participants .
Thus the training
ground for students, i.e. the university, must be changed first.
There are
places in the traditi onal college stl:ucture which could be changed to be more
in line with this new concept.
an education major.
For example, in the practice-teaching part of
Instead of being a. complete b l ock of time at the end of
the learning period, it would be more relevant and thus valuable to have the
practice-teaching interwoven with the academic study, over a greater length of
Practical experience makes theory more concrete but it requires a pl~ce
to plug into the traditional curriculum.
Practice-teaching is an easier area
to see the possibilities; but how can this type of learnj og be given academic
credit in other courses?
You can learn something from anything you do if you
are pGrceptive, but to be given academic credit what one is doing must be put
to acaa_emic analysis.
Learning is not just of one type; it consists of different processes.
What kind of learning happens when one is put in a context of people and
If the ultimate goal is being sensitive to each other, how
can one avoid complete relativism?
Perhaps this is only a part of the desired
goal and can be fitted into the whole as a matter of degree.
It would be
valuable to question a.n intern to see if his learning can be classified , i f
an analysis can be made of the learning possibilities .
It is very important,
however, that this not become Step 1, 2, 3 on how to become a successful learner.
There is always the problem of how to bring out what has been, or is
l>e in g
It is difficult to bring life-style to a conscious level where it
must be for our purposes.
It will be necessary to compare the goals and
patterns of both traditional university-learning and service-learning.
example, a university stresses committment to truth, to principle; service
stresses committment to people , to becoming involved with those a.round you.
In univers ity-le13rriing ,<lecisions are mArt.e after all the facts are gathered
and a logical assessment of them has been ma de.
situation demands that a<.:t:ion mnsl:;
With service-learning, the
0 1·1:;en he +Aken wj t.h out
all the facts, by
a "feel" for the right moment of what seems the most viable alternative.
must have confidence to do this and live with the consequences, be willing to
make changes as factors change priorities .
Questions to be consider ed by the work gr oup include t he following:
Can learning take place i n roles which students consider socially irrel evant ?
How can students be helped to grasp the broader i mplications of what they
really learn by serving?
What relationship exists between individual student goals and the choice
of alternative service opportunities?
How can students be helped to raise the important, r elevant questions
about their service experiences?
How can interested, knowledgeable, and accessible f aculty be identif ied
and enlisted in t he service-learning exper ience ?
What i mplicat i ons of exper ience-ba s ed learning pertinent t o hi gher
education in general?
How, in fa.ct, do students learn from exper ience ? How can it be mea sured ?
How can community needs, student inter ests, and uni ver sity programs i nt er act
to yiel d s ignifi cant l e ar ning on the part of everyone i nvolved?
What methods and techniques are most effective in pr eparing students for
their job and community roles?
Curriculum and I nter- Inst i t uti onal Relations Work Group
Cha i rman:
Dr . William W. Pendleton, Prof essor of Sociol ogy, Emor y Uni versity
In t he openi ng meeting of the curriculum work gr oup t here was a very
general dis cussion of t he problems invol ved in i ncorporating a s ervi ce-J_e:=irnj np;
program into est a:t lished academic f r amework of hi gher education.
A question wa s rai sed as to whet her a service-learning program was a
l egitimat e element of any a.cademic program .
There was s ome debat e as t o
whether it coul d be considered the responsi bi l ity or even a l egitimate function
of a university to provide the student with a broadening experience~
It wa s
decided that one of the maj or tasks of the work group woul d be t he development
of a structure which would i nsure that thE> stnaent utilized t he full learning
pote ntial of the service eA'J)erience.
Several suggested elements of t his str uc ture were:
seminars, and student reports.
facu1 t )r advisors,
There were other questions concerning the basic structure of the program.
For example:
How would service-learning experiences be integrated into the
existing departmental structure?
On what basis would credit be given?
would be the ratio of hours worked to credit-hours received?
How many credit-
hours of service-learning could be counted toward graduation?
What channels,
such as independent study, special programs or seminars with labs, aJ.rea.dy exist
which could be used as a. mechanism for giving credit for a service-learning
Certainly the most valuable product of this initial meeting was an
awareness of the complexities of the problems confronting the work group.
A number of questions were raised, several others will be focused on at l ater
The following questions a few of those for which the curriculum
work group will attempt to provide conclusion.
What courses now exist as training for other forms of service which could
be relevant to service-learning programs?
What inter ...institutional relations now exist which could be utilized and
developed for internships and program development?
What effects will the service-learning experience have on student
expectations in the curriculum area ?
What are the potentials of a fa culty consultant ser vice?
What the possibilities for utilizing community members a s instructors
or resource people within the classroom ?
What the possibilities for and problems of cross--~r editing
Finance Work Group
William Jones, Department of Health, Education and Wel fare
Charles Hamblen and Charles Moore , Department of Health , Education
and Welfare
The first questions raised about funding were :
who, how much, and bow?
It wa s stated that the program was not to be directed by the Federal gover nment ,
but t hat t he government should be. a source of funds , pr imarily t hrough l ez ~~sla.tion.
lv'T.r. Hamblen reviewed what was available through Federal programs.
He said that perhaJ>s the best sources have suffered a cutback in appropriation
( the Cooperative Education Program and Education for Public Service), b~t they
might be refunded in the next fiscal year.
Mr. HambJ.en was asked how to go
about requesting Work-Study funds.
He that the application must be made
by an institution by November 1st.
If the institution includes a proposal for
meaningful off-campus activities it will receive priority in the allocation of
Work-Study funds.
It was remarked that many colleges did not use a large
amount of their funds or did not include descriptions of off-campus activity in
their requests for funds.
The funding for such a proposal would be 80%
federally fund~d and 20% funded by the agency.
Discussio~ then centered on the study made by 22 Republican Congressmen
concerntng student unrest.
Their recommendations were:
Don't cut off funds to institutions which have experienced student
Establish a Na:tional Youth Foundation to encom:age student pa.r ti cipation
in community problems.
Incr ease funds fo:i;- student ai q.
The government should expand its lines of communication wi th stu<i..ents .
I n addition to raising money from f ederal programs , it was suggested
that ser vice-learning -pr oje~t. s approach . f'oundations and bus i nes ses as t hey
might have grea.ter fle xibility in a:wa.r ding funds for the purposes of the
particular proj e ct .
It was stated that a progr am al r eady under way might
stand a goo<;l chance of obtaining support as it would demonstrate committment
to the idea .
Other suggestions were that s t udents are good at max imizing funds if
all owed to go after them, and that students should be a par t of the decisionmaking process when financial a.i d of ficer s submit pla.ns for uti lizing WorkStudy funds .
Additional questions to be examined by t he work group are:
In funding service-learning programs , what share should be borne
by the agency being served ? by the student of a.n educational
institution? by t he government?
How should the Atlanta Urban Corps be financed in t he future ?
(3) What pr oportions of Work-Study funds should be spent on off-campus
service activities ?
Should all student s i n a. service-learning program receive a stipend
f or t heir E2Tvices?
Research Work Group
Chairman :
Timothy R,\·:.e s, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Georgi a.
State Col l ege
The i mmediate obje ctive of t he research work group i s t o determine the
av ailab i lit y of student manpower f or s ervi ce -learning programs i n Atlanta .
With over 40,000 college student s in metr o Atlanta , a Confer ence-relat ed
survey i s being made to f i nd out how many of t hem would be interested in
service-lea:rning projects , and under what conditi ons (such a s s tipends and
academi c cr edit) .
Survey s are also being conducted t o deter mi ne t he demand
for students in service-learni ng pr ograms , attitudes of employers t owar d t hem ,
and attitude s of student interns .
Over t he longer r ange t he work group plans to cons i der ways of invoJ.vj ng
st udents in resear ch and ways of linking r e search on ser vi ce-.lean1ing with
the curricul um .
It was agreed t hat the quality of research should not be compromis ed
s impl y t o give students respons ibility f or it .
Thus , s ome students will need
t r ai ning in research methodol ogy .
The work group eed t o try t o i dentify 11 wha.t we don 't know about servicelearni ng . 11
As an exampl e of a practicci J. resear ch proj ect, i t was suggested
t hat a s t udy be of what makes a "good" Urban Corps placement and what
makes a i;bad" one.
Such r ese arch woul d be conducted in close cooperation with
t he Urban ".;orps staff.
Methods and Programs Work Group
William W. Allison, Economic Opportunity Atlanta
John Cox, Atlanta Youth Council
The work group decided to begin by finding out what.methods are used
·by other intern agencies in the nation.
chairman of this field work group.
Michael Goldstein was named national
Other members are:·
Phyllis Atkins, Truly Bracken, and Cynthia Knight--Atla:hta
Margaret Davis--Athens, Georgia
Gordon Drennen--Georgia
Tim Collins--North Carolina.
John Bromley-Kentucky and Tennessee
Alga Hope--Florida
Sanar~ Mincey--Alabama
Kent Christison--Virginia
After obtaining basic information on existing programs in servi.c elearning, the work group decided tA consider alternative methods and examine ·
possible ways in which . .Conferen e.e should relate 'tl1 other programs.
Ivan Allen, Jr.-City of Atlanta
James E. Allen, Jr.- U. S. Office of Education

William Allison-Economic Opportunity .Atlan·ta (EOA)

Walter Anderson-EOA
James Austin-Georgia Municipal Association
Yvonne Bankston-EDA
H. Jeffrey Binda-VISTA (Washington, D.C.)
John Blakley -Stern Intern
William Boone, Jr.-Stern Intern
David Bootier-Southern Regional Education Board (SREB-Tennessee)
John Bromley-Peace Corps (Tennessee)
Norman Brooks-U.S. Office of Education
Charlotte Buford-SREB (Georgia)

Linda Bulloch-SREB (Georgia)

Stephanie Bush-Stern Intern
Russell Caldwell-SREB (Georgia Municipal Association)
Kenneth Christisori,:SREB (University of Virginia)
Mary Ann Carroll-Peace Corps (Georgia)
Robert Clayton-Spelman College
Lee Clowers-Florida Governor's Office

Ross Coggins-VISTA (Georgia)

Timothy Collins-Guilford College
William Combs-Peace Corps (Texas)
Calvin Cox-Atlanta Constitution
John Cox- Atlanta Youth Council
William Cozzins-Georgia Tech
Paul Cromwell-Teacher Corps (Washington, D.C.)
Terrence Cullinan-Stanford Research Institute
Kenneth Darnell-Defense Contract Administration Service
Margaret Davis-Stern Intern
Sue Day-U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare (Georgia.)
Michael Douglas-Atlanta University
Edward K. Downs, Jr.-Stern Intern

Carthur Drake-Morehouse College

Gordon Drennen-Stern Intern
Eleanor Duckett-Mars Hill Community Development Institute
Edward DuCree-Emory University Upward Bound
Noel Dunivant-North Carolina Resource nevelopment Internship Program
Roscoe Dunlap, Jr.-Stern Intern
Elizabeth Dyer-Peace Corps (Georgia)

Donald J. Eberly-National Service Secretariat

David L. Edwards-SREB (Lynchburg College)
James Elens-SREB (Mars Hill College)
Davie Ford-Stern Intern

Members of Conference Steering Committee

Casey Fredrick-Mars Hill College
Michael Goldstein-Urban Corps National Development Office (New YorkJ
Claude B. Green-Clemson University
Katherine Griggs-SREB (South Carolina)
David Grubbs-Middle Tennessee State University
Douglas Haire-SREB (Georgia State College)
Charles Hamblen-U.S. Office of Education (Georgia)
Grace Hammonds-Stern Intern
Arthur G. Hansen-Georgia Tech
Michael Hart-SREB (Georgia)
James Hertenstein-Georgia Tech YMCA
Lee Heubner-Office of President Nixon
Richard Hoffman-Mars Hill College
Lois Hollis-Stern Faculty
Solomon Hollis-Stern Faculty

Edward Holmes-Emory University

Alga Hope-SREB (Florida A & M University)
Martin Hope-Georgia Department of Family and Children Services
Roma Hopper-Georgia State College
John Hough-Mars Hill College
Thomas Houser-Peace Corps (Washington, D.C.)
John Howard-Wheat Street Baptist Church
James Irwin-Georgia Municipal Association
Enoch Johnson-EOA
Joy Jones-EOA

William Jones-HEW (Georgia)

Tyrone Joubert-Stern Intern
Ernest M. Kahn-University of Maryland
Anders Kaufmann-SREB (South Carolina)
Patrick Kelly-Georgia Tech
Daniel Kendr i ck-Georgia Department of Family and Children Services
Jane Kibler-Ur ban Training Organization

Joseph D. Kimmi ns-Peace Corps (Georgia)

Earl O. Kline~Georgia State College
Paul Knipper- Pea.ce Corps (Louisiana)
Joseph Kushner- Valdosta State College
Al ex Lacey-Georgia State College
Ant oi ne Laiche-Peace Corps (Georgia)
H. Page Lee-Mars Hill College
Ear.l Lei ni nger-Mars Hill Coll ege
Carol Li m- American Fr iends Service Committee
Ele:arnor Main·~Emor y Uni vers ity
John Mallet-Psychologis t, At l anta
Thomas Manley- Nor th Carolina Sta t e Planning Task For ce
Kathy Marks-SREB (Geor gi a)
Jenifer Mauldin-Fulton County Health Department
William E. McMurry-Geor gia Stat e College
Lou Moelchert-Mars Hill College
Toby Mof fett-EEW (Washington, D.C . )
Charles Moore-U.S. Office of Education (Georgia)
�- -- ---· ·--- .------ -
E. Phillip Morgan-Emory University
Robert Mostellar-Southern Regional Council
Ukanga C. Mudakha-Stern Faculty
Donna Mull-SREB (Georgia)
Ryland Needam-Stern Intern
Donald Nelson-Georgia Tech Community Services
Gloria Nelson-Peace Corps (Georgia)

Robert Nelson-Peace Corps(Georgia)

John Niblock-SREB (Georgia)
Jerry Norris-Stern Intern
Patrick Ntukogu-Morehouse College
William O'Connell-SREB (Georgia)
David Palmer~Georgia State College

William Pendleton-Emory University

Mario Perez-Reilly-Middle Tennessee State University
Rogbert Phillips-Stern Intern
George Podelco-City of Nashville
Roger Prior-U.S. Department of Commerce (EDA-Washington, D.C.)
Charles B. Pyles-Georgia State College
Frank Raines-White House Fellow

William R. ·Ramsa~SREB (Georgia)

Sara H. Reale-Georgia State College
Doris Richardson-YWCA (Georgia)
David Roberts-Southern Education Foundation
Donald Roe-Citizens & Southern National Bank, Atlanta
J ack W. Rollow-Georgia State College
Thomas Roth-Mars Hill College
Marlene Rounds-SREB (Atlanta University)
Phillip Ruopp-Peace Corps (Washington, D.C . )
Roger Rupnow-Georgia Tech
Wendell H. Russell-Oak Ridge Associated Universities

Ti mot hy Ryles-Georgia State College

Logan Sallada- U, S. Office of Education
Char les Sanders- Stern Faculty
Paul Sholar - Mars Hi ll College
Rob er t Si gmon-SREB (Georgia)
Doris Sims-Stern Inter n
Peter Skinner-Peace Corps (F l or i da )
Dora Skyp eck- Emory Uni versi ty
Margaret Ruth Smith- SREB (Geor gia )
Janis Somervil l e- Nor th Car olina State Planning Task Force
Sandra Sprui l l-City of Atlant a, Avia t ion Departmen t
Gideon Stanton, III-Tul ane Univers ity
Mary Stevens-Emory University
Lonnie Stewart-SREB (Geor gia State College)
Daniel Sweat-City of Atlanta
Levi Terrill-VISTA (Georgia)
Barbara Thompson-National Student YWCA
Sherman Thompson-University of South Florida
William Traylor-Emory University Legal Services Center
Wallace Tyner-Peace Corps (Texas)
Simeon Udunka-EOA
Princella Wade-Stern Intern
Merle Walker-Agnes Scott College
Phil Walker-Georgia Tech
W. P. Walker-Mars Hill College
Frank Walls-City of Savannah
Oliver Welch-State Planning Department
Plemon Whatley-EOA
Anthony Whedon-Morehouse College
Daniel White-Georgia Tech
Carl Wieck-Morehouse College
Larry R. Williams-Office of Economic Opportunity (Georgia)

Russell S. Williams-Atlanta University

Dorothy Wilson-Atlanta Public Library

Prince Wilson-Atlanta University Center Corporation

Kenneth Wittemore-Fulton County Health Department
Michael Wittman-Florida Governor's Office
J. McDonald Wray-University of Georgia Institute of Government
James Wyatt-Mars Hill College
Gayle Yates-HEW (Georgia)
Linda Alexander
Rudine Arnold
Phyllis Atkins
Burnley Bainbridge
Stanley Ball
Edwin Barrett
Franklin Benfield
Manie Berk
Solomon Berry
Jacqueline Blackwell
Walter Bloom
Marianne Boder
Carol Bonner

Truly Bracken

Regina Brackston
Jane Bridges
Charles Brown
Lisebeth Brown
Robert Brown
James Bruce

Sally Cantor

Raines Carroll
Steve Chandler
Roosevelt Childress
Charles Choice
Dan Chri stenberry
Nancy Coenran
Richard Combes
Brenda Comer
Di ane Cousinea
Carea tha Dani e ls
Mary Danie ls

Ma rk Dash

Sylvia Dawson
I nmond Deen
Sarah Dennard
Pame la Do zier
Wal ter Dricer
Peggy Durrah
Joanne Flemister
Michael Floyd
Grange Fretwell

Kytle Frye

Beverly Gaither
Maggie Gerber
Frank Goodson
Mary Ellen Gordon
Beverly Grimes
Alice Hamilton
Resna Hammer
David Hanley
Charles Haynes
Rose Haywood
Ernest Henderson
Janice Herring
Dorothy Hicks
Joseph Hill
Elizabeth Hillbrath
Joan Hollenbach
John Hotard
Mostaffa Howeddy
Narma Ingram
Martha Irby
Tormny Isaac
Margaret Jaccino
Rudolph Jefferson
~c Babs Kalvelage
Alvin Keck
Kathleen Kennedy
Lloyd Keys
Steve Kiemele
Ria Kirshstein
Cynthia Knight
Maur.een Kreger
Judith E. Lange

Melinda Lawrence

Stephen Lester
Diane Lewis
Ki ng Fun Liang
Andrea Luce
Gordon Lurie
John Mann
Jon Martin
Jenifer Mauldin
Anna Mayeaux
Emmett McCord
Alber tin~ Mccrar y
Patr ici a McLaugh lin
Joseph Menez
Bill Mil lkey
Alan Mi ller
Ken Millwood
Sandra Mincey
Addie Mitchell
Madie Moore
J ames Mulligna
Carmencita Myrick
Haroli;:i R. Nash
Helen Newman
Nancy Ann Norbert
Shirley Owens
Richard Padgett
Bill Patterson
Belinda Pennington
Betty Peters
John Petzelt
Susan Pickard
Sanford Prater ·
Bessie Quillens
Gene Roberts
Linda Robinson
Tim . Rogers
Russell Rucker
Lloyd Sanders
Valerie Scalera
Michael Silberstein
Carol Simmons
Teia Sinkfield
Deborah Small
Christine Smith
Jani_e Snider
Tom Snider
Valinda Spalding
Jim Spence
Julius Stephens
Michael Stubbelfield
Evans Sturdivant
Tara Swartsel
Charles Thomas
Jerry Thompson
Constance Thurmand
Valerie Tomlinson
Bill Tr avis
Sally Tucker
Larry Tully
John Tuml i n
Betty Underwood
John Waggener
Car ol Watkins
Pa tric i a Watki ns
Paula Wha tley
Col oria Wheeler

Dave Whe lan

Ben White
Dawn White
Ros liad Williams

Sam Williams

Olivia Williamson
Diane Wilson
Susan Windom
Mike Winston
Gary Wood
June Woodward
Carolyn York
Sue Zander
.. ,,
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