Box 9, Folder 7, Document 12

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NOVEMBER 5, 1968

Before WHY NOT (or the"model schools") proposal can be presented as legislation
the following points need to be researched in more depth,


The cost of carrying out WHY NOT in approximately 20 schools in
the initial year,

The duration of the grants and how they might be renewed,

The proposal refined and organized into booklet form,

A schedule of deadlines for the participating groups" planning
and implementation of programs. ._

Approximately 20 schools representing the variety of existing
institutions must be screened and briefed on the proposal,
Pre-requisites for qualification would be a cooperative admini-
stration very interested in playing a larger role in the urban

The drafting of a major Presidential speech to introduce the
idea of WHY NOT.

The possible use of the surrogate candidates as Presidential
visitors and guests at participating colleges,

The adoption of a name for the plan. WHY NOT conveys the

challenging, incentive, daring of involved youth on the campus
today. WHY NOT!

"Colleges whose concept of education stops at the walls of
ivy give little but the option of dropout to students seek-
ing participation in the real world, In contrast, a college
that combines the opportunity for off-campus service
experiences with the opportunity for on-campus academic re-
flection on the experiences, can engender in their students a
thirst for educational involvement complementary to their
thirst for societal involvement," 1

Proposal for a "MODEL SCHOOLS" program in the Nixon Administration to develop
and expand service programs involving young people,

Mr. Nixon in his speech "Today's Youth: The Great Generation" said:

"Our future leadership must provide our young people with a
cause to be for; a commitment to the right to be unique;

a dedication to social responsibility on a person-to-person
basis, |

"We are not talking here about a way to work off youthful
enthusiasm; we are talking about a way to work in a sense
of idealism and meaning that will grow throughout a person's

"There are 7 million college students today. The universities
they attend are often close to and sometimes contribute to,
urban problems, We have seen how government can make use of
academic facilities as "think tanks" to move in on difficult
projects, Every university must become a "think tank" for

its local community.

"In that way students will add realism to their education, as
they bring needed services to their communities.

"Some of this is well under way in pioneering colleges across
the country; but now it should become a way of college life.

"The idea of bringing the resources of youthful energy to bear

on urban problems is beginning to take root; what is needed now
is a national commitment to provide incentive and financing to

the great challenge facing this generation of Americans."

This proposal outlines how this national commitment might be started -
to be concentrated initially at the education centers, but grants to be
available to states, cities, and institutions whose projects fit the pro-
posal's guidelines,

To marshall the national resources of our young people to confront our
social problems in general, and the urban problems in particular, the Nixon
Administration must be aware of the magnitude of work that can be done through
volunteer student groups and individuals primed by federal funds in a systematic

The "Model Schools" program attempts to achieve several distinct results:

1, Bring additional education resources to bear on social

Provide a constructive outlet for the dissatisfaction many
students feel with society by giving them the opportunity
to develop and expand student resources in meaningful pro-
grams of social value.

Provide a worthwhile supplement to the formal education
of the university.

Iponald J. Eberly, "Servile Experience and Educational Growth," Educational

2 *


The importance of volunteer community service by students can not be over-
emphasized. One individual helping another who is in need is one of the basic
tenets which can build a revitalized society in our country, not only in the
communities surrounding our nation's colleges and universities, but in every
community. The suppressed radicalism of youth cries out for programs which can
harness their energies for social betterment and which rely heavily on the
principle of volunteerism,

Many groups already exist that use student volunteers in basic educational
(tutoring, remedial reading), community action (reereational programs, organi-
zation of local newsletters), and rehabilitative (work in mental hospitals,
prisons) activities, But many campuses lack even the basic organizational
structure, and often where it does exist it suffers from a general absence of
coordination, organization, experienced guidance and sufficient funding.

Often the scope of a school's involvement in its neighboring area depends too
much on the energies and time of too few members of the university community,

Many creative and helpful community programs do exist:

Memphis has a Volunteer Service Bureau that handles the placement of
workers in over 200 positions in 50 non-profit agencies.

Students work with the Memphis Area Project-South which sponsors
"clothes closets" to provide families with essential clothing when
disaster hits, MAPS also oversees "planned parenthood" programs in South
Memphis and nutrition classes that give instruction in planning well-
balanced meals to the poor Blacks in Memphis.

The Human Opportunity Corporation in Austin has begun a foster grand-
parents project. It recruits aged low-income persons to work with retarded

The University of Texas Law School has a Human Rights Research Council
staffed with law students to inform low-income Negroes and Mexican-Americans
of their legal rights and privileges.

The Community Involvement Committee at the University of Texas at Austin
has submitted recommendations for field work in their personnel management pro-
gram to work with minority groups and the hard-core unemployed to try to place
them in better jobs.

One school offers special programs for black students before registration
and continuing help to those who need it during the academic year.

The University of Chicago has allotted funds for a Summer Institute in
_ which black students prepare talented eighth and ninth graders for college
preparatory work.

Students at the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle provided trans-
portation one summer for low-income children for trips to the city zoos, parks
and museums.

A Community Arts Foundation in Chicago recently started a creative theatre
for ghetto residents and held productions in alleys.

The Interdenominational Theological Center at Atlanta University has
special preparatory courses for future ghetto ministers.

The University of Pennsylvania sponsored a program in criminal law and
litigation, in which students accompanied police during their regular round
of activities and assisted public defenders. Class credit was given for this

The Law School at the University of Detroit has a legal aid program for
ghetto residents,

One group works on developing extracurricular activities within the walls
of a prison -- sports, chess or bridge clubs,music lessons, quiz teams, managing
of a literary magazine and the institution newspaper, management of an insti-
tution radio program for inmate education, and participation in weekly discus-
sion sessions.

One student committee works with boys who are confined to a state reform
school in Westborg,Massachusetts.

One groups of student tutors works with children in the third and fourth
grades to help them to express themselves better, by having them dictate tales
to the tutors, pound out their ideas on old typewriters, write short poems,
make science observations, keep scrap books of thoughts, and momentoes of trips.

One program maintains an up-to-date collection of college, business and
vocational school catalogues, a library of information on college board examina-
tions, financial aid, and on "A Better Chance" and other available compensatory
education programs.

COPE is a Boston organization designed specifically to place teenages
from low-income areas in institutions of higher education, done by represen-
tatives from the admission offices of the local universities, colleges and

vocational sechsols.

At one school four qualified volunteers (including one who just completed
the course) are currently teaching their second round of a 10-week computer
class for phetto residents.

Some imaginative tutors have started a biology iearning room with a
group of children who were introduced to the world of nature, foreign to
their asphalt and cement world, by raising gerbils, hatching chickens and
baby spiders, and growing plants.

A council of Intercollegiate Affairs in Boston encourages cooperation
among student volunteer programs engaged in similar activities on different

Boston University's school of Nursing has sought out 27 young women
from Roxbury who were interested in the field of nursing but who lacked
the academic credentials for admission. Through a program, these girls
have been successfully brought into the regular nursing program,


Boston University offers its facilities for recruiting and training
of volunteers to any outside organization.

Harvard Business School students assist Roxbury ghetto businessmen.

Some schools have programs to provide better training for prospective
teachers who want to work in ghétto schools.

Members of the Michigan State University Marching Band, "Band Brothers",
offer free music lessons to children from low economic areas of Lansing.

In one area "Community Gardens" were established on urban redevelopment
land. ‘Through the purchase of shares, the community owns these gardens and
the crops grown on then. '

Students operate several community cooperative stores in the west side
of Lansing, Michigan.

A program of consumer education "SHOP ALOT", uses student volunteers to
aid inner-city residents in their shopping.

In one community, teenagers from the inner city were given the opportunity
to operate a student-run radio station.

One faculty department sponsored a housing study to determine which low
cost housing designs would best suit the needs of the people who will inhabit

_ One university has as a requirement for the degree of Master of Governmental
Administration the assignment of students to various departments of city govern-

Temple University has a Vice President for Urban Affairs to coordinate
all activities with the community and has the responsibility for a Center for
Urban Affairs and the Student Committee Action Center.

Project College Bound is a six week summer program for Philadelphia high
school graduates from low-income backgrounds who have been accepted at eellegess
but have specific educational deficiencies.

One school developed a counselor workshop--a three week summer institute
to increase the professional competence of city high school guidance counselors
in their work with students from minority groups.

At the University of Pennsylvania, the University Council on Urbanism and
Related Human Resources is conducting a survey of the University's schools and
research centers in developing interdisciplinary faculty seminars on urban
problems and charting a university wide approach to the study of urban life.

The Temple University Hospital has developed a program for low-income
mothers, giving pre-natal and delivery care. .

A sorority developed a charm course (make up, hair care, personal hygiene,

posture, ete.) for children from broken or inadequate homes.

The Wharton Graduate School of Business has a Business Practice Service
to provide management service to ghetto business people.

One school developed a pilot program connecting housing rehabilitation with
vocational education, providing part-time and summer employment for high school

One University opened its olympic pool to poverty children during the week
and provided instruction for an entire summer.

One city has started traveling libraries to visit ghetto areas.
Secretarial schools have developed technical-vocational courses in clerical
skills to help needy girls find jobs.

One student groupp started a program of working with young urban children
as tutors, playground aides, and group leaders for boy and girl scouts. They
also work in hospitals in the escort service, as candy stripers, in feeding
patients and other assignments through the Red Cross. Others work with handi-
capped persons, the mentally retarded, the deaf school, and many others.

Volunteers from MIT have used their special skills in mechanics and science,
for use on building radios, erector set projects, three-dmensional maps of the
moon, airplane and rocket models for children.

Tutoring Plus in Boston has produced its own textbook called "Tutoring

Michigan State University has established an Office of Volunteer Programs
to provide greater university support in advising and coordinating all student
voluntary service activities and organizations as well as to encourage the
formulation of new programs.

One school developed a 13-week television course in Negro history and
culture which was subsequently reproduced for use in teacher training in state-
supported schools.

The University of Pennsylvania has a course, Urban Social Change and Human
Development, designed to assist the planning student in understanding the process
of social change in the urban environment through studying the attitudes of low-
income and minority populations toward housing, renewal, education, employment
and welfare services. A special reading seminar is offered to familiarize the
planning student with interdisciplinary literature on poverty, combined with
intensive field experiences in a critical slum area near the University.

The State of Michigan has a division of Volunteer Services. It is an in-
formation center for all volunteer programs for all the colleges and universities
in Michigan. It provides assistance and advice for individual student projects.

A statewide Governor's Conference is held annually for the directors of individual
programs and projects on the respective campuses. The division does not provide
program monies, but provides assistance wherever possible. Presently, there are
about 10,000 student volunteers in Michigan at 27 different campuses. From this
outstanding example set by Michigan student volunteers, both Governor Romney

and Lt. Governor Milliken have encouraged broader volunteer activities to be
undertaken by all segments of the population.

New York City has an URBAN CORPS internship program designed to offer college
students the opportunity to participate first-hand in an urban society by taking
a direct part in its administration. For eligible students, the program also
provides a way to earn money through the use of college work-study funds. The
URBAN CORPS is administered for the City of New York by the Office of the Mayor,
in cooperation with the Department of Personnel. The URBAN CORPS is a cooperative
venture of the City, the Federal Office of Education and the participating colleges
and universities, Every assignment is individually prepared by the requesting
agency or department, and is evaluated as to its applicability for a college
student internship program. The majority of assignments are within existing
agencies and departments, in on-going projects. Other assignments make the
student a part of special task-force groups Students may also be assigned
to the central staff of the URBAN CORPS, working on the administration and
operation of the program itself.



that can offer qualifying schools of all sizes grants which would develop
service programs that offer the promise of a more constructive and meaningful
role both for students as well as to those in "neighboring comnaunities".

The program would focus our society's educational techniques and talents on the
problems of life - either in our tural or urban areas,

It will not be simple to qualify for grants under this program. The
government: has neither the means nor the desire to invest public funds in an
expensive program whose net effects will be marginal, wasteful, or visible only
after protracted delay. We intend to help only those schools, cities, states,
and institutions whose plans really serve to help others in their struggle for
a more meaningful and productive life. We propose the following guidelines
for determining an applicant's qualifications for the benefits - and achieve-
ments of this program. Many of these speak directly to the university edu-
cational structure, as initially, work will probably be concentrated here, But
the overriding generalities of realistic and complete planning will apply to

The success that each deaonstration program can have will depend on the
quality of its planning, and the degree of cooperation it elicits from the
various governmental bodies concerned (i.e. students, administration, faculty,
community bodies, "Model Cities" people, and those in local Urban Coalitions)
as well as private interests. The absence of this cooperation between contiguous
areas is wasteful, as well as blind to the reality of urban life.


Service activities proposed should respond to the real needs of the
community, by indicating a relevancy to the community given the realities of
the environment.

Adequate identification must be made, of the areas which would be best
served through student help in the community, schools, recreation centers, medi-
cal and mental hospitals, and probation departments.

Long term goals should stress the encouragement of community residents
to work with existing educational institutions to develop new programs especially
in the technical-vocational field.

Programs should be designed to nurture ghetto residents with recognized
ability -- intellectual, academic, artistic, or athletic,

The programs should foster the development of local and private initiative
and widespread citizen participation in the planning and execution of the program.

Local community groups should be encouraged to eventually develop and
finance their own programs, and where possible people in the community should
be trained to continue the specific educational or recreational project.

Contact should be made with local community agencies and school systems
to insure program coordination with the present community activities.

Students should have a hand in assessing the nature of the service re-
quired and defining the task to be done.

Consideration should be given to involving adolescents in tutoring and
counseling younger children for their mutual benefit.

The program planned should be consistent with successful programs of the
past, as well as integrated into what they are now doing.

Experiences of often overleoked organizations like the YNCA should be

Diexasmtap eb ess Te teal anak os ee oe es ee ee
Deedee dL a eS pr ee a ee

vision of all aspects of the program.
There should be sufficient planning for projects to continue annually.

The program should be manned in each area by a single authority with
adequate powers to carry out and coordinate all phases of the program. There
must be a serious commitment to the project on the part of school and local


There should be adequate professional superv ision, as well as adequate
orientation and training, of the needed volunteers, and possible use of fulltime
social workers explored,

"Tutoring" programs should include information guidance counseling, family
services, school-home liaison, referrals, motivation-building, and recreational

Emphasis on volunteerism should be evident and the areas where salaries
are necessary made very explicit.

There should be evidence that the appropriate departments and groups
within the university have been contacted to seek support for the proposed program.

The program should reflect an attempt to make full use of the university
structure, not only its students, but scientists, economists, architects, mathe-
maticians, as well as buildings, athletic fields and libraries. Attempts must be
made to focus research resources on problems facing the city, such as traffic
congestion,. air pollution, housing, transportation, public health, etc.

Where possible a joint effort, exchange, or coordination of programs with
neighboring schools should be made.

Lectures and special programs should be open to the community and
scheduled with some attention to their interest and needs, e.g., a Black
American series, :

Evaluation of tutorial programs should be made through apptitude
and psychological testing. ; .

Plans should indicate an awareness of existing Federal programs which
could provide financial support, and of techniques and projects which have pro-
vided successful examples in other areas of the country.

Institutional support should be available as needed, with a possible
Sequential development along these lines:

a) an initial commitment to the educational value of
properly executed service experience;

b) faculty assistance in training and orientation;

c) possible future provisions for academic credit for
Service experience;

d) sufficient financial backing should be available so

as to permit all students to participate;

e) greater use should be made of work-study funds in pro-
jects that both socially productive as well as financially
remunerative to students;

£) greater use should be made of work-study funds for off-
campus work, both during the academic year, as well as dur-
ing summer.


We recommend that participatin roups receive two types of federal assistance:

1. special grants be made for programs to groups whose plans
justify the expenditure and fulfill the guidelines of this
proposal and give promise of a meaningful impact on those

. participating,

2. that all available grants and urban aids in the fields of
education, welfare, economic opportunity, and related pro-
‘grams be continued or expanded where justified.

Plans will be reviewed by a national office according to the preceding
prerequisites, The national office will be staffed with people knowladzeable
about the available federal funds as well as with individuals experienced in
the planning and implementation of volunteer programs,

The research staff will have as its duties the gathering and distribution
of all information that may be of use to submitting bodies, as well as the
planning and organizing of relevant national and regional seminars and confer-
ences on student social-work activities.

Small pamphlets, educational materials and the results of trainiag con-
ferences and leadership workshops would be provided to new and expanding
organizations, or to those who wished to improve the quality of their program,

Another important aspect of the information gathering function would con-
cern the financing of special student projects. A student group interested in
working with the mentally ill at a local hospital would be able to obtain from
this office information as to the funding programs in various government
agencies which might be appropriate for its financing. The office would also
assist the student group in preparing the proposal for federal funds.

: Funds will be required to assist participating groups in the implemen-
tations of their model demonstration plans. We should not underestimate the
problems nor the financial needs involved in achieving these plans, The very
scale of the demonstration and its widespread effects on the social structure
of a comaunity calls for coordination of the community's planniag and adinini-
strative resources on an unprecedented scale,

The appropriate Federal contribution to this planning and implemantation
effort would be _ 5 million the first year, growing in increments of

_ million per year.


The scope and depth of the work done by universities, cities, states,
or institutions will often require detailed planning, financial assistance,
and study.

But there are many things that could be done by our exceptional people

in their mid-teens in secondary schools that can also have a massive effect,

such as working as tutors in their communities in some of the remedial

subjects, in secretarial fields, in home economics, and in the technical

studies as well as art, music, etc.

' The President should urge each Congressman to communicate with the
high schools in his district about the great need for these projects.
The national research staff of the "model schools" could provide information
for these schools. Congressmen would propose "model" high schools each year
and their services projects for consideration of Presidential awards. Given
the attention and priority, this could be a very beneficial program, both

in terms of the community work and the recognition of the early maturation

of today's younger generation.

The President through the research staff and evaluation board would
make very pradetotous awards to those groups who during a year's time
initiate programs most exemplary of the "model school's" guidelines.
It would be called the award, and could involve a Presidential
visit, a Presidential dinner, or a contribution of Presidential books or
research wdtexteh:. To qualify groups must:

1. show signs of major achievement of benefit to the surrounding

2. show signs of massive student involvement.

3. have produced action that is recent and a result: of a
"model schools" program. a

Successful action and innovation, not perfection or completeness, will
3 be the real criteria. |
Finalists would be chosen by an impartial board, and their spokesman
would come to Washington for a conference and presentation of their program,
Greater use by the President of faculty-student prizes could also be
used in areas, one particular individual faculty member or student did or
initiated some particularly innovative idea or program by using an educational
talent or technique on a social provlem.
These rewards would be very important to generate the student -school
action that is needed, to stress local involvement, and to stress the need

for the teamwork approach to the problems.


The character of the urban university is weakest in the area of
communication and integration. There is a lack of communication both.
within the university's structure and between the university and those
who can effectively utilize its assistance.

Integration goes hand in hand with communication in these areas,

If integration seldom exists within academic institutions, it rarely
exists within its community. There is an ever increasing need for the
university to play a more diversified; participating role.

Higher education is often a symbol of medieval isolation, with
the university insulated in its castle from the surrounding environment,
When a university does cross the moat to involve itself with the con-
munity, the results are often uneven, fragmentary and unsystematic.

The emphasis of education remains on the written word. In this change-
oriented society the "PhD" and a long string of publications seems
negatively correlated with problem solving capability. This program
"Why Not" or "Model School's", suggests that the focus of education
needs to be shifted away from the "print" to the problem.

The purpose of education is primarily to prepare the student to meet
the demands of his world. Students recognize the need for a more
relevant educational experience. And the community demands a more
involved university. Both need the university to become a more active
agent in problem solving and direct service. But in spite of all the
recent encouragement from the citizens and students, the university
continues its aloof role and at times ignores its responsibilities.

The poverty of an area breeds a psychological handicap for all
ethnic groups. Welfare mothers and fathers without jobs frequently
transfer their own guilt feelings to their children, and schools often
underline the children's uncertainty.

It is here that the facilities of the university and the
available manpower of students can have a large impact.

The proposals and requirements of "Why Not" (model schools)
address themselves to the full integration of the university's resources
‘in solving the urban problem. The development of increased student

power and intensified student participation support our belief that
traditional walls must be broken down, both within the university
and the surrounding community, in the effort to bring about a more
humane urban environment.

2° To break down these walls and escape from the feudal armor
of the castle-and-the-moat, university administrators and faculty
must begin to conceive of the university as a total social institution
which is different from the aggregate collection of departments and
colleges. They must develop with the students a balance between the
educational programs and basic research, social advocacy and problem
solving. It is for them to develop a balance between scholars and
intellectual activists, between student-oriented professors and
community—oriented problem solvers. This balance and coordination
must be conceptual as well as organizational to succeed.

This academic movement must be with the assistance of
student and community advice. The large brain trusts of universities
are becoming like the federal government, bastions of bureaucracy
where many people become lost. WHY NOT can develop contact between

. the "little people", the university, and the government. And the
link between all of these can be the student.
Student tutorial programs already exist across the country and
provide a perfect link with the community upon which the university can
build. Tutorials are benficial to all parties involved if these parties
involve [ime are given a role in the planning.and
supervision. Many successful tutorials have been initiated by local
residents, The residents §f a ghetto in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
created Tutoring Plus. In the summer of 1964, a group of teenagers met
with a few older neighborhood youths who were attending college.

All were trying to answer the question of why a small number of the »
older youths had made it to college while few of the rest had even
finished high school. Tutoring Plus now involves M.I.T. students, the
Polaroid Corporation, and Christ Church in Cambridge. The successful
example of Tutoring Plus points the way for the university, the city,
and WHY NOT.

In an increasingly open and secular EX2& society, young people are
concerned with their own identity, the nature and quality of their society >
and their relation to men everywhere, Tutorials bring a share of
awareness and individual identity to both tutor and tutee, Ghetto
youths often feel unable to deal with their environment, much less
change it, This alienatéon is often translabed into a self-fulfilling
hostility towards any future efforts at personal or néighborhood

This alienation can be overcome by student volunteers running
their own programs in conjunction with neighborhood community groups _
and parents, Student-run tutoring programs have inherent flexibility
which enables them to be revised constantly to meet individual needs.
They can operate with little of the stigma attached by adolescents to -
schools and agency sponsored programs.

First of all, the student volunteer is not too much older than
the individuals they work with, thus contributing to a sense of conrade-
ship and understanding between tutor and tutee. Secondly, the college
student, by his very presence, is likely to provide the youth with a
role model which is not memely a postiche of guidance counselor
cliches but one which can communicate directly with the youth,
overcoming a great deal of their time, energy, and thought, to the
interpersonal relationships that are an integral part of any advancement’
activity. The student, merely by his presence at college, is likely
to have access to all types of information his tutee may request.

Many problems of student programs can be overcome with the active
interest and participation of the university. The nature of a student's
life, at first not much to do and then too much, cmwork to the disadvan-
tage of these programs. Some substitute for money is necessary to
encourage steady participation. Course credit is the logical suggestion,
Very few schools give credit for undergraduate field work, but the
majority of schools do for graduates, This discrepancy needs to be

The successful characteristics of student volunteer programs are
relevant to any larger effort at community and tniversity involvement.
Projects must be initiated on a small scale with supervision reflecting
consultation with university, community, students, city and private
enterprise, Projects should also be allowed to develop slowly to find
adequate and responsible local leaders, Immediate funding of uninvesti-
gated projects may end in misspent funds, which could severely damage
the entire effort. Quality planning is most important. Freedom of
progrsm selection must be guaranteed to each locale. Student committees
must remain in control of volunteer programs with local citizens,
Experience has shown that properly run volynteer programs attract
the sincerest and highest quality workers. And that the introduction
of remuneration often alienates the socially motivated and attracts the
organiz#tionaz joiner or job hunter. The quality of service then
drops. Public do-gooders with their weekend house painting serve
only fo irritate the ghetto resident,

Tutorial programs are only a fraction of what a university can do
in an urban center, Not only do courses need to be changed to reftect
‘urban problems but new priorities and policies need to be stated, Why
should a city have to employ outside economists or matématicians when the
university's are available? Why should computors and programmers be
hired when limitless reaearch hours are available on campus waiting
direction? WHY NOT could use the university facilities in the summer,
its athletic fields, museums, lecture rooms , its buses, pools and
tennis courts, WHY NOT could work with the city's and the citizens'
needs through the university's resources, The "model schools" program would
show that the government and the university are willing to give a greater
responsibility to the student. No longer- would there be dlack of communi-
cation within the university and between the university and those who
can effectively utilize its assistance. No longer would segregation exist
between departments, students, the community and the university. WHY NOT
seeks to coordinate and redirect the energies of education to problem
solving within the city and to problem solcing training for the student.

Can we prepare our students to face that challenge better if we
make it part of their education, maybe even for credit?
Can we go beyond the research and problem-solving with our colleagues in .
the community of institutions, and relate ourselves to our ghetto neighbors’
to improve their environmental condition? Can we even go beyond the poorly
developed programs and technologies of today and develop new vésions of
- neighborhood life to which both residential and university communities
contribute? Is it possible that the urban university can become a more
vital mover in all of its missions by making this attempt? WHY NOT.

In a society characterized by accelerating change in all of its
sub-systems, the problem solving urban univergity seems an inevitable
trend, Will we be forced to it, or will we anticipate events and take
leadership? That is the question. “fhe answer is WHY NOT.

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