Box 9, Folder 7, Document 12

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Box 9, Folder 7, Document 12

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NOVEMBER 5, 1968
�Before WHY NOT ( o:- the"model schools) proposal can be presented as legislation
the fol lmving points need to be researched in more depth .

The cost of carrying out WHY NOT in appro;dmately 20 schools in
the initial year .
The duration of the grants and how they might be renewed,
The proposal refined and organized into booklet form.
A schedule of deadlines for the participating groupJ planning
and implementation of programs, _,__
Approx imately 20 schools representing the var i ety of exisring
i nstitutions must be screen ed and briefed on the proposal;
Pre-requisite s for qualification wo~ld be a cooperative administration very intereste d in playing a larger rol e in the urba n
c ommunity.
The d r afting of a major Pre sid e ntial speech to introduce the
idea of WHY NOT.
The possibl e us e of the surroga te candidates as Pre s ide ntial
visito r s and guests at participating colleges.
The adoption of a name, ;pr the plan . WHY NOT conve ys the
challenging.,,. incentive<.!;-daring of involved youth on the campus
today. WHY NOT!
�"Colleges whose conr.ept of education stops at the walls of
ivy give little but the option of dropout to students seeking participation in the real world, In contrast, a college
that combines the opportunity for off-campus service
experiences with the opportunity for on-campus acad e mic reflection on the e xpe ri e nc e s, c a n en g ender in their students a
thirst fo r educational involve me nt complementary to their
thil'.'st for societal involvemento" 1
Proposal for a "MODEL SCHOOLS" prog ram in th e Nixon Administration to develop
and e:;cpand s e nzi!ce progr a ms involving young pe-ople o
Mr. Ni xon in his sp ee ch "Toda y 's Youth:
The Gr ea t Ge neration" said:
"Our future leadei~ship must provide our young people with a
cause to be for; a commitment to the riiht to be unique;
a dedication to social responsibility on a person - to-person
"We are not talking here about a way to work off youthful
enthusiasm; we are talking about a wa y to work in a sense
of id e alism and meanir:ig that will gr ow throughout a pe rson's
"There are 7 million college students todayo The unive rsiti e s
th e y attend are often clos e to and some tim e s contribute to,
urba n probl e mso We have s een how go ve rnment c an make use of
acad e mic facilities as "think tanks" to mo ve in on difficult
projectso Every univer s ity must become a "think tank" foi:its local community.
"In that wa y .stud ents will add re alism to their education, as
th e y bring need ed services to th e ir communities,
"Some of this is we ll und e r way in pion e e r ing colle ges · across
the country; but now it should become a way of colleg e life.
"Th e idea of br i n 6 ing th e resourc e s of youthfJl en e r gy to bear
on urba n pr oblem:i is becinning to t a k e r oot; what i s :1 eed ed now
is a na tional c ommitme nt to provid e inc e ntive a nd fin a ncin g to
th e grea t cha ll e nge fa c in g this g e ne rati on of Ame ric a ns . "
This p ropos al ou t lin e s ho w this na ti ona l commi tm e nt mi ght be start ed to be conc entrated initi a ll y a t th e educ a tion c e n ters , but g ran ts t o be
a va il a bl e to s ta t es , citi es , a nd institu t ion s whose p r oj e cts fit th e p r oposa l's guid e lin e s~
To ma r shal l th e na tiona l r es ou r ce s o f ou r youn g peop l e to conf ront ou r
s oc i a l prob l ems i n ge nera l , a nd th e u r ban p r obl ems i n par ticul ar, th e Ni xon
Ad min i st ~ation mus t be aware o f t he magn itud ~ of w~Jck that can be d one t hrough
vol un tee r st udent groups and i nd ividua l s pr i med by f ed era l f unds i n a systemat ic
a pproac h o
Th e "Mode l Schoo l s " p r ogram a t tempts t o a chi eve s e ve r-a l d i stinct r e sults:
Bring additional education resou r ces to bear on social
pro bl ems o
Prov id e a const ructi ve outlet f or th e d issat i sfaction many
s tudents f ee l with society by giving them t he oppo rtu nity
to develop and eKpand st ud ent resourc es in meaningful programs o f soc~~l va lueo
Provid,, a wort hwhile supplement t o the forma 1 education
of th e unive rsi t y,
1oon.:ild J, Eberly, " Servi l e Exirit--i e ncc an d Educnri.onal GrnwLh, 11 Ed..1cational
f143.215.248.55rJ, Sprinp, ]968.
Th e importa nce of volunt eer communit y service by students can no t be overemphasized. On e individua l helping another who is in n ee d is on e of the basic
tenets which c a n build a r evitali ze d society in our country, n ot only in the
communiti es surrounding our nation's coll eges and univ ers iti es, but in every
com~~ni ty. The suppressed radi c a li sm of yo u th cries out f or p rog r ams wh ich c an
harn ess th e ir e n ergi e s fo r social b etterme nt and wh ich rely h eavi ly on th e
principle of volun teer is m,
Many groups already e x ist th at us e stud ~ t volunteers in basic educat ion a l
(tutoring, remedial r eadi n g ), community act ion (r ecrea tion a l programs , organization of local n ews l et t ers ), and r e habilita tive ( work in mental ho sp itals,
prison s ) activities.
But many ca mp us es l ack . eve n the basic organizational
s tr uctu re , and often where it d oes exis t it suffers from a ge n era l absence of
coord ination, organi z at i on, exper i enced guidance and sufficient fu11ding.
Often the scope of a school's involveme n t in it s neighboring area d epe nd s too
much on th e e n erg i es and ti me of too f ew memb e rs o f th e univers it y com:nunity,
Ma ny c reat ive and helpful communit y programs do exist:
�Me mph is h~s a Volu nteer Service Bureau that hand l e s the placemen t of
workers in over 200 positions in 50 non -profit agencies,
Student s work with the Memphis Area Proj e ct-Sou t h which sponsors
clothe s closets to provide f am ilie s with essential clothing whe n
dis a ster hits. MAPS also over s ee s "planned parenthood" programs in South
Memphis and nutrition cl asses that give instruction in planning wellba lanced meals to the poor Blacks in Memphis.
The Huma n Opportunity Corporation in Austin has begun a foster grandparen t s ~reject. It recruits _aged low- income persons to work with r etarded
childre n.
The · Univers ity of Texas Law School ' has a Huma n Rights Research Council
staffed with law stude nts to inform low- income Negroes and 11exi can-Ame ricai:is
of their lega l ri ghts and privileges .
The Community Involveme nt Commit tee ~t the Uni vers ity of Texas at Austin
has s ubmitted recomme ndat ions for fi eld work in t he i r personne l manageme nt pr ogram to work ~ith minority groups and the hard - core unemp loye d to try to place
them in be tter jobs.
One school offers special programs fo r black stude nts before re g istration
and continui ng he lp to those who need it cturing _the acade mic year .
The Univer si ty of Chicago has allotted funds for a Summer Institute in
which bla ck student s prepare talented eighth and ninth graders for college
pre parato r y work.
Students at the University of Illinois at Ch i c ago Ci r cle provide d t ransportation one summe r for low-income childr en for t r ips to the ci ty zoos, parks
and museums.
A Community Arts Founda tion in Chicago recently star t ed a creative theatre
fo r ghetto residents and he ld productions in a lleys.
The Interdenom inationa l The ologica l Ce nter at Atlanta Uni versity has
specia l preparatory courses for fut ure ghet to ministers.
The University o f Pennsy lva nia s ponsored a program in c rim ina l l a w and
lit igation, in which students accompanied police during the ir r egular round
o f ac tiviti es and assisted pub l ic defenders . Cl ass c redit was give n for thi s
The La w School at t he Univer s ity of De troit has a l ega l aid program fo r
ghetto r eside nts.
One group works on deve loping extracurricu l ar activities within the walls
of a prison -- spor ts, chess or bridge c l ubs,music l essons, quiz t eams , mana ging
of a l iterary maga zine and the institution ne ws pa pe r, ma nageme nt of a n insti tution radio progr am for inmate education , and par ticipat ion in weekly di scussion sessions .
One student committee works with boys who are confined to a state reform
s chool in Hestbora 1 Massachuse tts,
One group~ of student tutors works with children in the thi rd and fourth
grades to he lp them t o express themse lve s be tte r, by ha ving them di ctate t a l e s
to the tutors , pound out their i dea s on old typewriters , write short poems ,
make s cience obse rvations , kee p scrap books of thoughts , and meme ntoes of trips.
One program maintai ns an up - t o -dite collection of college, busi ness and
voca tiona l s c hool ca talogue s, a librar y of informat i on on college board examinations, financial aid , and on " A Be tter Chance" and other availab le compensa tory
e ducation programs.
COPE i s a Boston organization designed spec ifi cal ly to place t eenages
· f rom l ow-income areas in insti tut ions of higher educa tion, done by represen. tati.ves from the admi~sion offices of the l oca l universities, co ll eges and
vocationa l sch ~o ls.
At one school four. qua.lified volunteers ( including one who just completed
the course ) are currently t eaching the ir second round of a 10-week computer
cl ass for ghetto r es ide nts.
�Some it ag ina t i ve tu tor s ha ve start e d a biolog y ~ea r ni ng r oom with a
group o f chil dr e n who we r e intro duce d to the wo rld of nat ure , forei g n to
their a s pha lt a nd ceme nt wor ld, by raising ge rbils, ha tching chicken s a nd
ba by spider s, a nd growing pl a nts.
A council of Intercoll eg iate Af f a irs in Boston encourages c oope r a tion
among studen t volu ntee r pr ograms engaged in simil a r activities on di ffere nt
c ampu se s.
Bost on Univers ity's s c hool of Nur s ing ha s s ough t out 27 young wome n
fro m Ro xbur y who were interes~e d in the field of nurs ing bu t who lacke d
the a c a demic crede nti a ls fo r a dm i ss ion. Th r ough a progr am , these girl s
have be en succes s f u 1 ly br oug_h t i nto the regul a r nursing pr ogram .
Boston Unive r s ity offe rs it s f a cilities for recruiti ng and training
of volu nte e rs to any outs ide orga nization.
Ha rvard Busi ne ss School stude nt~ as s ist Roxbury ghetto busine ssmen.
Some schools ha ve progr ams to pr ov ide be tter training for prospe ctive
t-eache rs who wa nt to work in ghet to schoo ls.
Membe rs of th e Michi ga n St a te Univer s ity Mar ching Ba nd, "Ba nd Bro t he rs",
offer free music lessons to childre n fro m low e conomic areas of Lansing .
In one area "Community Garde ns" were establishe d on urba n r ede ve lopme nt
land. Through the purchase of sha res, the community owns these gardens and
the crops grown on the m.
Stude nts op e rate sever a l community cooperati ve store s in the we st side
of La ns ing , Michi ga n.
A p r ogra m o f consume r ·education "SHOP ALOP' , uses student volun_te e rs t o
aid inne r -city r e side nt s in the ir shopping .
In one community, t ee nage rs f r om the inne r city we r e give n the opp o r t unit y
to ope r a t e a stud e nt-run r a dio stat ion.
One f a cul t y depar t men t spo ns o r e d a housing s tud y to de termi ne wh i ch low
co s t hou s i ng des i gns would bes t suit the ne e d s of ·the pe opl e who will i nha bit
_ One un iversit y has as a r eq ui remen t fo r th e degree o f Master of Governmen ta l
Admin i st ra tion the as s i gnme nt of s tudents to var iou s de partments o f c ity go ver nmei1t.
Temp l e University has a Vi c e Preside nt f o r Ur ban Affairs to _coo r di nate
a ll ac tivit ies wi t h the community a nd has t he r es po n~ibi l ity for a Ce nter f o r
Urba n Affairs a nd the Studen t Committee Ac t i o n Ce nter .
Proj ect .Co l l ege Bou nd is a s ix wee k s ummer program fo r Ph ila de l phia. hi gh
s choo l g raduate s f rom l ow-income background s who have been a ccepted a t co ll eges,
bu t have s pec i f i c ed ucat io na l def i c i enc i es .
Ona s choo l deve lo ped a c ou nse lo r wo rk shop -- a th ree week summer insti t ute
t o i ncrease t he pr o fe ssi ona l compe t ence of city h igh schoo l gui dance counselor s
i n their wor k wi th students f r om minor i ty gr oups.
At the University o f Pennsy l vania, the Univer s it y Counc il on Urbanism anq
Rela t ed Human Resources i s conduc ting a survey of the Un iversity's schoo l s and
research centers in deve l oping interdis ci pl i nary faculty seminar s on urban
problems and charting i un i versity wide approac h to the study of urban l ife.
The Temp le University Hospital has developed a program for lm'1-income
· mothers , giving pre -na ta l and de li very care.
A soror ity developed a charm course (make up, ha i r care, personal hygi e ne,
�posture , etc.) for children from broken or inade quate homes.
The Wharton Gradua te School of Business has a Business Practice Serv ice
to provide management s e rvice to ghetto busine ss pe ople,
One school developed a pilot program conne cting housing r e ha bilita tion with
vocational educat ion, providing pa rt-time and summer employment for high school
One University opened its olympic pool to poverty childre n duri ng the weel·
and provided in struction for ~n entire summe r.
One city' has started trave ling libraries to visit ghe tto areas.
Secretarial schools have de ve loped t e chnical-vocational courses in- clerical
skills to he lp needy girls find jobs.
One stude nt group p started a pro gr am of working with young ur ban childre n
as tutor s, playground aide,s , and group l eaders for boy a nd girl scouts. They
also work in hospitals in the escort service, as candy stripers , in feeding
pa tients and other assignments through the Red Cross. Others work with handic a pped persons, the me ntally retarde d, the deaf schoo l, and many other s.
Volunteers from MIT ha ve use d their special skills ip me cha nic s a nd science ,
for use on build i ng radios, erector set projecti, three- dbmen ~iona l maps of the
moon, airpla ne and rocket models for children.
Tutoring Plus in Boston has produced its own textbook called Tutoring
On-A-Shoe s tring".
Michi gan State Universit y has esta blished an Office of Volunteer Programs
to prov ide grea t er unive rsity support in a dvising a nd coordina ting a ll stude nt
volu ntary s ervice activities and organizations as well as to encourage the
formulation of ne w programs .
One schoo l de velope d a 13- week television cour se in Negro histo ry and
culture which was su bseque ntly reproduced f or u se in t eache r training in statesupported s c hools .
The Uni vers ity ~f Pennsylvania has a course, Urban Socia l Change a nd Huma n
De velopmen t, designe d to assis t the planning s tude nt in unde rstanding the process
o f socia l cha nge in the urba n environmen t through studying the a ttitude s of l owincome and minority popul a tions toward housing, renewa l, e ducat ion, emp l oyme nt
and welfare services. A spe cial r ead ing semina r is offered to familiarize the
planning student with interdisciplina ry l iterature on pove rty, combine d with
intens ive fie ld experiences in a criti ca l slum area near ~he University .
The State of Michigan has a divi s ion of Vo lu nteer Services . It is an in f orma tion center for all volun teer programs for a ll the coll ege s and univers iti es
in Michiga n . I t provides assistance and advice fo r individua l stude nt proj ec ts.
A state wide Gover nor ' s Confere nce is he l d a nnua lly for the di rectors of ind ivi dua I
programs a nd pro j e cts on the respective campuse s. The division does not pr ovide
p rogram monies , but p rovides ass i s t ance wherever po ss ible . Pre se ntly, the r e are
about 10 ,000 stude nt volunteer s in Michi gan at 27 different c ampuses . From this
ou ts tanding e xamp l e s e t by Mi chigan student volunteers , both Governor Romne y
and Lt. Governor Mil l iken have e ncouraged broa de r volun teer activities to be
undertake n by a ll segments of the popu l a tion.
New Yo r k City has an URBAN CORPS interns hip progr am designe d to of fer co llege
s tudents the opportunity to par ticipate first - hand in an urban society by t aking
a direct part in its administrat ion. For e l igible students, the program also
provide s a way to earn money thr ough the use of co ll ege work study fu nds . The
URBAN CORPS is administe r e d for the City of Ne w York by the Of fice of the }!a yor,
in coopera tion with the De partme nt of Per s onne l. The UR BAN CORPS is a coopera tive
ve n t u re of the City, the Fe de r a l Of fi ce of Ed uca tio~ and the par ti c ipat ing co lleges
and univers ities , Ever y ass i gnme nt i s individua lly prepared by the requesti ng
a ge nc y or de pa rtme nt, and is eva lua t e d as to its applica bili t y for a college
student inte r nsh i p pr ogram. The ma jority of a ssignme nts are within exi st · ng
a ge nc i es and depar tme ~ts, i n on - goi ng proj ec ts. Other assignme n t s make the
student a pa rt of s pec i a l t ask - f orce grou ps
Students ma y a l so be assig ned
to the centra l staff of the URBAN CORPS , working o n the administration and
operation of the program i tse l f.
that can offer qualif ying scho o ls of all si ze s g rants which would develop
service programs that offer th e pr ,)mi s e of a more cons true ti ve and 111eaningful
role both for students as ·,"c.d l as to those in "nei ghbo r ing com:nuni t ies".
The program would f ocus our soci e ty 1 s educational techniques and talents on the
problems of lif e - eith e r in our ru ra l or urba n ar ~a s.
It will not be simpl.= to qu a lify f o r g r a n t s und,~r this pr ogram . Th e
government -has neither th e means no r the desi r e to inve st public funds in an
expen s ive progra m who se net effe cts will be margina l, wasteful, o r visible only
after protract ed delay. We intend to he lR 011ly tho s e scho ols, citi e s, stat e s,
and institutions whos e pl.ans ·ce ally s e rve to help oth e rs in th e ir strugg le for
a more meaningful and productive lif e . We pr opose the following guidelines
for dete rmi n in g an a pplicant 1 s qualific a ti ons for th e be ne fits - and achi eve me nts of this progra m. Many of th ese s pe ak dir e ctly to the university educationa l structu r e, as initi a ll y , work will probably be concentrat e d here. But
the over riding gen e ralities of r e alistic and co1npl e te planning will apply to
al 1.
The success that each de monstration progra m can have will dep e nd on the
quality of its pl.an11ing , and the degree of cooperation it elicits from the
variou s gov ernme n t al bodi e s concern ed (i.e . students, ad1ninistration, faculty,
community bodi e s, "Mod e l Ci tie s !' pe opl e , and those in local Urban Coalitions)
as well as private int e r e sts . Th e abs e nc e of this coop e ration be twe en contiguous
areas is was te ful, as we ll as blind to th e reality of urban lif e .
Service activities propo se d should respo nd to th e real nee ds of the
community, by indicating a r e l e vanc y to the community give n the r ea liti es of
the env ironme nt.
Adeq ua te ide n t ification mus t be ma de , of the a reas which would be be st
s e rve d thr ough studen t he lp in th e community , schoo l s , r ec r ea tion c e nters , me dical a nd me nta l hospit a ls, a nd proba tion de par t me nt s .
Lo ng t erm goa ls shou ld stre s s the e nc ou race me nt of commu nity r esi de nts
to wor k wi th exi sti ng educati o na l in st itu t io ns to deve l op ne w p r ograms espec i a ll y
in the t echnica l - voca tio na l fi e ld .
Pr o grams s houl d be des i gne d t o nurt u re ghetto residen t s with recognize d
ab i l ity -- i nte l lectua l , acade mic , art i stic, o r ath l e t ic.
The pr ograms should foster the deve l opmen t of l ocal and priva t e in i t i a tive
and widespre ad citi ze n parti c ipation in the pla nn i ng a nd execution of t he pro gram.
Lo ca l commun ity g roups shou ld be encouraged to eventually deve lo p and
finance their own p rog rams, and where po ssi ble peo ple in the commun ity sh ou l d
be t ra ined to co n ti nue th e spe c ifi c educationa ~ o r recreational proj ec t.
Contact shou ld be made with l ocal c ommunity agenc i e s and school systems
to i nsure program coordination with th e p re se nt communi t y activities.
Student s should have a hand in assessing the nature of the servi ce required and def i ning the t ask to be do ne.
Consideration ~hould be given to involv i ng adolescents in tutoring and
counse ling youngPr chi ldren for the ir mutual be nef it ,
The program planne d should be consistent with successful programs of the
pas t, as well as integrated into what they are now doing.
Experiences of often ovcrlo . ,-..d organizations lil·e the YNCA should he
ul"i l i 7.ed.
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There should be sufficient pl a nning for projects to continue annually.
The progr am should be manned in each area by a single authority with
adequa te powers to carry out and coordinf:l te all pha s es of the program . There
must be a serious comm itme nt to the proj e ct on the par t of school and loca l
There should be adeq uate professiona l sup erv ision, as we ll as ade quate
orientation and tr aining, of the neede d volunteers, and possible use of fulltime
social workers explored.
"Tutoring" progr ams should include· · information guidance cou nse ling, family
services, school-home li a iso n, referrals, motivation - building, and r ecrea~iona l
Emphasis on volunteerism should be evident and the areas where salaries
are necess a ry made very e xplicit.
There should be evidence that the appropriate depart me nts and groups
within the university have been cont ac ted to seek support for the propo se d program.
The program ·should reflect an attempt to make full use of the university
structure, not only its stude nts, but scientists, economists, a;chitects, mathematicians, as well as buildings, athletic fields and libraries. Attempts must be
made to focus resea r ch resources on problems facing the city, such as traffic
congestion, air pollution, housing, transportation, public health, etc.
Where possible a joint effort, e xcha nge , or coordina tion of programs with
ne ighboring schools should be made.
Lectures and spec ial programs should be o pen to the community and
scheduled with some att en tion to t~e ir inter es t and nee ds, e.g., a Black
American series .
Evaluation of tuto r ial pr ograms should be made throu gh a , ptitude
and psyc holog ica l testing.
Pl ans should indic a te an awareness of e x isting Fede r a l programs which
could provide financial sup port, and of t echn iques and projects which have provided .suc cessful examp l es in other areas of the countr y .
In stitutiona l support should be available as needed, wi th a posaible
seque ntial developmen t a lo ng these li nes:
a) an initi a l comm itment to the educationa l value of
prop~r ly e xe cuted service exper ience;
b) ia~u l ty assistance in training and orient atio n;
c ) pos ~ible futu re provisions for academic credit for
se rvice e xperienc e;
d ) sufficient finan c ial ba cking should be available so
as to perm it al l students to pa rt icipate;
e ) greater use should be made of work ~study fu nd s in pro jects tha t both soc ially produc tive as we ll as financ ially
remunera tive to students ;
f) greater use should be made of work - study fu nd s for off.
campu s work, both du r i ng the a c ademi c ye ar, as we ll as duri ng summer .
We recomme nd that participa ting groups rec e i ve two types of feder a l assistance :
special grants be mad 0. for progra ms to group s whose plans
jus tify th e expenditure and fJ lfill the guid el ines of this
proposal and give pr omise of a me ani ng ful impac t on those
par ticipating .,
that a ll available gr ant s a nd urban aids in th e fields of
educ a tion, we lfare , economic tunity, and relat e d pro·grams be c o ntinu e d o r eK pand e d where justified .
Pl a ns wi ll b e revie we d by a nationat office according to the pr ec e ding
prerequi s it es. The n at i onal office wil l be s ta ff ed with p eop le kn ow l edg eab l e
about th e available f ed e ral funds as we ll as with ind iv ijual s experienced in
th e pl a nnin g and i mp l ementat ion of volun teer programs.
The research staff will have as its duti e s the gathering and dis t ribution
of all in f,::irmation that :nay b e of u se to submittin g bodies, as we l 1 as the
plannin g and organizing of r e l evant national and r egicinal s e minars and confe rences on student social-work activities .
Sma ll pamphl et s, educational materia l s a nd t he results of trainin g conf ~ r e nc es an d lead er s hip wo rkshops would be pr ovi d ed to n ew and eKpandi~g
organi z~t ion s , or to thos e who wished to improve th e quality of th eir prog ram .
Ano t h e r impor tant aspect of the in f ormat ion ga t he rin g function w6u ld c onc ern th e financing of s p-3 c i a l s t ud e nt pr o j ects . A stud c,1t g r oup int e re s t e d in
workin g with th e me nta ll y ill at a l oc a l ho sp :i.t a l would b e able t o obtain fro m
this offi.c e infor1nation as to th e funding programs in vari ou s g~ive rnm,~nt
a genci es which might be appr upri a t e for its financin g . Th e office wou ld also
assist th e stud e n t group i n p re parini th e pr oposa l fo r fede ra l fund s .
Fund s wi ll b e re quir e d to ass is t participating gro up s in the i mp l eme n tation s of th eir mod e l d i:,rnon.stra tion pl ans. We sh0ul.d n ,, t u11der c s t -L11a te t h e
probl ems nor the f in anc ial n eedR involved in ach i e v i ng th e s e plan s . Th e very
sc a l e o f the d e monstrat i on a nd it s wi d espr ead eff e cts on th e soci a l s t ruct u r e
of a corn,nun i ty calls fo r coo r dination of th e com:nuni t y ' s pl. an ni:ig and a dmin istrative resour c es on an unp reced 2nted scale.
The app ro p r iate Fe d e ra l co n tribution t o this planning and i mp l e menta t i on
effort woul. d be _ _ __ _ ______ milli on th e year, gr;:rwL1g in in cr. 2rne n ts of
_ _ ___ __ mil li on p e r year.
Th e scope and d epth of the work don e by univ ers ities, cities, states,
or instituti ons will often require detail ed planning, financi a l assistance,
and study .
But th e r e are man y things that could b e d one by our exc e ption~ l people
in th eir mid-teens in s e condary schools th at can also have a massive effect,
such as working as tutors in their communit ies in some of the remedial
subjects, in secretarial fields, in hom e econom ics, and in the technical
studies as we ll as art, music, et c.
Th e President should ur ge ea ch Congr essman to communicat e with the
high schools in his district about the great n ee d for thes e projects.
The nation a l r esear ch staff of the "model schools"· could provid e " information
for these sc hool s.
Con gressmen would propose "mod e l" high school's each year
and th e ir services projects for con s id eratio n of Presidential awards .
Giv e n
the att e ntion and priority, this could b e a very ben e ficial program, both
in terms of th e community work and the recognition of the ear l y maturation
of today's younger gen e ration .
The Presid e nt through th e re s earch staff and evaluation board would
make v e ry pre s ti g~ous awards to tho se groups who durin g a year's time
initiat e progra ms mo s t e xempl ary of th e "model school's" guid e lin e s.
It would be ca ll ed th e
- - - - -awa rd, a nd c oul d involve a Pres id e nti a l
visit, a Pre sid e ntia l dinner, or a contribu t ion of Pre sid e ntial books or
res earch mat er ial.
To qu,alify g roups must:
show si gns of ma j o r achi e veme nt of be ne [ i t to th e s u r roundin g
show si gns of mas sive stud en t invol vement.
have produc ed a ction tha t is r e c e n t and a r e sult · -0f a
"mod e l s c hools" program.
Succ e s s ful action and innova tion, not pe rfection or completeness, will
be th e r ea l crit e ri a .
Fina li s t s would be chos en by a n impa rt i a l boa rd , a nd th e ir sp oke sman
woul d come to Was hington for a conf e r e nce a nd ~r e sen t a t ion of t h e i r prog r a m.·
Gr ea t e r u s e by th e Pres id e nt of f a cult y -stud e nt pri zes c ould a ls o be
u sed in a r eas , one part icul ar indi v idu a l f a c ul ty membe r or st ud e nt did or
i n i t i a t ed some pa rt i c ul ar l y i nnova tive id e a or p rog r a m by u s i ng a n educ a t i ona l
t a l ent or t echniqu e on a soci a l pro~ l em.
Th ese r e wa rd s woul d be v e r y impor t a n t t o g e ne r a t e t h e stud e n t-schoo l
ac t ion t hat i s n eed ed, to s tress l oca l invo l ve me nt , a nd to s t r ess t he n eed
for th e t eamwo r k approach t o th e pro bl ems .
The character of the urban university is weakest in the area of
communication and integration. There is a lack of communication both
within the university's structure and between the university and thos~
who can effectively utilize its assistance.
Integration goes hand in hand with communication in these areas.
If integration seldom exist s within academic institutions, it rarely
exists within its community. There is an ever increa sing need for the
univers ity t o pla y a more dive r sified; pa rticipa ting r ole.
Higher education is often a symbol of medieval isolation, with
the unive rsity insulated in its castle from the surro~nding environment.
When a university doe s cross the moa t to involve itself with the co1~munity, the r e sults are oft e n uneven, f ragmentary and uns ystema t ic.
The emphas is of education rema ins on the wr itten word . In thi s cha ngeoriented society the "PhD" · and a long str·ing of publications seems
negative l y corre l a ted with problem solving capability. This program
"Why Not" or "Model Schoo l's", suggests tha t the focus of educati on
needs to be shifted awa y from the "print " to the problem.
The pur po s e of educa tion is primari ly to pr~pare the student to mee t
the d ema nd s of h i s world. Stud ents r ecogni ze the need f or a more
relevant educationa l experience. And the community demands a more
invo lved university. Both need the university to become a more active
agent in problem s o lving and direct service. But in spite of all the
r e c e nt encouragement from the citizens and students , the university
continues its aloof r o le and a t times ignores its r e s ponsibilities.
The pover ty of an area breeds a psycho l og ica l handicap fo r a ll
ethnic groups. Welfare mo thers and f a the rs without j obs fr e quently
transfer the ir own guilt f ee lings to the ir child ren , and schoo l s ofte n
under line the children's uncer t ainty.
It is her e t ha t the fa cili ties of t he univer s ity and the
avai l abl e manpower of s tudents c an have a l arge i mpact .
The proposal s and requirements of "Why Not" (model schools )
address t hemsel ves t o t he ful l integration of the universi ty ' s r esources
.. i n sol ving the urban problem. The development of incr eased student
· _power and intensifi ed s tudent participation support our bel ief tha t
t radi t ional wa l ls mu s t be br oken down, both withi n the univers i t y
and t he surrounding communit y, in t he effort t ~ bring about a more
humane urban environment .
.. .· . To break down these wa lls and escape f rom the f eudal armor
of the cas tle-and- the-moat, univ er si t y admini s t rat or s and facul t y
must begin t o conceive of the universi t y a s a t otal socia l ins t i tuti on
which i s di ff er ent f rom the aggr ega t e coll ection of departments and
colleges . They mus t deve l op with the s t udents a balance bet ween t he
educational programs and basi c research , . social advocacy and problem
solving. It i s for them t o devel op a bal ance bet ween s cholars and
int el l ec tual a ct ivist s , be t ween student-orient ed pr ofess ors and
communi ty- orient ed problem s olver s . This ba l ance and coordina t ion
must be concept ual as well as or ganiza t ional t o succeed.
Thi s academic movement must be with t he assi s t ance of
student and communit y advice . The large bra in t r us t s of uni versiti e s
are becoming l i ke the f eder al government, bas tions of bureaucracy
wher e many people be come l ost. WHY NOT can dev elop conta ct be tween
the "l i ttl e people " , the university , and t he government. And the
link between all of t hese can be t he s tudent .
�Student tutorial programs already exist across the country and
provide a perfect link with the community upon which the university can
build. Tutorials are b e nficial to all parties involved if these parties
involved 1$:fr,q;,~*'. _ .,;m are given a role in the planning . and
supervision. Many successful tutorials have been initiated by local
residents. The r e sidents 6f a ghetto in Cambridge, Massachusetts,
created Tutoring Plus.
In the summer of 1964, a group of teenagers met
with a few older neighborhbod youths who were attending college.
All were trying to answer the questi"'on- of why a smal 1 number of the ~,.
older youths had made it to college while few of the rest had even
finished high school. Tutoring Plus now involves M.I.T. students, the
Polaroid Corporation, and Christ Church in Cambridge. The successful
example of Tutoring Plus points the way for the university, the city,
and WMY NOT.
In an increasingly open and secular ~ [ society, young people are
concerne d with their own identity, the nature and quality of their society '
and their relation to men everywhere. Tutorials bring a share of
awareness and individual identity to both tuto'r and tute e.
youths often feel unable to deal with their environment, m~ch less
change it. This alienatmon is often translaged into a self-fulfilling
hostility towards any future efforts at personal or niighborhoos
This alienation can be overcome by student volunteers running
their own programs in conjunction with n e ighborhood community groups
and parents. Stud en t-run tutoring programs have inherent flexibility
which enables them to b e revised constantly to me et individua l needs.
They can ope rate with little of the stigma attach e d by adolescents to
schools and agency sponsore d programs.
First of all, the stude nt volunt eer is not too much older than
the individuals th ey work with, thus contributing to a sense of c onrad eship and und ersta nding be tween tutb t and tutee. Secondly, the college
stude nt, by his very pres e nce, is likely to provide the youth with a
role model whi ch is not memely a pastiche of guidance couns e lor
cliches but one which can communicate directly with the youth,
overcoming a great deal of their time, energy, and thought, to the
int erpe rsonal relationships that are an integra l part of any advanceme nt'
activity. The stud e nt, merely by his presence at coll e ge, is likely
to have acc es s to all types of informa tion his tutee may reque st.
Many problems of stud e nt programs can be overcome with the active
interest and participation of the univ e rsity. The natu re of a stud e nt's
lif e , at first not much to do and then to o much, ccn work to the disadvantage of th e se programs.
Some substitut e fo r mo ney is necessary to
encourage st e ady participa tion.
Course credit is the logical sugge stion .
Very few schools give credit for und e rgradua t e field work, but the
majority of schools do for gra dua t e s. This disc repanc y n eeds to b e
cha nged.
The successful chara ct er istics of stud en t vo lunt eer programs are
relevant to any larger e ffort at communit y and ilinivers it y invo l vement .
P roje cts must b e initiat e d on a sma ll scale with supervision ref l ect ing
cons ult at i o n with university, co mmun i ty, stud ents, city and private
enterpr is e . Projects sho uld also be allowed to dev e lop slowly to fin d
Imme diate funding of uninvestia dequate and respo nsible lo ca l l ead er s .
gated pro j ec ts may end in misspent funds , which could severely d amage
the entire effort.
Quality planning i s most important. Freedom of
progrsm selection must b e guarant eed to each l ocale. Student committees
must remain in.control of volunteer programs with local citizens.
Experience has shown that properly run vol~nt eer programs attract
the sincerest and high e st qua lit y w~rker~.
And that the introduction
of remuneration often alienates the socially motivated and attract s the
organizttionai joiner or job hunt er. The quality of seriice then
drops. Public do-gooders with their weekend house painting serve
only to irritate the ghetto resident.
�~~------·-- -
-- - - -- - -
Tutori a l pr ograms are only a fraction of wha t a univ e rsity can do
in an urban c e nter. Not only do courses need to be chang ed to r e f~ect
,urban probl e ms but new priorities and policies need to be stated, Why
should a city have to employ outside economists or ma~imaticians whe n the
univ e rsity's are availabl e ? Why should computers and programmers be
hired whe n limitless rea e arch hours are available on campus waiting
direction? WHY . NOT could use· the univ e rsity faciliti e s in the summe r,
its athletic fields~ museums, lec t ure rooms , its bus e s, pools and
tennis cou r ts. WHY NOT could . work with th e city's and th e citiz e ns'
needs through the univ e rsity's reso u r c e s. The "mode l s chool s " pr ogram would
show that the governme nt and the university are willing to giv e a gre ater
responsibility to the stude nt. No J.onier- would there be e{lack of communication within the univ e rsity and between the university and thos e who
can effectiv e ly utilize its assistance. No longe r would s e gre ga tion- e x ist
betwe en depa rtme nts, students, the community and the univ e rsity. WHY NOT
seeks to coordinate and redir.ect th·e energies of education to problem
sol~ing within tqe city and to problem solcing training for the stud e nt.
Can we prepare our students t o fac e that cha ll e nge be tt e r if we
make working .in i t part of their education, ma ybe even for cre dit?
Can we go be yond the r e s e arch and pr oblem-solving with our colleague s in
the community of ins ti tut ions, and relat e ourselv e s to our ghe tto neighbors .·
to improve their environme ntal condition? Can we even go be yond the poorly
developed programs and technologies of today and d e velop new V$Sions of
ne ighborhood life to which both residential and university communities
contribute? Is it possibl e that th e urban univ e rsity can become a mo re
vi Lal mover in all of its missions by making th.i s att e mpt? WHY NOT.
In a
sub-syst e ms,
trend. Will
soci e ty charact e ri zed by acc e lerating cha nge in all of its
th e problem sol v ing u r ban un i ve r $ ity s eems an ine vit a bl e
we be forced t o it, or will we anticipa t e ev e nts and take
That is the que stion. -n,ie an swe r is WH Y NOT.

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