Box 12, Folder 6, Document 35

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Box 12, Folder 6, Document 35

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U.S . DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
FEDERAL WATER POLLUTION CONTROL ADMINISTRATION
PERTINENT AREAS FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
STORM ·AND COMBINED SEWER POLWTION CONTROL
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Ma.y,
1967
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The problem of pollution from storm and combined sewers is one
which has only recently begun to receive pro~er emphasis as a signif i cant pollution source. There are in the United States CNer 1900
·... commun:l.ties with combined or partially combined sewerage systems
serving some 59 million people.
The discharge of polluting wastes from storm drainage systems
and overflows from combined sewers serves as a distinct challenge to
the ingenuity of minicipal officials, consulting engineers, universities
and corporations engaged in research and development, as well as equipment manufacturers. Polluting discharges from combined storm and
sanitary sewers occur during wet-weather periods when the carrying
capacity of the sewers is exceeded due to the large amounts of storm
water entering the sewers. The normal, or dry weather flow is prevented
from overflowing continuously by means of CNerflow weirs, mechanical
regulators, valves and other devices. They permit CNerflows to occur
when sewer flows reach a predetermined level.
Separation of the storm water from the sanitary sewage can be
at least a partial answer to the problem since if the systems are
completely separated the most concentrated waste load can be conveyed
to and treated at the waste treatment plant. We have come to recognize
in recent years, however, that surface runoff also contains significant
amounts of pollutants - some cases nearly as much as sewage - so
that separation of sanitary wastes is now believed to be only a ·partial
solution to the total problem.
Congress had these factors in mind when the current storm and
combined sewer pollution control demonstration grants were authorized.
Section 6 (a) (1) of the Federal Water Pollution Act authorizes"---grants to any State, municipality, or intermunicipal or interstate
a gency for the purpose of assisting in the development of any project
which will demonstrate a new or improved method of controlling the discharge into any waters of untreated or inadequately treated sewage or
other wastes from sewers which carry storm water or both storm water
and s ewage or other wastes----." The Federal Government can provide
up to 75 percent of the estimated reasonable cost of individual research,
development and demonstration projects. The applicant must provide
assurances that local funds are or will be available to pay for the
remainder of the cost. Application for contract support for pertinent
research and development projects will also be considered.
The necessary application forms and more detailed information
concerning the Program can be obtained by writing toz
Offi ce of Research a nd Development
Federal Wat er Pollution Control Administration
U.S. Depart ment of the Interi or
633 I ndiana Ave nu e , N. W.
Washingt on , D. C. 20242
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By wa:y of assisting those who wish to participate in the task
of controlling or abating pollution from storm and combined sewers
the following outline of technical areas for which applications
a.re desired is provided:
A.
DRAINAGE AREA CONTROL
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Reduce and regulate stormwater input to sanitary sewers
a.
Diversion of surface runoff to the ground water by
altering and controlling land use to increase infiltration
1. Reduction of impervious areas - increasir.g open spaces
2. Terracing and otherwise reducing land slopes through
landscaping
3. Planting grasses, trees and shrubbery
4. Reducing extent and time of exposure of bare earth
during land development and construction
b.
Shallow pervious basins for percolation to ground water
or use sprinklers
c.
Ground water disposal wells (injection & others)
d.
Reduction of ground water infiltration to sewers
1. Development of better methods of determining location
and extent of sewer infiltration
2. Development of better sewer joints, lateral connections,
etc.
3. Development of better methods of repairing existing
lines, making new installations and closing of abandoned
connections
e.
Storage of stormwater runoff
l. Temporary storage of stormwater at building or immediate
area through us e of holding tanks, seepage pits, rooftops, or b ackyard storage (detention) facilities. Regulated discharge from storage to the groundwater, a
watercourse, or s ewer system.
2 • . Stormwater collection sumps (neighborhood) with regulated
dis charge to sewer system ( includes storage facility under , ,
streets)
3. "Upstream." storage or other control methods to decrease
runoff effect on lower portions of the system
4. Stormwater storage in urban area surface lakes, ponds,
caverns, for subsequent discharge to watercourse or
sewer systems
5. Storage and operating characteristics necessary for
snowmelt runoff
6. Reuse of stored water for irrigation, street cleaning,
sewer flushing and other purpos.es
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2.
3.
Eliminate discharge of sanitary sewage and other wastes
to storm sewers
a.
Eliminate illicit connections of sanitary sewers where
separate sewers exist
b.
Reduce groundwater infiltration to storm sewers
c.
Separation and collection of concentrated waste materials
on the surface for discharge to sanitary or industrial
waste sewers. (Animal waste,. industrial materials and
waste projects, sludges, etc.)
Reduce solids in storm runoff
a.
Soil erosion control .
1. Highway, street, and utility construction methods
and practices changes
2. Use of solids retaining pon~, basin, or other type
unit with necessary treatment
3. Grass seeding and other type plant coverage of exposed
earth
b.
Improved street cleaning and urban "housekeeping" methods
to prevent solids from reaching the sewers
4. Pre-treatment of water entering storm sewers
B.
a.
Disinfection only
b.
Primary clarification With modifications (With and
without chlorination or other type disinfectants)
c.
Lagoons, ponds, tanks with solids holding capacity
for given period
d.
Filtration
e.
Tr eatment for nutrient removals
f.
Tr eatment or storage in cat ch basins
g.
Other t reatment methods and pr ocesse s or combination s
of the above including chemic al t reatment
COLLECTION SYSTEM CONTROL
1.
Improvements in gravity s ewer system
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2.
a.
Catch basin improvements including operation and
maintenance practices
b.
Sewer planning and control s to regulate time of flow
during heavy stormwater periods, including sewer
flood flow routing techniques, travel time, etc.
c.
Improved sewer shapes and materials to improve flow
conditions, (lower1 "n") better sewer connections and
manhole flow channels
d.
Increase trunk and interceptor design capacity
e.
Improved system design methods utilizing best hydrological practices
Special conveyance syst ems
a.
Limited s eparation of combined sewers with express
sewer construction for sanitary waste
b.
Partial separation
1. Separate drains f or streets, yards, parking lots,
n ew buil dings, etc.
2. Phased s eparation of sewer systems in all n ew areas
to be sewered and redeveloped. While this method
could have significant long-range beneficial effects,
demonstration grants for separation of sewers are not
envision ed
3. Preventing stormwater flows in s eparate systems :from
b ei ng discharg ed to combined sewer s
c. Separ ation of sanitary s ewage and use of s eparate s ewer
i ns i de l arger s ewers where available to convey sewage
to treatment plant
3.
d.
Us e of vacumm conveyance systems..: :for -sanita.ry sewage . _.
& s olid wastes
e.
Others
Redu ce peak flows
a.
b.
Di ver sion of exc ess flow f rom combined sewer to ext ernal
fac ilities f or storage and regulat ed feed back to syst em
f or t reat ment
In-line treat ment to improve f low c ondit i ons
c.
In-line detention through use of enlarged segment of
sewer
d.
In-sys t em detent ,i on of waste and stormwater through
telemetering or other t ype signaling systems with
remote control on flow.
Reduction in water use through improvements in plumbing
fixtures
e.
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4.
5.
C.
Reduce in.filtration and exf'iltration
a.
Development of improved methods of locating sewer
leaks; checking out new sewers, laterals and house
lines
b.
Development of new and better methods and materials
for making sewer repairs, closing abandoned openings
and construction in general
c.
Development of methods of sealing sewers in place,
internally and externally, to reduce infiltration .
d.
Improved means of implementing control of illicit
"clearwater" connections to sewers
Systems analysis and control methods
a.
In-line (internal) storage with telemetering and
remote or automatic flow control
b.
External storage in tanks, ponds, etc. for feed back
with automatic control system
c.
In-system routing of stormwaters to utilize full storage
capacity of system and subsequent treatment
d.
Others and combinations of (a), (b), (c) (Including
periodic dry weather flushing to move solids deposited
in sewers, and better sewer maintenance in general)
EXTRANEOUS (EXTERNAL) DISCHARGE CONTROL
1.
Treatment of combined sewer overflow
a.
Tr eatment at or near point of overflow
of conventional type primary treatment
tanks, l agoons with chemical treatment
Other type s of treatment facilities or
through us e
units or ponds,
and chlorination.
processes .
b.
Use of subter ranean holding basins with treatment
f aciliti es
c.
Expansion or additions to existing t re atment plant s to
treat exc ess flow
d.
Nut rient rem.oval
e.
Treatment with re t urn of conc entrat e to interceptor for


f'urther treatment at sewage treatment plant


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2.
D.
Treatment of stormwater runoff
a.
Sma.1.J. drainage area plants vs. central plant utilizing
new or improved methods of treatment
b.
Utilization of upstream storage to cut peaks and
control plant input
c.
Pre-treatment and direct ground water replacement
d.
Irrigation by spreading, spray or other methods
e.
Treatment and use as supplement to raw water supply
f.
In-line treatment
g.
Others
MISCELLANEOUS
l.
Determination of economic feasibility study of separation
vs. combined sewer system and local vs. central treatment
facilities for overflow and stormwater.
2.
Development and demonstration of new or improved accurate
instruments for flow measurement and water quality monitoring.
3.
Development and demonstration of improved techniques of hydrologic analys es, to determine re asonable accurate r ainfall runoff relationships. Compilation of sources of existing
data and development of improved statistical methods.
4. Management techniques geared to optimize control_ and/ or
treatment through utilization of new methods. ·
5,
Development of improved construction materials and methods
6. Development of performance criteria needed in relationship
to stream wat er quality s tandards
I t should b e noted that the above outline i s not considered to be
all-inclusive, since there may b e numer ous completely or i gi nal i deas
which could b e added -- some of which may be more significant than any
of those listed, Submiss i on of such ideas to t he Federal Water Pollution
Control Administration is strongly encouraged.
Some of t he t echnical areas out lined are currently under evaluation
by means of either grant or contract projects, for exam.pler Most of the
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more conventional storage techniques including the use of tanks with
pump-back to the interceptor, surface storage ponds, treatment lagoons
are underway. More unique applications of storage principals such as
localized "upstream" storage to prevent overloading of "downstream"
sewers need further development. The use of chlorine to disinfect
storm and combined sewer discharges· is included in several projects,
therefore new disinfection techniques suitable for application to
high volume -- short duration flows need exploration. Similar
examples can be found in any of the major technical areas listed.
The brief descriptions of existing demonstration projects will
serve as additional examples of work being done. Any further duplication
of these control methods will be minimized as much as possible to permit
activation of projects designed to explore technical areas not now being
evaluated. Some duplication will be in order so as to provide evaluation
of function under a suitable variety of hydrological conditions.

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