Box 12, Folder 30, Document 52

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Box 12, Folder 30, Document 52

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HARV ARD UNIV ERSITY
Augu s t 1, 19 6 7
THE POLICE CHALLENGES AND CHANGES IN AT LANT A
by
H. T. J enkins
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Sinc e the beginning of modern day local gove rnment, as we know it, th e
polic e powe r ha s be en the v e hicl e that e nforces the w i shes
of local officials.
The p olic e powe r i s a t w o ~e dge sword and when it is misuse d , it c ause s
local governments to fail to furnish th e service th at it wa s
d es i gne d t o furnish a ll o f its citi zens.
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O riginally p olic e services we r e furnish ed b y volunteers and local citize ns
und e r th e supe rvi s io n of a J u s tic e of th e P eace.
This was known as th e "hue and cry 11 systerr1 th a t d epend e d u pon th e fr i ends
and re l atives of t he v i ctims of crime, to apprehend and
p rosecut e th e perp e trators.
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In 1829 Sir Robert Peal e org anized the Metropolitan London Police
D e p artment and l a id the foundation on what is based
all metropolitan police systern.s of the free w orld today.
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This was the first tin.1. e that a local govermnent en1.ploye d a full tiine uniform
polic e forc e and accepte d all of the responsibility to
pre vent cri1ne and to arrest and prosecute all law
violators.
Thi s system provide d · for a division of uniform officers, or constab l es
as th ey were call e d at that ti1ne, to patrol and to furnish
a day watch and a night watch , also a plain cloth e s or
detective division;
The duti es and responsibilities of th e police has ch a n ge d very littl e sinc e
th a t time and are d e signed t o maint a in th e p eace and good
ord e r, to pr eve n t c rime , to prot e ct l ife and prop e rty, to
. enfo r c e th e l aw and t o g u ar antee the £re e do1n of th e indi v idua l.
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The A1ne rican cop that you see working his b eat today 3 gets his nickname
from the abbreviationof "Constable of Police ' 'c
This system has be e n ch ange d and expande d continuously by adding
specialized s e ction s , such as police training, traffic
control, fing erpr i nting , crime l ab or ator ies, community
relations , cri1ne comn,issions and n,any othe rs.
The great est deterent to crime and the 1nost effective crime p revention
program re1nains the Night Watch and the Day Watch
by qualifie d unifor m police officers.
The mos t important funct i o n of a police d epar tment to successfully 1ne e t
chang ing condition s tod a y 3 are polic e r e cruihn e nt a nd
police trainingc
The odor e Roo s e v e lt r e c o g ni z e d thi s rn 1895 w h e n h e was Police Corrun i ss ion e r
of N ew Yor k City a nd o rgani z e d the fi rs t polic e a c ade m y,
o r the fi r s t p olic e t rai ning p rogram for a l ocal c it y poli ce
d e part m e nt.
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The police d e partn1ent that has b een mo s t succ e ssful in.me eting the
challeng e of today, ar e those d e parhne nts that have the
~best tr a ining progran 1, and a r c best pr e pared to meet





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changing conditions from. day to dayo
The Atlanta Polic e Departme nt h a s not b ee n up to full authoriz e d strength
for many years, for th e siinple reason that a young r:nan,
who 1s qualifie d to m eet the high standards of the police
d e p a rhne nt i s not willing to subj e ct him s e lf to th e dan ge rs
and th e h azar d s of th e job, or subj e cting hi1-nse lf and hi s
family constantly to i nv es tig a tion s, ridicul e and critici sm.
H e c an ear n a b e tt e r liv i ng fo r h e and hi s f a1-nily a n d e njoy a b ett e r a n d
mor e pl e a sant life by follo w ing some othe r v o c ation.
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To fill t h e s e v a c a n c i es an d t o p rovi d e th e n e cessary cov e r ag e a n d p a t ro l , th e
Atl a nt a Poli c e D e p a rt me nt h as a dopt e d one - m a n p a tr o l ca r s •
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This is a highly controvers i a l subject and has brought great criticisrn to
th e chie f of policeo
This is a subject th at is quit e oft e n n1isunder stood and often e1notio.n ally
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contro lled.
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When a polic e offic er is injured or killed in line of duty, it gets lots of
publicity and there are those who sincerely beli e ve th e
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incident would have been prevented by t wo ~man patrol
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cars, but the facts do not support this belief
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We adopt e d th e on e- m a n patrol cars for th e follo w ing reasons:
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The records , both loc a lly and nationally, w ill show that mor e polic e
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o ffic e r s ar e kill e d in t w o - n1. a n p a trol cars than i n one - m an
patrol car s .
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A 1na j ority of the call s an swere d by th e polic e , d o not r e quir e any action
by th e p o lic e , only r e qui re counc ili ng a n d g i ving o f adv ice.
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When a police offic e r needs to call for assistance, he has twice the
numb er of u n it s to call on, and h e can get n1.ore help
quic ker th a n h e could otherwise.
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It is good sound polic e 1na.nage1nent that requires an officer to do his
f.
o wn thinking, to use his iniative and imagination, and to
d evelop a hi g h e r d egree of performance
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For the Atlanta Polic e D e parhnent to arbitrarily adopt the h v o-m an
patrol, would cause the nUJnb e r of patrol unit s and th e
police service to b e cut ·. 1 h a lf, or it v-rnuld require a ll
police p e r sonne 1 to w ork seven d ays p er week, in stead
of five days.
To ove rcome t hes e and other handicaps, the city i s c on stantly striving
t o inc r ea se pol ic e com p e n s a tion and fring e b e n e fit s ,
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which 1nak e p o lice s e rvic e s extr e m e ly e x p e n s ive fo r the
t axp a y e r .
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This requires complete coope ration and understanding behveen the business
c01n1nunity and the city officials.
The needs and increased demands for additional city services has confronted
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our city with a l a rg e financial proble1n
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This is cornplicate d by the r e fusal of the state government to allow the city
to broade n its t a x bas e .
Th e main source of income for the city is from ad valore1n taxe s.
It i s b e lieve d by mos t t a x exp e rts that r e a l est a t e a nd p e r s o n al propert y
is alr e ady b e ing tax e d to its li1n it.
A r ecent s u rve y by th e N a tion a l L e agu e of Cit i es p re dict e d that Ame r ic a n
citie s w ill e x p e rie 1}ce a r e v e nue d e fici enc y of 262 billion
doll a r s i n t h e n e x t t e n y ear s .
C r i m e agai ns t p rope rty and c r i m e a g ain s t th e p e rs on continu e s to i ncr ease
y ear by y e ar ~ w hi l e the p rot e c ti o n of l i fe and p r o pert y b e co1ne s
m o r e complicate d a n d e x p e n s i v e .
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There is no corrunon cause for crime , the refore there is no con~mon cure,
but a con1bination of 1nany things.
The records will show that n~ost crim.e s are com1nitte d by repeaters,
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persons who hav e already been tried and convicted
of a similar crime.
They have escap e d or they are out on bond, or the y are on probation or
parole.
I had an opportunity r e c e ntly to t e sti fy befor e a Cbngr e ssional Committe e
that was holdin g h earing s on "The Safe Str eet and
Crime Control Act.
The City of Atl ant a support e d this act 100%, but I we nt eve n furth e r
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I look e d for w a rd to th e d a y w h e n the U. S. Ju s tic e D e partme nt and th e
U. S. Cong r e s s w ill say to eve ry city polic e d e p ar t m e n t ,
r egardl e ss of i ts si z e -
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If your departnlent meets all the p r ofessional standards in police
recruibne nt~ police pay, poli~e tr a ining, and
polic e supervision, the F ederal Governnlent w ill
contribute a p e rcentag e of your annual budget .. -
it should b e about 50%.
The . greatest obj e ctions to this is the fear of c entral or fed eral control.
I was aske d reeently in Washington if I was adv ocating a national police
forc e.
Well, I am not a d vocating a national police forc e, but th e thought of it
do es not fri ghten me any 1nore.
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Th e Atlanta Polic e D e partment devot e s most of its tim e and effort in
enfor cing state and fed e ral l a w s, rathe r than city
ordina nc e s.
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To enfor ce f e d e ral l aws , it i s n e c e s sary to a cc e pt a cert a i n a m ou nt of
fed er al co nt r ol and to foll ow f e d er al pro ce du res.
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We have no choic e in these rn.att e rs now , and personally. I have no
obj e ction s o
Th e time h a s come wh e n th e b es t e ffort s and r esourc e s of the fed e ral,
state a nd loc a l go ve rnrn.e nt a r e required to m eet th e
high cost of law enforc e ment and to che c k and r everse
th e tr e nd of i n crea s ing crime that we have b ee n
exp er i e ncing
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r e c e nt y ea r s .
W e r e ad and h ear a l o t of c ritic i s rn dir e c t e d t o th e courts, esp e ci a lly to
the U. S . Sup r e rn.e Cour t.
I am not o n e of tho s e w ho join in this critici sm.•
P e r son a lly I h a v e no criticism of th e c our t s o r any of th e ir d ec i s i ons ,
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fo r t h e s i m pl e rea so n th a t t he ob j e c tive s and t h e ultimat e
go a l s of the c ourt s, and th e p o lic e , a re id e n tical --
which i s -
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To rn.aintain the peace and good .order _ ..,
To preve nt crime - -
To protect life a nd prope rty -(_
To enforc e the l aw--
And, to guarante e the fr e edom. of th e individual.
Thi s w e c a n a ll agre e on.
The n, the only dis ag r ee 1ne nt b e t wee n th e c ourts and the polic e are - -
h ow w e ac h i eve these go a l s.
Wh e n th e c ourt s and the polic e di sagree , t his i s a n indicati on to m e , t hat
the polic e ar e i n e rror and m u s t change the ir actions
ac cor d i n g ly.
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I t i s not, however , p o ss ibl e t o fur n i sh 100 % se c u rity and 10 0 % fr ee d om
t o a ll c iti zens of t hi s n a tio n a t th e same time .
Judge Thurgood M ar shall r ecently r e pli ed to a
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questi on fro1n S e nat or J oh n
'McC l e llan t hat t h e c r i n 1e rate i n t his nation was cr i tical ,
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but it 1nust b e fought within the fr a m ework of the
Constitution, and it 1nust not b e reduc e d at the
exp ense of the freedo1n of the individual
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It app ears to 1ne that the courts in s01ne ca ses might have given fre edo1n
of the i n dividual regardless of hi s conduct, top p ri o r ity
over all oth er rights and considerations.
I would r es pectfully sugg e st th at we might t ake another l ook at this
proposition.
The cas e s that are most frequently di scusse d are -
The Mallory case
The Escobedo cas e
The Mapp case
and, th e Mir a nda case.
There h ave b een many documents and articles wr itte n on these cas es
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and a gre at many s p ee c h es made , both pro and con,
but fri e fly this is w h a t h appene d i n these cases.
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MALLORY VERSUS UNITED STATES
Mallory w as arrested in Washington, D. C. on April 7, 1954.
He was detained i n Washington jail and charg e d w ith rape
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Afte r consid e rabl e ques tioning , h e adrnitted the charg e.
H e was l ate r tried and convicte do
In 1957, the U. S. Supreme Court r eversed the conv iction and state d that
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A suspect must be taken b e fore a Magistrate w ithout
An y unn e ces sary d e lay w ill i nvalidate a confession obtained from the
accu se d p er son p r ior to his appE;a r ance b e for e a
Magistrate.
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ESCOBEDO VERSUS ILLINOIS
Escob e do was arreste d in Chic ago, Illinois, on J anuary 19, 1960, and
wa s charged with rnurder .
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He asked for an attorney and his attorney asked to see him.
Both were denied
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Later h e co11£e ss e d and was trie d and convicte d.
In 1964, the U. S. Supr eme Court r eversed the conviction and state d
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A p e rson has a right to an attorney and the right to
rema in silent.
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MAPP VERSUS OHIO
Mr s . :tvfapp was arres t e d in Cleveland, Ohio, on M a y 23, 1957, after
officers forc e d th e i r way into h er home without a
_. warrant, and found obscene mater ial.
The officers d enied h er attorne y entry during the search, nor would
they p e rmit Mrs. Mapp to see him.
She was l ater tried and c onvicted.
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I n 1961, the U. S. Supr eme Court rever se d th e conviction and stated
that evidence c anno t b e used
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any court if collecte d
in a search a nd se i zure that is unr eas onable or ill egaL
MIRANDA VERSUS ARIZONA
Miranda was arrested i n Phoeni x , Arizona, on March 3, 1963.
He wa s d e tain e d in th e Phoeni x j a il and charge d w ith k idnappin g and rap e .
After co ns id erab l e qu e stioning , h e ad1nitte d the ch arge.
H e was t r i e d and convicted.
In 19 66, the U. S. Suprern.e Cou rt r eversed the conviction on th e gr ou nds
that h e was not advis e d of his right to counse l, and the
right to remain silent.
I c anno t agree that th ese cases have l egally hand icapp ed th e polic e i n any way .
But, I b e l ie ve we can agr ee th a t t he ch ange s that th e se ca ses required ·
in police pro ce dur e ha s mad e polic e w ork more comp li cat ed
and much mor e exp e nsive, b e c ause they put s evere r es t rictions
on cust odial in te r rogation.
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To cornpletely inv e sti gat e a cas e and d etermine all of the facts prior to
th e arrest of the su s p e ct, requires n1ore investigators
and a gr eat d eal 1nore ti1ne and effort, but this is legal
and n e c essary to protect the rights of the individua l,
and in th e s e ca ses the p er p e tr ator is the individual.
Th e ques tion th at dis t urb s 1ne , and ha s not been answered up to this point,
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w h at a bout the rights of the v icti1n?
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They a l so a r e entitle d to protection u nd e r the l aw.
It i s very ea s y t o forget a victi1n aft e r the first
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spl ash 11 of publicity, an d
after the p e rp e trator h a s been i dentified and t aken i nto
cu stody.
All of these ar e routin e police pr obl e ms that address the1nselves to good
police n1 an a ge1ne nt.
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The greatest challenge that has fac e d a c i ty or a police dep a rtment
esp eci ally in th e S outh, h as b een th e socia l and r a cial
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r evolution th at we h ave expe rienc e d in the l ast t wenty y ears • ••••
where custo1n and t radition versus the l aw, and i n most
c as es w her e the fed e ral law and the state l aw were 1n
conflict or contradicte d each othe r.
For many y ears th e American Negro was segregate d and di s criminated
agains t b e c a u se of th e color o f h is skin, and kept i n
a po s i _tion of second a ry c itize ns hip .
S eg r egation was neve r d es i g n e d t o s e p a r a t e the rac es , but to k ee p the N egr o
in his infe r i or pl ac e .
It was wr itte n i n t h e l aw , and it w as th e l aw.
During th ese y ears th e p r i ncip l e fu nc tio n of t he police was t o k ee p the
N egro i n h is pl ace.
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Th e Presid ent of the Unite d St a t es, the Mayor of the City of Atl anta, Ralph
McGill, Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, and many
oth e rs saicl this was w rong and 1nust be chan ged.
Th e U. S. Sup rerr1e Court h e ld in m a ny ca ses that this \vas uncon stitutional
and th e Am e rican N e gro was entitle d to all the rights and
privile ges th a t goes with first cl ass citizenship.
In 19 4 5 th e court s gave the N eg ro es the b a llo t.
Thi s was th e first ti1ne that th e Arner ican N e gro could a ctua lly p articip ate
in th e 1nanage1n e nt of his government .
I n 1954 th e cou rts h e ld s eg r egat e d schools t o b e unl awful and u nc o nstituti onal.
P erhap s these t wo d e c isi ons effecte d more p e op l e, brou g ht ibout a greater
ch ange i n attitude , habits , customs and action, than any
other d e c i s i ons.
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B e t wee n th e y ears of 19 5 8 a nd 19 63 the City of Atl ant a rece i ve d c our t
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· ord e rs t o d esegre gate _ .,,
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bus es
golf courses
scho o ls
air t e r n1.i na ls
s w i1nn1.ing p o ol s
and o t h er public f a ciliti e s
Th e Ciiy of Atl ant a n e ver h e s itat e d or d iscontinued a ny p ubli c
f ac ility in an effort to avoid t h ese c h a nges.
Fo rmer Mayor Willi a1n B. Hartsfie ld a nd Mayor I v an A ll en, J r.
p rovi ded superior l eadershi p w i th fin e cooper a t i on
and assi stance fro 1n both th e w hit e com1nunity
l eaders and the Negro co1n1nunity l eaders.
All of th ese changes were accomp li shed w i th a mini mum of di sturbances.
The Ciiy of Atlanta began e1np l oying Negro p olice i n 1948 and today 14%
of our tot a l personi1e l i s N egro.
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During th e des eg r e g a tion of public faciliti e s~ public officials were und e r
great pr e s s ure to d ese greg 2.tc p r i vate prope rty and
private facilities, o ve r which the y had no control.
On e of th e n,o s t e ffe ctive civ il rig hts or gani zations i n th e s e activitie s
was the Stud e nt Non=vio l ent Coordinating Connnittee
know n as S N CC.
O r i gin a lly SNCC w a s co1nposed of r es p ect a ble and d ecen t l aw abiding
stud e n t s fr o1n the u n i versiti es , tha t was committe d
to and pr ac tice d non~ vi o l ence .
W e enj oye d f i ne con,n,unications and coop erat i on fro1n t hem.
The y we r e just agai nst se gr egati on, othe r wise the y were go od l aw
ab iding citizens .
By 1964 SNCC had fall en int o the h and s of i rresponsib l e l eaders , and
t heir fo llowers includ e d crimin a l s of a ll k i nd.
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Aft e r our experience w ith SNCC i s and around son1.e Atlanta restaurants
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in 196 4, I 1nade the st a ten1.ent: that SNCC had b e con1.e a
Non-student Violent C01nrni1..-te e and time has proven
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th a t s t atement to b e true.
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Th e U. S. Congr ess h a d been extre1ne ly slow in accepting changes and
in h e lping th e col.uts and th e cities ,v ith th e ir probl en1s .
But the U. S . Con gress gave the Civil Rights Move1nent its greate st
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as s ist ance
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adopting the Civil Rights Act of 1964
and 1965.
Th ese Acts in my opinion, s a ti sfy a ll th e l egiti1nate complaints of th e
Civil Rights Moveme nt in th e fie ld of publfo accomod a t ions
and voting rights.
Th ere w e r e 1na11y oth e r things th at n e e d e d att e ntion, li ke ern.ployme nt,
housin g , r e c re ation and l a w enforc e ment.
And, again th e City of A tl a nt a n eve r h e sitate d.
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They 1noved r ight into these activities w ith all the vigor and resourc es
avail a b l eo
I n 1965 Mayor I van A lle n, Jro a ppointe d th e Atlanta C o1n1ni ssion on
C r irn e and Juve nile Delinqu e ncy.
U. So Judg e Griffin B e ll was appointed Chairrnan~ a l ong w ith 26 othe r
very distingui shed and able citize ns.
Jud ge Bell appoint ed a ve ry ab l e attorney,· Fr an cis Shack l ef ord, a ,l.
general counse l, and eig ht other young attorn e ys, to
act as staff for th e Con1.m.ission.
Judge Be ll th e n di v ided th e C om1nission into six sub-~co1nmittees -
Juveni l e D e l inque'.ncy
Rehab ilit ati on
Crirne and H e a lth
C r i m e and Pove rty
Law and Ord er
Org anized C r imea
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T he co1T11-r1ittee 1ne n1.b e r s were s e l e ct e d and a p pointe d on the b asis of
t h e ir inte r est and a bilit i e s i n the i r spe cia li ze d field.
Th e C on.1.miss i.on 1nad e an i n - d epth study of a ll the c aus e s and c ur e s
of c r i n.1.e rn Atl anta.
Jud ge B e ll h e l d w eek l y n 1.eetings w i t h the Corn.1n i ss i o n and pr e p a r e d
the i r r e p ort u nder the Titl e o f
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0 p p ortunity for
U rb an E xce llence 11 •
An1.ong oth e r things t h e C on1.1ni ssion fou nd tha t c rin1.e and pove rty were
t w i ns that c ould not b e s e p a rate <l.
On e coul d not b e i1nprove d without i n1.proving both.;
They r e c om.mended t hat the Atl ant a Po l ic e D e p artment emp l oy police-
c on1.munity counse llo rs t o w ork i n high poverty and high
cri1ne comn1.unities , to h e lp i 1nprove l iving conditions
and t o al s o i m prove t h e polic e i.1nage .
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This was a c 01npl ete l y new appro a ch to crin.1.e pr e v ention and l aw
e n.f orce1ne nto
In the p as t th e polic e h ave rn.a de eve ry effort to keep the l ine b etween
soc ial welfare s e rvice and police service separated.
But, und er thes e reco1n1ne nd a tions ~ th e servic e s would b e com b ine d
and put additional duties a n d r esponsibilities on the pol ice
The r e we r e t w o cou rses we cou ld h ave followe d at tha t p oint :
1.
To acc e pt th e cb ange imme dia t e l y and ac ti v ate the p rogram ,,;,,ith
pr e sent employees and e qu iprn ent , or
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To opp ose t he c h ange with d e l a y e d t actics a nd wait fo r a d d itional
app r op r i a ti ons a nd p ers o nne l b e f ore t ak i n& a n y acti on
B e c a u se of the great a d rn.ir ati o n a nd res p ect tha t we h a d for th e a bility
and integ rity of t he Cri1ne Connni ss i on, we acc e pte d
tbe recomm endations i mmecliate l y
I was p e rsona lly prep a red to yie ld to the ir j udgment
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_....
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- 25 -
We r e cog ni ze d tha t the r e w as a n e ed for s uch se rvices b e caus e w h e n a
soci a l w ork e r w as c onfront e d w ith ho s tility a nd
r e si s t anc e , th ey shnp ly b acke r!_ off and call e d th e polic e
for ass i s t a nc e.
W e al s o r e co gni ze d th a t to pro vide thi s se r v ic e th a t th e polic e must b e
esp e ci a lly s e l ec t e d and train e d to w e a r t w o h a t s.
Fi rs t to ac t an d serve as a so c i a l wo r ker - ~
And, second, wh e n condi t i ons requi re it, to arres t an d p r os ecute law
viol ators.
I n J anuary, 1966, we o rgan i ze d a C r i1ne P reventio n Bureau a s p ar t of t he
D e t ecti v e D ivis ion and d e t a ile d sixt e e n p o lice p ers o nne l,
t hat include d both Negro and w h i t e u nifor 1n o ffi ce r s and
d e t ec t ives.
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- 26 -
These officers we re assigned to Econ omic Opportunity Cente rs in p ove rty
comrnunities w ith sp ecial in struction s to act as guides
and coun sello rs in getting jobs, in getting drop - out s back
in school, and furn ishing other welfare servic es.
To act as advisors on go od citizenship and to n1ake fri en ds and suppo:rters
fo r the police d epartment.
V ehicles u sed by the Crin-ie Preventi on officers h ad sp ec i a l equipn-ient,
such as loud speakers , record players and spr i nkl e r h eads.
Th e y could clo se a street to vehic ular t raffic and hold street rneetings w ith
some entertain1nent, or if it v1as a hot sunny afternoon,
they coul d hook up th e sprinkler h eads to
a fire
plug,
anal turn on a showe r.
On Many occas ions th ey have had a ll the childr e n from a hou s ing project
playing u nde r the sprinkl e r i n one bl ock.
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- 27 -
Th e Cri1ne pr eventi on o ffi ce1·s h andl e a ll o f t he f ollowi ng co1npl aints i n
th e ir di s t r ict -
M a liciou s r n i schi ef
P etty l ar c eny
M is sing p er sons
Stole n bic ycle s
and, a ll j u venile c ases .
Their j ob i s to find a so lutio n to these problems without n:1a king an
arres t i f poss i b l e .
We h a ve tri e d to adopt a p age from. the Juvenile Court's m a nual by n1aking
thi s a correctional o rganiz a t io n, r a ther th~n a punitive o ne.
T h e Crime Pr eve ntion offic ers h a v e earne d the r es p e ct of mo s t of the p e opl e
(
living i n the i r dist r ict.
They have a l so earne d the r es p ect of other n1.e1nbers of the d epartn1. eni:
W e h ave som e reques t s from othe r xnemb ers of th e d e p artment to be
t ransferred to the Crin1..e p
.
revenhon Bureau.
0
�-~
... 28 -
The p a tr o l officers are qui ck to c a ll the bureau fo r assistance w h e n they
se e p rob l en1.s d eve loping .
v\T e b e lieve th a t we a re 11.1.o v i ng i n t]1 e right dir e ction.
In
Vle expect to see th e bu reau grow and expand, and certainly that w ill
b e expensive.
We now h ave 29 p o lic e p e rsonn e l ass i gne d t o th e bur eau, which includ e s a
c aptain and thr ee li e ut e n ants .
Th e C rime Pr evention Bur eau officers n1.us t always wear t wo h ats, and
w h en th e y find a group that ca1m.ot b e p ers uaded with
the ir h e lp and couns e lli ng, to ob e y the l aw, th ey must
b e arr es t e d and pros ec ut e d.
T he hi gh e st value of the l aw i s t he keeping of th e p eace.
�- 29
In :tv(a rch of t his y ear we organized a T a sk F or c e of a b out thirty s p e c ially
tr a ine d and equipp e d offic ers ~ who c an b e m ove d i nto
a ny con,m u nity nn s h o l' t not i c e , t o u se w h a t ever f or c e
th a t 1s n e cess aT y t o e nf o r c e th e l aw and maintai n th e
pe a c e .
W e are c onv i nc e d tha t t h e a c ti on of t h e C r i me Pr eve ntion Bur eau h a s
p r evente d the c rin 1e r e cord fron1. r i sing as r a pidly as
it n, i g ht h ave.
W e a r e a l so convin c e d th at whe n str ee t fighting d o e s occur , th e b ur e au I s
action ke p t i t fr orn b e i ng a s s eve re as i t 1n i ght h a ve
b e e n othe rwi s e
0

W e h a ve h a d 1nore th a n our sh a r e o f s t r e e t fighti n g o r riots a s the y a r e
s orne ti m e s c a ll e d.
On S e p t e 1n b er 6, 1966, t w o d e t e c tiv e s atte mpt e d t o arr e st H aro l d Pr:athe r
f or auto l a rc eny a t C a pitol Ave nu e and O rn1.ond Str eet .
�-~ 30
~
Pr ath e r r es i ste d and \Vas s h ot b y the d e t e c tive s .
T his caused a l a r ge a nd ang ry cro\v d to g a th e r in the str eet.
M a yo r Ivan A lle n , Jr. e lb owed hi s way t o t he c enter of t he cr owd an d
did a gr eat j ob i n t a l k ing to a nd qui e ting th e crow d
until S NCC arr i ve d on t he s c e ne and in cit e d the c rowd t o
start thr owing b ricks and b ottl es.
The polic e rnove d i n, in forc e , and c l eared the streets.
It was n e ces sary t o call i n off- duty polic e and t o p ut t h e d e par t rne nt on
t we l ve hour p er d a y duty.
7 3 p e r s on s were arrest e d; several of w h i ch vvere i ndicted by the G rand
J ury fo r inciting t o r iot, in cluding Stokel yI Carrn.ich ae l.
O n S e pte 1nber 10, 1966, a w hite 1n otori s t, whi l e driving through a N egro
corn1nunity
011
Negro youth.
North Boul eva rd, shot and k ille d a
�- 31 -
A gain a n ang r y rn.ob g ath e r e d i n the s t r eet and agai n Mayor A ll en rnove d
r i g ht i nto t11e i r n 1ids t to u r g e p e a c e an d qu i e t .
This was a great d en1on strati on of
11
C o1n e and l et u s r e ason t oge t h e r ' 1 •
But, t he rnob ,v as i n no n~oo d t o l iste n t o the vo i c e of reason.
Th e y o n l y shou t e d thr eat s of i nsult s a nd v i o l e nce , and sta rte d t hrow i ng
b rick s a nd fir e b on~b s .
T e n sto r e ·w in.do vs we r e b r ok en a nd s everal b u i l dings we r e s e t on fir e
0
But, th e p olic e vve r e t h e r e in fo r c e o
Th e fir es were p 1· 01nptly e xti n gu i s h e d a n d th e re was no l ooting"
T h e s t re e t s were cle ar e d, a nd 6 5 p e rs o n s w e r e arreste d o n th e fi 1· s t n i g h t ,
a n d 14 a dult s and 15 j u ve ni l es ar r e ste d o n t h e se cond night.
I n r e p o r t ing t h i s t o th e Chi e f 1 s conve n ti on i n P hila d e l phi a l as t O c tob e r ,
I sugges t e d t h a t p erh a p s t he b est way for t h e p o lice t o h andl e
a s i tuati on afte r it r each e d th i s p oint, was fo r t h e p o lic e·
· t o a lway s sp e ak v e ry k indl y ,
�- 32 -
walk v e ry slo\vl y,
and i.rar1·y a sa-..,ve d off shot gun.
Brick s and b ottl e s can b e a d e adly v-1 e a pon and n1u st b e r ecogni z ed as such.
I
Th e City of Atlant a did not w ait u nt il th e r e was sheet d isturban c e s to
.i
i1nprove li ving co n ditio n s i n th e low inco rne co1n1-rmniti es
0
Th e Cit y of Atl ant a, i n coop e ration w ith th e Fed e ral Gove rmnent, h as sp e nt
n1illions of doll ar s i n th e .l a st fiv e yea1· s to iinprove job
o pport u nit i es , hous i n g con ditio ns a nd e duc a tion a l
f a ciliti es fo r th e citi z e n s of t hese cornrnu niti es .
All c ity d e p ar tm ents , e s p e ci a lly the P l a nnin g a n d I ns p ec ti o n D e p ar t ment
th
Con s tructi on D e p artme n t - - the S anit ar y D e p a r t m e nt - -
'
th e P a r ks D c p a rhn c nt - - a nd a ll oth er d e p ar tine nts h a v e
put forth th e ir b e s t e f for t s i n the l as t five y ears , u nd e r
t h e p e rs onal d ir e ction of I\1ayo r I van A ll e n, J r
0
,
to 1n a ke
. life mo re l i ve ab l e fo r th e c i ti zens of hj g h crin1e an d
p over ty c on1n1un iti es i n ou r city.
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- 33 -
O n Jun e 19th of t h i s y ear , a privat e u n i fo r n1 g u a rd fo r a 1ne rch a n t
1
in
D i x i e Hill s, att en1.p te d to arr est a young boy for l a rc e ny .
His siste r inte r fe r e d a nd r es i ste d .
The polic e "vere c a lle d to a s sist t he gu aT d .
A crow d g a th e r e d a11 d s t ar t e d throw i ng bri cks an d bottl e s, a s rnor e p olic e
cars a r ri ve d, the y we r e rn e t w ith a shovve1· of brick s .
S eve ral p olic e offi ce rs we r e i n ju re d .
Ei g ht p olic e c ars were d arn.age d , and f i ve windshi e l ds we r e b :r. oke n i n
p oli ce c ars.
Th ree per sons we r e i n j ured and one di e d f ro rn gun shot wounds.
After t w o n ight s of disturb ances, 3 3 p ers ons weTe arres t e d, i n cluding
Sta l e l.y C annic h ae l.
Mayo r I v an Alle n, Jr. i ssue d an En1ergency Pro cl arnation th a t p l a c e d
a curfew on th e c o1nmunity.
But, i t was neve r n ecessar y t o en force it .
\
�- 34 -
The Com1nuni ty Re l ations Con:uni ssion, Alderrnan Q. V. Willi amson,
S enator L e roy J ohnson and other N egro l eade:i;s
i
I
I
I
I
started holding corrnnunity 1ne c tings, giving assurance
that every co1nplain t would be i nvestigated and acted upon
0
Dixie Hills i s not s lun.1.so
It is a con1.parative l y n e w hou s ing proj ect, w ith good streets, good
equip1ne nt and goo~ cp a r tment hou ses occupied by
Ii
lI
n1.iddle c l a s s Negroes.
I
!
Thr ee w eeks l ate r about 200 r e side nt s a pp e ared b e fo re th e Polic e Co1nm.ittee
of th e Alde rmanic Bo~rd at Polic e H e a dqu a rt e rs and
d e m a nde d an i1n rne di a t e public h e ar i ng of th e i r g rievanc es
a nd com pl a i n t s .
Afte r the committ ee h a d compl e t e d its r e gul a r a ge nd a , t h e y v ery p a tie n tly
(
and under st and i.n g l y l iste n e d t o eve rythi ng t h e y h ad to
s a y, f or about t hr ee h ou rs.
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- 35 -
Their co1n pl a ints agai n s t N egr o polic e offic er s w ere just as strong , or
stronge r, th an th e co1npl a i nts again s t th e w hite officers.
One witn e ss st a t e d that th e r eal probl e 1n in Dix ie Hills was r es ide nts
moving furth er out in the subu r bs and the ir apartn'- e nts b e ing
occupie d by f a 1n ili e s fron'- th e slum co1n1nunities .
The Corn1nittee as s ur e d th e m th e ir r e ports would b e given e ve ry
I
consid e ratio n .
!
II
i'
I suggest e d th a t th e y h e lp m e fi n d t wo qu a lifi e d applicants in th e i r co1n1nu n ity
I.
'
for th e poli ce d e p artment - - and we w o u l d a s s i gn th em t o
p atrol th e i r n e i ghborh oo d .
O n th e 3 rd of J ul y of t his y ear , a N e·gro m a n wal ke d i n t o a s};tir t s h o p o n
B road Stree t , op e r a t ed b y a w hite woman .
T h e y got inv olved i n an argu1nent about t he u se of a res t roon'-.
T h e m an returned to th e str eet and thr ew a bottl e through th e fro n t p l ate
. g l ass w indow.
�. - 36 -
Again SNCC leade r s wer e pr e s e nt and quite a fe w bottles were throw n,
i n su ring s e v e r a l polic e officers •
...
Nine persons \x.,e r e a rrest e d, including so1ne of SNCC 1 s l e aders and
r
organiz e rs.
I am r e porting the s e inc ide nts bri e fly, but it is not my i n t e ntion to d e al
w ith the 1n lightly , fo r this is a r eal s e rious cha lle n ge .
At tim.e s it 1s alrno s t a c ase of life and d e ath.
O n J u l y 6th~ Mayor I van A llen~ Jr. s t ate d in very clear and fi rin l anguage
the goal s , th e p olicies and the r es ponsibilities o f t he
C ity o f A tl a nta an d th e Atla nta P o lic e D e parbnent.
I a m . i n com .p l e te agreement with t hat s tat eme n t
I rep e at ~nd expand i t.
The City of Atlanta w i ll not s low d o w n in providing e qu a l s e r v ic es for a ll
c itiz e ns.
There are opportunities for dissent and d en.1.on s tration by diss atisfi e d citizens.
�I
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T he city welcorn.es this, but it must b e within the confines of t he law, and ·
the re can be no exceptions.
The city ,vill not b e i ntirn.ida t e d by th e threat of violenc e , and l a w l e ssness
w i ll not b e tole rat e d.
The burning and looting of property will not b e tol erated.
Ther e will b e no h es itancy whatsoever , to use n e cessary efforts to enforce
law and order in a l a w a b.iding cornn.1.unity.,
The Atlanta Police h ave b een drilled and tr a ine d to avoid w h at has b een
t enne d polic e brutality, a n d to provide equal
p rotection a nd service for a ll citizens and visitors.
The polic e h ave the a uth o rity, unde :i: th e l aw, t o pr ot e ct the mse l v e s w hile
I
enforcing th e law .
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�38 -
Th e polic e will not b e subj e cte d to b e ing shot at, having bottles and bricks
thro\vn a t th e rn, and b e ing s_pit upon, without t aking
appro :ipr iate action.
The Atlanta Polic e D e p a rtrn e nt h as furni s hed a very fine servic e anµ they
h ave op erat e d u n der gr eat restr a int
0
The Atlanta polic e do not pu s h anyon e around, nor will th e y b e pu s h e d
around, and will not h esitate to request th e assistanc e
of the National Gu ar d if events i ndicate it n e c essar y to
prov id e th e protection and services th a t l aw abiding
citi zens of our city ha ve every ri g ht to exp e ct.

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