Box 17, Folder 14, Document 21

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piget atte UES


< Che New Pork Eimes.

ADOLPH 8S, Ocus, Publisher 1896-1935
Orvi.L E. Dryrroos, Publisher 1961-1963


ArtTHUR Hays SULZBERGER, Chairman of the Board
ARTHUR OcHS SULZBERGER, President and. Publisher
Harvpine F. BANcrort, Vice President and Secretary

FRANCIS A, Cox, Treasurer

e After the Treaty

The historic treaty between the United States,

- Britain and Soviet Russia banning all nuclear
ae Weapons tests in the atmosphere, under water
“and in outer space is being hailed throughout

the world as a promising beginning of a new

~ epoch in East-West Telations. After all the bleak

‘years of cold war and the recurring crises that
‘found their climax in the near-collision over

“Cuba, the world breathes easier today and there

“is new hope that it can banish the threat of

" Ruclear holocaust.


But, important as the treaty is for what it

“lssays and what it may portend, it is at best

only a start toward larger goals. President
Kernedy rightly warns that it is not the millen-
nium and that the road ahead is still long and
rocky- As he pointed out, it is a limited treaty

“ which does not even stop all tests, though it

“would stop further lethal fallout. Both real dis-
arp ament and the political settlements that
must go hand in hand with it remain far off.

The key to a solution of these problems is

. largely in Soviet hands. Premier Khrushchev


agreed to the test-ban treaty he had previously

‘Yejected because, as Under Secretary of State

Harriman says, he “very much wanted one at
this time.” The Soviet ruler says he wants more

agreements. If so, the West will do its utmost

‘to reach them, But will Khrushchev? And on

What terms?
‘The hard fact is that Soviet Russia’s signa-

tire on the treaty does not mark the end of

drive toward a Communist world triumph,

Sthough it may now pursue that goal by means
short of nuclear war. In fact, both the treaty

and the “nonaggression pact” Russia wants may
_hecome Weapons in the Soviet “peace” arsenal
.—to line up Asia and Africa against the “war-
Si che Wes Chinese Communists and to soften
the West for political settlements that would
air its alliances. As Mr. Khrushchev told the
nese: "The struggle for peace, for peaceful

a dntence, is organically bound up with the

Yeyolutionary struggle against imperialism. It
Wegkens the front of imperialism, isolates its
Mitre aggressive circles from the masses of the

- people and helps in the struggle for national
) libepation."” The West is warned.

Barthermore, the treaty itself ean be abro-
galéa if “extraordinary events’ jeopardize “the
supteme interests” of any of its signatories. The
Rusijans insisted on this reservation, over 2
aeeker definition proposed by the West, as
obvious safeguard against nuclear armament
m4 other. pow rs. They may have Germany. in
“anid and certainly they are concerned

to very little? Is it not a game that every country
is playing with every other? A game that nobody
can win? A game that isn’t worth the effort?

Adjusting to Automation

The United Steelworkers of America and the
employers with whom it deals have again dem-
onstrated that collective bargaining can produce
constructive answers to the problems of techno-
logical change without tests of economic muscle
or Government coercion. The contracts just
Teached by the union and the major aluminum
Producers represent an imaginative extension of
the progress-sharing principles embodied in the
Union's agreements with — the steel and can

All the aluminum workers—not just those
With long seniority—will qualify for 10 weeks
of vacation every five years, with 13 weeks’ pay
to help them enjoy their sabbatical. Fringe bene-
fits will also be liberalized, but there will be
ho increase in direct money wages. The changes
are designed to give the workers a share in the
benefits of increased productivity on a basis that
Will expand total employment opportunities and
avoid any increase in aluminum prices.

The new contracts, coupled with those already
Signed by the union through its joint Human
Relations Committee in basic steel and its long-
range committee in Kaiser Steel, ought to serve
as a spur to the deadlocked negotiators in the
Nation’s' railroads. The guidelines for a sound
agreement have been laid down by two Presi-
dential commissions, created only because of the

atrophy of the bargaining process in this pivotal

industry. ‘

Any formula Congress approves for barring
a rail strike through legislative compulsion will
set a damaging precedent. The month-long truce
agreed to by the railroads provides a last oppor-
tunity for the unions to demonstrate that their
Concept of bargaining is not summed up in the
Single word “no.”

Up to now they have been gambling on the
proposition that the Government will continue
to retreat in the face of their obduracy, and that
finally they can extort a settlement that will
saddle the carriers with thousands of unneeded
jobs. The trouble with this venture in brink-
manship is not only that the gamble involves

a strike in which the economy would be the

chief victim but that a “victory” for the unions
would jeopardize all job security by pushing the

‘railroads closer to bankruptey.

This is the lesson the disastrous 116-day strike

of 1959 taught both sides in steel. DP sorcreately,
about there is mo sign yet that the railr


: » Topics x

=e e came a brief

Diving note the other day from
to Tidy the Sudan, where for a
Up month a team of sci-

entists had been living
deep in the Red Sea in watertight
villages containing such home com-
forts as air-conditioning and tele-
vision. The wife of Jacques-Yves
Cousteau, French explorer, diver
and head of the group, would go
below and would tidy up the place a
little, This item was received with
cooing sounds the world over, for as
half of the world’s adult population
chooses to believe, no man is capable
of even emptying an ash tray,
either on the surface or 45 feet
down under. The cooing changed to
a higher, triumphant pitch as the
next day or so went by, with images
becoming more lifelike of a tired,
wan Mme. Cousteau working her
fingers to the bone with the carpet
sWeeper, while he just sat around,
probably ogling mermaids. Half the
World’s adult population had the
time of its life pointing out alleged
similarities between itself and the
Cousteaus, while the other half tried
to. think of other things, hoping that
eventually the noise would quiet

There is in all news-
paper work a trade ex-
pression called the fol-
low-up story. This
means that what is re-
Ported upon today will also be
Watched closely tomorrow, for what-
eVer new, relevant happenings that
day may bring. Those newspaper-
Men of the Sudan are superb repre-
Sentatives of their craft, and no
SOoner did Mme. Cousteau break
Surface after her trip below than
they were asking her questions. Im-
Mediately, a large, furry cat was let
9ut of the bag. She had gone to the
Underwater village to celebrate with
her husband their 26th wedding an-

for a

| Riversary, and nothing further was

Said about tidying up, All about the
World the cooing that had changed
to a higher, triumphant piteh died
Suddenly to a frozen silence. All
about the world the other half that
had tried to think of other things
Uttered a yelp of complete and pure
delight. Down many a long and
Weary year, this half always has
Contended that the other, while
fasual about tidying UP, could be
Counted upon to plunge through

‘Sither hell or high water in order to

Teach a party, in particular an anni-
Versary party. Here was Mme. Cous-
teau, not only plunging, but with the
high water recorded in actual feet.

Tt is clear that only
ae pet of the world is
he last word on

me as inciden

Letters to The Times

Physicist Backs Test Ban

Selove Declares Agreement Is in
Interests of Both Sides

The writer of the following ts
professor of physics at the Uni-
versity of Pennsylvania,


As the test ban negotiations move
ahead beyond initial agreement, it
is strange to see the reluctance,
if not opposition, to make such an
agreement shown by some members
of this Government.

It is encouraging that a large
number of Senators have joined in
the remarkable Humphrey-Dodd
resolution in support of an air-
space-water test ban, and encourag-
ing also that so highly informed and
influential a Representative as Chet
Holifield has indicated his feeling
that such a ban should receive sup-
port, =

Why is there any question as to
whether such a ban is in the inter-
ests of the United states? I believe
the opposition is due primarily to
two mistaken attitudes. First, there
are those who belieye that this coun-
try can better achieve security by
further nuclear weapons develop-
ment rather than py “trusting” the
Soviet Union to aqhere to the air-
space-water ban, This is a gross
mistake. Wor one thing, no “trust”
is necessary. More important, no
foreseeable development (at least in
the next decade, ag far as can now
be seen) will change the ability of
each of the two nuclear giants to
utterly devastate each other.

Orbiting Bombs

Indeed, if nuclear tests of large
weapons continue we would prob-
ably move closer ¢g Herman Kahn’s
“doomsday” Maepines — perhaps
with each side working toward or-
biting bombs of hundreds of mega-
tons. A very few such bombs from
CoN. orbit could be used to
set fire ‘to the entjre eastern coast
of this country. ye have the judg-
ment of Secreta; McNamara that
no really effectiy, anti-missile de-
fense is visible, and We can expect
that prospect to pecome stronger
with the passage of time,

The second Mistake made by op-
ponents of @ test pan has to do-with
simple distrust of the other side.
The question poseq i5 essentially the
following (and cgyjd be used by So-
viet opponents of g test ban as well
as by our own): Why shoulda the
“other” side wan; @ test ban unless
it is to their @dvantage, and conse-
gitently, it a implied, to our own

The mistake hee is to think that

a test ban can be or Must be to the

life and his honor to be used to the
best moral interests of his country.
Your view [editorial July 17] would
deny. him any moral dignity of his
own. Segregation is morally wrong,
and any citizen, military or other-
wise, has the right and the moral
obligation to make known, even by
demonstrating, his views in refer-
ence to it.

If the Brown Shirts ang the Ger-
man regular army and the German
citizens had taken to demonstra-
tions, rather than bowed to accepted
immoral tradition, perhaps the cost
to European Jewry would not have
been so devastating. Historical prec-
edent and honored tradition have
their place in society, but they
should not be above the individual's
right publicly to make known his
own moral standards.

I would have thought The New
York Times would have been the
first to defend such rights and obli-

Rhinebeck, N. Y., July 18, 1963.

Administration Proposal Declared
No Cure for Present Gold Outflow


The Times is to be congratulated
for having immediately pointed Out
[editorial July 19] the dangers of
}the Administration's proposed tax
on American purchase of foreign
securities. These dangers have Not
heen eliminated by its more recent
proposal to exempt new Canadian
issues. Indeed, the Canadian exeMp-
tion dramatizes how completely
arbitrary this kind of currency regu-
lation and manipulation is sure tobe.

When the niceties are stripped
away, the proposed tax is a form of
exchange control, defined as an ef-
fort by Government to limit and to
restrict the use of its own currency.
Such restriction on foreign trans-
actions was widely practiced by
Nazi Germany and is the stock in
trade of all totalitarian regimes. It
is the entering wedge for other
types of control over the domestic

The President wants the tax in
order to stanch the outward flow
of American investment dollars
which is augmenting the deficit in
our balance of payments, But the
proximate cause of this outfloW is
that United States interest rates @ve
lower than in many other countties,
which both encourages United states
citizens to buy foreign securities 8nd
likewise encourages foreign om-
panies to float their securities in
our markets on easy terms, It is
notable and regrettable that the


President has No:

Taxing Foreign Securities |

Founding Fathers’ Intent '

——— |

Citing 18th Century Leaders in
Support of Religion Disputed

The writer of the following letter
is Minister of Education for the
First Church in Boston, Unitarian.


The current debate on your edi-

torial page about the intentions of
the Founding Fathers in drafting,
enacting and ratifying the “‘establish-
ment of religion” clause of the First
Amendment discloses more about the
condition of American religion than
it does about the historical problem
of whether the clause was intended
to apply to the establishment of a
national religion based upon an “‘es--
sential consensus respecting God,
man and the moral law.” Especially
revealing is the zeal with which
Christian leaders, lay and clerical,
have clasped the Founding Fathers
to their bosoms as upholders of this
“essential consensus.”
_No matter. how much we should
ike to re-create our Revolutionary
saints in our own image, historical
facts cannot be ignored without en-
dangering both our honesty and our
sense of history's vicissitudes. Re-
cent research indicates that John
Adams, Jefferson, Washington,
Paine, Madison and Franklin were
deists. While they differed on par-
ticular points of doctrine, they agreed
that, in Franklin’s words, “there is
one God; who made all things,” and
that “the most acceptable service
of God is doing good to man.”

In short, the religion of the most
eminent Founding Fathers was based
largely on Genesis i, 2 and Matthew
iv, 7. The deist position is clearly
embodied in Jefferson's Declaration
of Independence, where he refers to
“the laws of nature and of nature’s

Deist Theology

A comparison of the essentials of
deist theology and the doctrines of
Judaism and Christianity shows that
the West's two great religions have
properly regarded deism as their
enemy. For, as expounded by most
of its followers, deism denies the
possibility of a covenant and of a

Ican but marvel, therefore, at the
industry of Christian leaders in find-
ing champions in the Founding Fa-
thers and in treating their religious
testimonies as if anchored in the
bedrock of theological orthodoxy. If
we ave to believe that America’s
“essential consensus” is embodied in
the ideas of Jefferson and his
friends, we must admit this nation

ntior on, of curing. aes

is not and ney tl heen soled in


Mer Add ddd ess.

= also mean France, busily building its own nuclear
*. force.
President Kennedy is trying to persuade Presi
~sYdent de Gaulle to adhere to the treaty, but
“= 'guecess is unlikely unless France, an acknowl
™ edged nuclear power, is put on a par with Britain
gnd supplied with the same nuclear information
we now give the British. If we did so, the pur-
--pose would not be to “cause, encourage or partic-
<> ipate in” further French tests, which is forbid:
ai den_by the treaty, but to make such tests
~Sunnecessary without hampering France’s nuclear
“~ development.
French adherence to the new pact might prove
“a preliminary to agreement by France to join
“in building a NATO nuclear force and to restore
'. Western solidarity. That is still an essential
> sdfeguard of peace.

a The Art of Spying

~ Do not implicitly trust anything you read


about spies and spying even if the source is im-

___péceably official. By the accepted rules of the
* game, government statements may be deliber-
“;-ately false in order to mislead “the enemy.” But,
#s.0f course, they may be true. Naturally, truth is
sv often very confusing.

The layman can be excused for ruminating in

this fashion as he reads his morning newspaper.
_The cast of characters needs a Dickens or a
_. Dostoievsky (not a historian, of course) to do
sicjustice to the parade of diplomats, scientists,
«i jowrnalists, homosexuals, prostitutes and—best

of all—intelligence agents who betray their out-
fits and their fellow spies. Nothing could be
more devious or fascinating than a double agent.
as At least, it is comforting for the layman to
» contemplate the bungling and blindnesses of the
.« Professionals. Devotees of the whodunits surely

could do better. Trained by Eric Ambler, Georges

‘sSimenon and Ian Fleming, they would never haye
“permitted a Bay of Pigs invasion; a successful
. Christine Keeler; a fantastic 10-year career of

‘ex;Nazi German intelligence officers providing
<ethe Russians with 15,000 photographs, 20 spools
of tape and many a secret of the West Germans

"and NATO. Not that the Russians should boast; -

‘they had Penkovsky.
= Byven though the real spy cases may be
+ stranger than fiction, you don’t get the solutions
“as you do in the thrillers, Nothing could be
more fascinating than the stories of the British
Sjournalist H. A. R. Philby, or the Swedish Air
“SFrorce Col. Stig Wennerstrom; but at their most
qnteresting points the volumes are snapped shut
a put away in secret places where even in-
telligence chiefs, like characters in a Kafkaesque
“tale, probably cannot find them.
“- The outsider must be forgiven for believing
_that any time any government wants to arrest
ee expel X-number of spies, it digs into its
files and comes up with the requisite quantity.
SWhen spies are under surveillance they are,
“ambeknownst, spying for the country they are
»spying on, The most dangerous spies of all are,
a be sure, the ones who are never caught. There
a nothing that the C.LA., MI-5, K.B.G., Sureté
“and all the other intelligence and counter-intel-
ligelice organizations can do about them.
. Is it not possible, in fact, that all this es-
pionage and counter-espionage; all these agents
and double agents, intelligence officers, counter-
intelligence officers, plots and paraphernalia
from infinitesimal microphones to beds, add up

e “white” nuclear monopoly. They may,

Atlanta’s Mayor Speaks

On rare occasions the oratorical fog on
Capitol Hill is pierced by a voice resonant with
courage and dignity. Such a voice was heard
when Mayor Ivan Allen Jr. of Atlanta testified
before the Senate Commerce Committee in sup-
port of President Kennedy’s bill to prohibit
racial discrimination in stores, restaurants and
other public accommodations.

On the basis of the very substantial accom-
plishments that his city of a half-million, the
largest in the Southeast, has made in desegre-
gating publicly owned and privately owned facili-
ties, he might have come as a champion of
“states’ rights” and of the ability of localities
to banish discrimination without Federal law.
Certainly, he would have had much more war-
rant to espouse that view than the Barretts, the
Wallaces and the other arch-segregationists
who raise the specter of Federal “usurpation”
as a device for keeping Southern Negroes in
subjection. 5

But Mr. Allen was not in Washington to boast.
He was there to warn that even in cities like
Atlanta the progress that had been made might
be wiped out if Congress turned its back on the
Kennedy- proposal and thus gave implied en-
-dorsement to the concept that private businesses
were free to discriminate. He left behind this
charge to finish the job started with the Emanci-
pation Proclamation a century ago: “Now the
elimination of segregation, which is slavery’s
stepchild, is a challenge to all of us to make
every American free in fact as well as in theory
—and again to establish our nation as the true
champion of the free world.”

The Fiddlers

The long-legged, rasp-winged insects now come
at their own, and we won't hear the last of
‘Hemi til hard frost am ae YeRT SG Masins
fiddlers, the grasshoppers, the crickets and the

Grasshoppers are spoken of in the Bible as
“locusts,” and their hordes have contributed in
many lands, including our own West, to the long
history of insect devastation and human famine.
Walk through any meadow now, or along any
weedy roadside, and you will see them leaping
ahead of you, hear the rasping rattle of their
harsh wings in brief flight. But they do little real
fiddling, The fiddlers now are the crickets.

Listen on any hot afternoon or warm evening,
particularly in the country, and you will hear
the crickets even though you seldom see them.
In the afternoon you will hear the black field
crickets, chirping as we say, and often into the
warm evening. But in the evening, from dusk on
through the warm night, the more insistent sound
will be the trilling of the pale green tree crickets.
Individually the tree cricket's trill is not so loud,
but because all those in the neighborhood
synchronize their frills the sound can be as
insistent as were the calls of the spring peepers
back in April.

The loudest fiddlers of all are the katydids,
which look like green, hunch-backed grasshopr
pers. Night after night they rasp wing on wing
and make that monotonous call, shrill and seem-
ingly endless. But the katydids won’t be heard
for another two weeks or 80. Meanwhile the
erickets possess late July, chirping and trilling
the warm hours away as though summer endured

rrives. They are th e leaping:

and 10 15 lo. uu iL
which is accustomed to getting it.
Whether the other half will learn
anything from the incident is doubt-
ful, of course, because a setness of
way began a long time ago in a cer-
tain garden, a snake and apple being
present, But it is July now, and
throughout the world there are
thousands of summer bachelors. To
hear those who are away talk about
it, these bachelors, having made a
novel of the house, are continuing to
live begrimed lives, surrounded by
overflowing ash trays, inch-thick
lint on the rugs, unwashed dishes
mounded high in the sink. Every-
where are the sisters of the Mme.
Cousteau of the first-day story, who
say they are going down to tidy
up the place a little. Do they?

A’ party, particularly

Come an anniversary party—
as that becomes another

Guests Matter, Although it can-

not be proved, of course,
it may be assumed that quite pos-
sibly M. Cousteau—with his eye on
scientific affairs—may have failed
to remember the anniversary until
reminded by ocean-floor-to-shore
telephone, This has happened, and
that half of the world to which it
has happened has a sympathetic pic-
ture of him darting out to cool the
wine in some far subsurface cave,
on the way home cutting clusters
of sea flowers for the table. Summer
pachelors know something further,
and since this is the last day that
nalf of the world gets the last word,
Jet it. be set down so. It's dollars
to doughnuts M. Cousteau himself
cooked the meal, from shrimp cock-
tail with plankton sauce to whale
teak A la mér rouge. When they

‘do drop in, it is not to tidy up, as

the first-day story has it, but to
attend a party, witness the follow-
up- "AS guests, of course, as half the
world Well knows,


qruly this isle is green, though
heather and gorse

wreathe its rolling fields
moderate rainbows;

yphough where the land is low, the
endless moors

Rol! out mahogany earth; though
nature raise

Most silver barriers with all the

| rocks

of Ireland against the sparkling air.
And gray

qhe sheep, all summer unattended,

or clamber without effort on their

and sustaining hillsides. Near the
peat bogs,

Where the early sun beats off the

‘of night, an errant donkey, forefeet
Ged with rags,



Brays at the Irish morning pe

protest against life’s cruel curtail.

And comprehending no guilt. cries | Newark


of the other side. The fact is that a
test ban is in the interests of both
sides, Not only as a step toward
other tension-reducing measures,
and not only for economic reasons,
but because neither side can achieve
security by its efforts alone.

A test ban will probably contrib-
ute to the understanding of that
fact by both Governments and both
peoples. It could indeed be a major
step forward toward sanity. Public
polls show that the United States
public understands that fact. The
test ban needs and should receive
the same strong support from the

Havertown, Pa. July 25, 1963.

Weaning Cuba Away
To THE EmtToror THE NEw York TIMES:

It is good when The New York
Times suggests the wisdom of “a
more relaxed felationship’ with
Cuba, as you did in your July 19
editorial “Coexisting With Cuba.” |

I would think that an improvement
in our attitude about Cuba and our
actions toward her would inevitably
bring about a decrease in Soviet in-
fluence there and have Cuba back
with the other American countries.

' As a small stockholder in one of
the companies inVOlved in the Cuban
“take-over,” I do Not find my com-
pany very much concerned or its
Cuban holdings Very much of a fi-
nancial issue. S0Me-reimbursement
would probably b© made by Castro
if the United States Government
worked on the métter under “a more
relaxed relationship.”

What you have Suggested in your
editorial would sem a first step
toward the United States regaining
its position In Cuba and Soviet with-
Croton-on-Hudson)N.Y., July 19, 1963.

es =)

Demonstrating in Uniform
To THE Eprror or THE New York TIMES:

Followed to if8 logical conclu-
sion, Defense Secl®tary McNamara’s
directive on sefYicemen and civil
rights demonstrations would bring
to our armed STvices the same
spirit, restraint 224 blind “I-follow-
orders” obedienc® that permeated
the German Army during Germany's
“Jewish trouble.” /

A man may vollteer to serve his
country. By so 4g he offers his

American interest rates to rise, a

Unemployment’s Cause

On the contrary, the President
states that such a rise in long-term
rates would “throw our economy
into reverse” and increase unem-
ployment. His reasoning may be
doubted. The persistence of unem-
ployment in the United States is due
to continuing upward pressure on
wages, to misguided efforts to hold
“minimum wages” at artificial ley-
els, and to extortionate corporate
and progressive income taxation
which the Administration’s proposed
domestic tax program will do little
or nothing to cure.

If Washington wishes to promote
further economic expansion and at
the same time right the United
States balance-of-payments
tion, it must abandon its blind faith
in easy money and deficit spending
as a cure-all. ie"

The proposed tax on American
purchase of .foreign securities will
not restore’ faith in the American
dollar, the lack of which is at the
root of our difficulties. It is a
sign of continuing weakness, not of
strength. It is also, as The Times
points out, a blow against develop-
ing a true international order where
currencies must be fully convertiple
and free.

On international no less than do-
mestic grounds Congress should vote
the proposal down as a dangerous
statist measure.


New York, July 23, 1963. /

Worthier Goal Than Moon

A leading space scientist was re-
cently asked: “Is it worth 10 billion
dollars to put an American on the
moon?” He replied: “Possibly not.
But it might be worth that as a
national goal.”

Surely there are much more
worthy and urgent projects on ea;th
in which our citizens would unite.
General, human welfare is an agp-
pealing and challenging national
goal that for life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness as well as for
world prestige far surpasses @
moon shot. George T. Scorr,

Upper Montclair, N.J., July 24, 1963.


reading in the public schools ex-
tracts from the religious writings of
the Founding Fathers, Christians
who believe that they are thereby
preserving our “spiritual heritage”
had best recognize that their device
for circumventing the Supreme Court
also undercuts their own doctrines.

The confusion in the minds of so
many Americans concerning the ten-
ets of their own religious traditions
and the beliefs of our 18th century
leaders suggests that the total sepa- .
ration of church and state is long

As Madison wrote, ‘The tendency
to a usurpation on one side or the
other, or to a corrupting coalition or
alliance between them, will be best
guarded against by an entire absti-
nence of the Government from inter-
ference in any way whatever, beyond
the necessity of preserving public
order, and protecting each sect
against trespasses on its legal rights
by others.” ROBERT W, HANEY.

Boston, July 22, 1963.

Immigration Proposal

The belief that immigration under
President Kennedy's proposed new
immigration law will be limited to
165,000 persons a year is inaccurate.

Under the proposed law, there is
to be unlimited immigration from
such places as the West Indies,
Mexico, Haiti, Latin America and
the Western Hemisphere, In contrast
to this special privilege granted to
these countries, the only limitation
is on European countries, and there-
fore there is no reason why prac-
tically the entire populations of
some of the Latin and Caribbean
countries may not eventually immi-
grate here, in accordance with a
growing trend,

Previous reform bills introduced
by former Senator Herbert Lehman
and Representative Celler proposed
to eliminate these special privileges
for Western Hemisphere countries
and put every country on an equal
basis, but President Kennedy’s bill
isnot one of these. ALBERT MAYER,
Chairman, Immigration and Natu-

ralization Committee, Federal
Bar Association of New York,
New Jersey and Connecticut.

New York, July 25, 1963.

— a oe ional
iption R f The New York Ti
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