Box 17, Folder 14, Document 44

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cally helpful effect on numerous men-
tally ill people.

I personally had reservations concern-
ing the application of this program on
Indian reservations, But on the same
trip we went into the largest Sioux In-
dian Reservation, and there we learned
again how even a few ‘seedmen” volun-
teers can, with their good will, inspira-
tion, and enthusiasm, perform practical
Measures to help in the almost unbe-
lievable poverty, in all departments, on
Indian reservations.

Our committee, which has dealt with
migratory labor problems, has seen over
the years how a few volunteers in migra-
tory labor camps can do so much to bring
a bit of needed education to the youngs-
ters—and perhaps even to the adults.
They can provide nursery day care for
the very young, and assist in state health
and sanitation projects also.

I hope all Senators will have an op-
portunity to look over the hearing rec-
ord and note the unanimity of views
across the country of people with knowl-
edge in the field of social problems.
More than 50 organizations have ‘enthu-
siastically endorsed the bill. They are
all listed in the hearings record and
on pages 12 to 14 of the committee report.
It is significant that those who are most
knowledgeable in social work have been
most artieulate and strong in their en-

Among the groups, church people are
prominent. ‘They are hopeful that the
legislation will be passed, and that we
shall be able to spark, through volun-
teers, an even greater community re-
sponse to severe human needs and prob-
lems. &

Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the
Senator yield further?

Proxmire in the chair). Does the Sen-
ator yield?

Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. I am
happy to yield.

Mr. JAVITS. TI join the Senator in
the sentiments he has expressed. If the
bill is enacted into law, I hope the Presi-
dent, in considering the appointment of
a Director for the National Service

Corps, will keep in mind the very excel-

Jent example of completely nonpartisan
leadership—as high minded as that of
those who serve—which has been so
heavily responsible, in my opinion, for
the success of the Peace Corps.

I thank my colleague.


Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the
ie yield?

Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Iam
appy to yield.
Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask
lanimous consent that the name of the
Senator from New York [Mr. Javits]
may be added as a cosponsor of S. 1665,
to require that all State or local pro-
grams supported with Federal funds
shall be administered and executed with-
out regard to the race or color of the

introduced on June 4..


objection, it is so ordered.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, I ask
unanimous consent that the name of the
Senator from Vermont [Mr. Proury]
may be added as a cosponsor of S. 1801,
to effectuate the provisions of the sixth
amendment of the U.S. Constitution re-
quiring that defendants in criminal cases
be given the right to a sneedy trial; and
S. 1802, to protect the integrity of the
court and jury functions in criminal
cases, which I introduced on June 26.

objection, it is so ordered.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, although
all these bills have been printed, the
names of the additional cosponsors will
be included at the next printing.

Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the
Senator yield?

Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. I yield.

Mr. JAVITS. The Senator from Ore-
gon has joined me in his bill to prevent
Federal funds from being utilized for
State programs which are segregated. I
would like to say a word on the subject,
because it is becoming quite a raging is-
sue. I have joined the Senator from
Oregon on his bill, just as I joined my
colleague [Mr. Kratrnc] on his amend-
ment to the omnibus civil rights bill
along these lines, because I feel very
deeply that the only hope for civil rights
legislation is in bipartisanship; and I
want to do everything I humanly can to
demonstrate by act and deed my deep
feeling on that score.

Neither side alone has the votes to pass
civil rights legislation. In my opinion, it
is a fact that, in every way open to us,
we shall need to keep this bipartisan
coalition together so that we may ulti-
mately get somewhere.

I hope very much—and I Know how
the Senator from Oregon feels about this,
but I am putting it in words—that all
Members on both sides of the aisle will
keep very clearly in mind that this is a
burning issue on the domestic scene—as
burning an issue as is nuclear testing on
the international scene. The only way
we are going to get. anywhere is by keep-
ing the goal very clear. Call it nonpar-
tisan or bipartisan, the fact is that
neither side alone has the votes, and we
must be together on the issue.

Mr. MORSE. Mr. President, will the
Senator from New Jersey yield to me a
moment? ;

Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. I yield.

Mr. MORSE. Inconnection with what
the Senator from New York has said, it
is an honor to be associated with him in
his advocacy of civil rights legislation. I
know of no peer of the Senator from New
York in the civil rights legislation field.
But I would have my colleagues take note
of the fact that what my bill seeks to ac-
complish is to prevent the Federal Gov-
ernment from violating the law, If one
of us were to ask a Senator to join him
in an illegal act, the Senator who was
asked would look askance and be horror
every time they vote for Federal funds
for projects involving segregation, in my

articipants and beneficiaries, which I [opinion, are guilty of perpetrating an il-
legal act, for 9 years ago the Supreme

But Members of this body,

August 13 : é

Court declared segregation to be uncon-, si
stitutional, and therefore illegal. Yet we 3
sit here in the Senate, on bill after bill,
and vote millions of dollars of Federal
taxpayers to continue an illegality. It is
about time that we put Members of the —
Senate on the spot, and the senior Sen-

ator from Oregon intends to do it. He
intends to go from coast to coast to call
the roll of Members of the Senate who
continue to yote to expend illegally Fed- >
eral taxpayers’ money and who continue }
an unconstitutional act on the part of
the Congress.

Members will not be asked to vote on
this issue program by program, but on 5
the whole broad issue of funds going into , —
segregated programs and activities. — .

This issue is becoming one on which
we can no longer do any dillydallying.
The issue is whether or not the Congress -
will keep faith with its right hand when
its Members take the oath in this body
to uphold the law. We cannot justify
the appropriation of moneys forthecon- ¢
tinuation of Federal projects in which
there is segregation. Let the people
speak in respect to the rolleall that will j
be made in the Morse bill and similar é
proposals that seek to bring to an nd ui
the illegality that now existsinthiscoun- ~
try and that has characterized the treat- ’
ment of civil rights in Federal programs. _

As the Senator from New York has) ‘
heard me say before, the time has ¢ come os

do not intend any longer to sit nee and {- }
permit politicians to get by with ae, '
they have been getting byforyearsinthe; |
Senate and covering it with the alibi,,
when they get back home, “It is the best
we could do.”

I will tell Senators what the best we can sy) M
dois. It is to act in accordance with the
law; and the Supreme Court has made
perfectly clear that segregation is se
constitutional. I ‘intend to do wi ,
can to take that record across this Re-
public in the months ahead, before the
election of 1964. I do not care whether
a Senator is a Republican or a Demo-
crat—he ought to be beaten for re- | —
election in 1964—others will be up for \ _
reelection in 1966 and others in 196
he does not uphold the law as laid down :
by the Supreme Court.

Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, if the a
Senator will yield, I have done precise aA:
that, as recently as last Wednesday in 5
connection with the Labor-HEW appro- :
priations bill. The reason I made the —
comment about bipartisanship is. that I.
had the feeling that Members of Con-

gress, when they vote, have an idea that
party loyalty requires them to stand Py
the administration—it might have hap-
pened just as well on our side of the aisle
if our party were in the majority—and _
that they have to stand by and vote to.
table this kind of amendment. pays
I think the Senator from Or ane E
with his eloquence and w:
lighted what I have tried to ao but ni which
I am delighted to join him in ‘hig —
ine—the fact that, of all the things done __
in the racial field, with all the fuel ada
to the fire, this is the worst, Tt is incon


lar workers or duplicate or replace an exist-
ing service in the same locality.

The Service Corps will be a means
whereby the local community can draw
on the kmowledge and skills of the entire
Nation. But the progragm is designed
so that these trained volunteers will

work with a community, in a program
developed by the community it self. A
great deal of careful study has gone into
this program. More than 50 ideas for
projects were submitted to the Presi-
dent’s Study Group on a National Serv-
ice Corps by various State and local,
public and private organizations
throughout the Nation. Twelve of these
suggested projects are outlined in detail

in the hearing record. A glance at these
projects will show the very practical work
that corpsmen would he doing. On an
Indian reservation, they could act as in-
structors for self-help housing programs,
tum nursery schools and clinics; in a

_ hospital for the mentally retarded they

would help regular personnel as teachers
aids and recreational aids; working
with migrants, they would give basic
education to adults and vocational guid-
ance to the youngsters.

‘It is important to remember that these
_ projects are not the brain children of a
bureaucratic planner. They were worked
out by men and women of wide experi-
‘ence who know the help that trained
volunteers can be to them in. tackling

_ the problems of a community.

human suffering.

Mr. President, there are many Ameri-
cans, young and old, who are anxious
and able to help our less fortunate citi-
zens. The Corps will draw not only up-

_ on enthusiasm of our young people, but

‘upon the wisdom and experience of re-
tired persons. There are a vast number

of people both young and old ready to

help if given a way.

Obviously, 5,000 men and women can-
not solve all the age-old problems of
But their example
will have an effect far beyond their num-
_ ber. ‘If every corpsman inspires 10
_ others to work in their own hometowns,

a or to join the helping proféssions, the
‘ bor of this program will have repaid it-
‘ 0 ti

‘know that the dedicated work of the
Service Corps volunteers will show that

our material success has not blinded us

* to the sufferings of others. This pro-

gram will be a true expression of the
ideals which have made this Nation
great. .

‘The proposed legislation has been con-

sf _ sidered | as carefully as any measure with


“ _ policy for it. The Cabinet members so
selected chose from their departments

yhich I have been associated. I am sure
that Senators are familiar with its gene-
_ sis and the steps that have been taken
in developing the program to the point
where it is now under general debate in
the Senate. In first addressing himself
to this. noble project, the President called
upon members of his Cabinet to develop

persons of great talent to undertake the
staff work that is necessary to insure

eet the noble idea would not be emotion-

but would become hard, tough,
and practical in its development. That
war group, while small in number, was


uniquely dedicated to this cause. Once
created, the study group has developed
ideas which were embodied in the legis-
lation that came to the Senate. The
measure was referred to the Committee
on Labor and Public Welfare, and as-
signed to the Subcommittee on Migratory
Labor for further legislative action.

Mr. JAVITS. Mr. President, will the
Senator yield? a


Mr. JAVITS. I am a cosponsor of
this particular measure. I believe it
represents an effort to translate the
idealism which has been so prominent
in the Peace Corps and which has worked
so well abroad to the domestic service
of the United States. I am satisfied, too,
that the scheme which is proposed to the
Congress parallels, as far as is practical,
the successful pattern evolved in respect
of the Peace Corps, which I believe is
one of the more successful initiatives of
the United States in the employment, in
its foreign aid and foreign development
efforts, of the idealism, skill, and inter-
est of young Americans. There is an
ample number of projects which can
profit greatly from the dedication which
the National Service Corps will inspire.

I feel, too, that it will be a very im-
portant channel through which volun-
teer services of young and old alike may
go into areas—many of which have been
described—of want, need, illness, and
underprivilege, which are enclaves of
backwardness in terms of economic ad-
vance, such as the areas of migratory
farm workers. There the volunteers can
be of great benefit.

I am very much for the bill.
cosponsor, as I said.

I have only two reservations, Mr.

IE think perhaps, if we needed a de-
scription of what is being done, the
words “practical idealism’ would de-
scribe it. I hope yery much that the
practical idealism which is represented
in the National Service Corps will not be
marred by asking the dedicated people
who will be involved to serve in establish-
ments or institutions which follow a
practice of racial segregation.

This is something about which I ex-
pressed my deep concern in the commit-
tee. It is something which is the subject
of an amendment I have had printed,
which is on the desk.

I realize that the argument can be
made that those who are afllicted should
receive help, and that this should be the
case even if they are afflicted in a segre-
gated institution. But I think the
temper of the times is such that we are
engaged in a struggle in which there
must be some casualties, and those who
are the subjects of segregation are the
readiest to accept the “casualty” of being
unable to obtain the ministrations of the
National Service Corps when there is a
pattern of racial segregation.

I hope very much that some way may
be found of working out what it seems
to me would be so opposite to the patri-
otic dedication which is represented by

The other subject to which I hope my
colleagues in the Senate will give a little

New Jersey. I

Iam a


thought is the possibility that we are
dealing domestically—not abroad, as we
did with the Peace Corps—with an
analogy to the National Guard and the
ROTC. We could allow States to under-
take some of the responsibility for train-
ing corpsmen and using them within the
respective States. I have prepared an
amendment upon that score.

I hope to hear the discussion in respect
to the bill, to determine whether there is
a sufficient amount of interest in the Sen-
ate, since the amendment was turned
down in the committee, to justify my
offering the amendment. I think the
plan is a very sound one, to allow States
to participate in the process of selection
and training, and to allow them to re-
tain the trainees within the States, at
the same time maintaining the cachet of
this elite corp, the National Service
Corps, exactly as we do with respect to
National Guard officers and men as they
relate to the military forces of the Na-

The advantage would be that we would
stimulate a great increase in the num-
ber of people who could be trained, the
speed of their training, and the speed of
their utilization, and we could invoke
State as well as national pride in re-
spect to the trainees.

So, with those two reservations, Mr.
President, which I have described—
which are not, in my opinion, reserva-
tions in any way to change the quality
and character of the plan—having
proved the validity of the idea in terms
of inspiration to youth and in terms of
its usefulness to those it serves through
the Peace Corps, I believe we have ar-
rived at the point where the National
Service Corps is the next logical step in
terms of undertaking to give our youth
an opportunity to show their dedication
and their idealism.

I am grateful to my colleague for
yielding. I am confident that by the
time the vote occurs on the bill we shall
have completely closed ranks in full sup-
port of it.

Mr. WILLIAMS of New Jersey. Mr.
President, I am grateful, indeed, for
those comments by the senior Senator
from New York. I am grateful also for
his strong support of the proposed leg-
islation, his sponsorship of it, and the
contributions he made in the committee

As the Senator knows, after the bill
was drafted 24 Members of the Senate
joined in cosponsorship of the proposed
legislation. eh

The subcommittee which received the
bill held 9 days of hearings. The record
is most complete. Not only did the sub-
committee hold formal hearings in the
Capitol, but also members of the sub-
committee, together with members of a
committee from the House of Represent-
atives, went on a field trip, to see for
themselves how the program could be
useful in certain areas. Iam sure that
Members of Congress who went on the
trip will never forget the experiences we
had at Osawatomie State Mental Hos-.
pital in the State of Kansas and how,
beyond question, it was proved to us that
even one volunteer can have a dramati-

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