Box 18, Folder 11, Document 14

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Box 18, Folder 11, Document 14

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The three plan studies which follow are taken from Methods of
Reducing the Cost of Public Housing.
'
I
Research Report of the School of Architecture
Pratt Institute
Brooklyn, New York
Sponsored by the New York State Division of
Housing
New York, N. Y.
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JOV/1'.:!1 SC HEN\E
f his is the nwne gi'l (;I) lo
p lan !/ pc 'll hi::h i~ r.1p pro,: i:·:j5 r!'. ~;-r.: "; ! ,-::--:. ·;,..rf ,;J J
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f oi }( ..: id r: s of ( 1 c.i::n tr(I I <J;f·i i:: 2 r.or" ': . if ;,,.,~ Li ~
suu cssful ly for mid dl c -i n<:fJri,c ho u~: 1,~j in rfo·u Ynrk
u nd Chi caso si nce the !Gk ] ? ,W's. ;\s fo r OS c0 uld
be uscc rloincd, th e tow e r sch ,-,me hu s not ye t b ee n
used fo r low-incom e housing, p robobl y fo r the rr:ason
di scusse d below.
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The tower ·scheme hos a nu mb er o f o d van to g c s and
o ne serious c!isod vc111!age. It is readily app c i-c nl tho t
the compc1cl p la n resu lts in a minimu m o f peri meter
construction crnd th e short e st p o ssible uti!ity r uns, with
a Henclon t eco no mies. Eve n mo re significa nt is th e
reduction in the a mou nt of exp ensive p ub lic corridor
spo ce; in the _tower sch e me the area o f public co rridor
per construction room is about hol f tha t in the inte riorcorrido r sche me, ond p ublic corrido r space is rela tively ex p e nsive a s w ill be shown in Chop te r Four_
In most cases, the tower p lan provide s cross-ven tilation and tw o exposures for each apar tme nt, o very
desirable arrangemen t a s far a s livability is concerned. The tower scheme a lso offers a d vo nk1 9 e s in
site-pla nni ng. The s9 uare plan is e asy to d ispose,
even on an irregu la r site, a nd when used in la rge
pro jects, it res ul ts in a g re ate r feelin g of cp cnne·ss o n
the site than occu rs wh e n long narrow building s a re
used.
A seri o us eco no !nic ha nd ica p to the lo we r sch eme is
the high cost o f elevators. Providing only fo ur to six
a partments p er floo r, a s co mpared to !en to twelve
o portm e nts p e r floo r in th e interior-corridor scheme,
the cost o f clevotors p e r dwell ing unit is thu s two to
two r.in d one-half tim e s higher in the to·se r sche 111 e.
For this high e r cost, g reat ly improved livob ility is provid e d. This sclwme is p resented here in the bc!ief
tho t the econo mi c s no ted in the parngrap hs above
w ill offse t th e hig he r cost of the se rvice core, thu s
affording imp ro ve d liv a bility a t no in crease in cost.
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.Pc r-sr, cctivc of Towe r ~uildings .
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ln th is type o f bu il d ing o il o f !he rJ[)(l rf mr,n ts <:re
rrx:c h c cl b y mcons o f o ulJ oo r corrid o rs o r " .-+ ,·,c:t,, d
sid e wc:lks, 11 as th e:y o re ~orncl imes co il ed. The ch o rr · 1- 7 .
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' ': ~ 0. f r !lth Cl b11 i!, !i nc, is IA':': ..


 
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The ,.:,F -.:: cor~ id o r :;chemc ha~ b ee n U$e d f~. !., .. , ind
mi ckl k -i,~com e ho1Js ing in mon y pbccs, b o th in this
count 1'y an d a bro c1d . .
- -- ....
. . . . ..· .
~
lmjJ rovccJ liva bility is the o ut slancl in:J o<l·1antaae of
this sche me. Eve ry apar tme nt has through- ·, e:n ti !a ti o n
and tw o exposur es, a nd eve ry apo rt rnen t can have
th e mos t fovorab le· orie nta tion . A ll · roo ms, inclu ding
b o throo ms, . h ave outs ide li g ht an d venti latio n. The
inte rior corrido r, w hi ch . in p rc:cticc is ofte n c: n unp lea sa nt sp a ce - na rro w , d c rk, . crnd smel ly ._ is
e limina te d e ntire ly. Th ese go in s a re par ti c1 ily o ff set
by so me loss o f p rivacy for th e roo ms tho t ope n on
the corridor.
Th e o p e n-co rri do r sch e me e l!:n in cle s the cc~ t of mecha ni ca l ve nt ilatio n fo r the b a throoms r;n d !he cost of
th e int e ri o r corrido r w ith it s expensive fin ishe s. But
the op e n-cor rid o r, b e ing " si11 g le- loode d," must b e at
leas t l ½ ti me s as long C1S the in te ri o r co rri d o r. Since
co d e s limit th e max imum di sta nce fr om on apa rtm e nt
to a stair, the o pen -c'o rrid o r building must e ith 0_r be
conte nt w ith few a p a rt me nts p e r fl oor or, a s in th e
ex ampl e sho w n h e re·, it mus t se p a ra te the two required stairs. Th e o p e n-co rrid o r, o f co ur se , ne e d not
b e l1 eo te d but ·so me p rovisio n mu st b e mode fo r sn o w
rem o val; in N e w Yo rk th e Bui ld ing Departmen t re .. q uir e s th e in sta ll a tio n o f ele ctri c h ea ti ng cab le in the
fl ~o rs of a ll o p e n co rrid o rs. Si nce o il apm tme nt d oo rs
op e n to th e o utside , th es e doors mus t be o f the e x te rio r · type an d mus t b e weathers tripp e d . The lon g,
thin bu il d ing shape , w ith its hig h pr o p o rtion o f pe rime te r to e nc los e d a rea , is no t b as ic o ily eco nom ica l,
no r, in a hig h -r ise b1Jilding , is it bosi co ll y stab le ; ex tra
·cos t for wi nd- braci ng mu st be as sumed .
In ·view o f o il th e it e ms noted in the pre vio us pora grop h, it ' mig ht be conclud e d tha t th e ec onomic positio n o f the ope n-cor rido r sc hem e is unfovo rob le . Bu t
thi s is no t th e co se. Rece nt cos t studies fo r o ,~ cw !y
de sig ned pub li c housing project in N ew Yo rk indicut~
ve ry, su bs to ntio l cos t sovi11gs rewlti no fr om the! use o f
th e ope n- cor ri do r scheme.
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In the cxo111pl0 presented h ere and on the following
p o9 e s, the ope n-co rridor sch eme has b ee n combined
wi th sk ip -sto p e !cvcitors. In this arrang e me nt th e eleva tors sto p only ot e ve ry third fl o o r; tena nts o n the
infcr:~1edio lc flo o rs ha ve to wolk up or d own one
fl oor. Th e op e n corridor occurs only at e levator- slop
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20
19
!:~~ , .. , .. :"" ;·,:--:, r ~ th e c0rrid cH·; stoirs are
\\·i! ~i in t:!c ~po r tn~c:·:ts \,:! !d o r12 nh., ;nt oi11 e d by the
t::·· ~:;, t_ Thi s sc he nw hc,s u ~c :1 usc cl in a no te d uppe rinco:~1c pro ject in Cu n.bridg e , Ma ssachu se tts, an d in
0
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ELEVATOR
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17
pro p ose d low- income proje ct in New York.
(OP EN COR RIDOR)
16
15
INTERMEDIATE STOP FLOOR
Th e sk:? -slop sch e me save s the cost of fwo out of three
corr ic o : s cind e le vator d oo rs and co ntrols. Against
this ;c v i ri g mus! b e bolanced the cost of the private
stai rs ard th e fir e e scape bcilconie s in two out of three
of the oportme nts. A significant advantage of this
scheme is lhe eli mina tion of most of th e privacy problem . By pl a cing the larg e r a po rlments on the interme dia te f1 o o rs, it was possibl e lo orrunge the plan so


h.. : .10 bed roo m op e ns 0:1 a corridor.


14
ll
(NO CO RR IDOR)
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II
INTERM EDIATE STOP FLOOR A
10
INTERMEDIATE STOP FLOOR B.
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T~c s!ruc!urcl syste m employs re gulor!y spc1ce d reinfor cE: d co nc re te columns, two p e r bay, with the floor
sk: b, con!ilcvered 4 fe e l b e yond the columns on each
sid e. Thi s fra ming syste m is cfocussed in d e tail in
Cha pte r Two. Stair an d e leva tor towe rs ha ve b e en
p 1o ccd o utside the b uildi ng proper, and d esigned to
svp? ly -.vindb racing for the to ll, narrow building.
. 7.
6
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4
INTERMEDIATE STOP FLOOR
3
ELEVATOR STOP FLOOR
R-:: q uir,:!d di ;t ri b utio n o f opC.1 rt rn c nl type s is p ro vide:d
in on,: bui lding. The t wo b m ic fl0 o r p la 11 s ore d e tail e d
o n the foll owing p ag e s along wi1 h alt ernat e fl oor
p ion; re qu ired fo r co rnpk l0 cktri6 u!i o n. This distrib utio n is explu inecl in ch ar t form on th e fo llo w ing
poge.
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Cross-sc cfi o n th rough Open-Corrido r
SEE PLM ~ l'-I EXT PAGE
SECTION
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INTE!7.l0ll-CORRIDOR
SCHEME
Tl1c inf,, ,-i 0 r-r: 0 aidor ~cliNne is now in co 1n 1no n u-;c fr,r
10°.'/ (ind midd lc-i 1ic 0 1nr:! ho 1J sin9.
I! is a ~i 111 p l1; rin d
econornir:cd sch ,~mc , permit ting te n to twe l'lc c,p cir!;· . , _ ·1 ·
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·1r:11lik,:, .,,1 c x r: r; p t fo r th e fo ur r:ornc r o pod:::;:;;1~. !n
New Y,:, ,-k City public housing, the re quir e men t of

cross-~r: nti lat io n for e ll apcrr!m c, n! s hav ing nw rc than
one b ed ro o m hm pr od 1;cc d a var iat io n c f th.is sc h e me ·
in which ihr: se rvic ~ core forms a " pi nche d wa ist" ·
w hich p e rmi ts th e four adj occ nt ap e1 rtrn enls to meet
the techni ca l re quirem ei1ts for cross-v e ntilation. Since
in practic e the irnprov e.rncnt in the ventilat io n •)f these
fou r aportrnen!s is slight, if an y, and th e cos! of p roviding it is con sid erob lc, this reci uir e me11 t lw s b ee n
_ignored in the exa mple pr ese nt e d _in the following
pages. It is b e li eved ·1hot if c ross-venti lation is lo be
con sid e re d a primary ·va lue, ih e n the op e n-co rridor
or th e towe r scheme shou ld be use d rat he r tha·n the
int erior-corrid o r sche r'n e.
Like th e oth e r exampl e s 111 this Chapt e r the inte ri o rcorridor scheme is shown with 110 ba seme nt, wi th
re gulcrr column spa cing, a nd with th e full distribution
of apartment types in a single building. In common
with the open-corridor sch e me, it em ploys a _ twocolumn bay w ith cantilev e re d floor slci bs, a stiUc!ural
sys tem w hich is discusse d fu r th e r in Chapter Two.
Th e gro und floor plan of tl'. e building is shown at the
right. Since there is no b ase me nt, th e faciliti e s usually
found th e re have b een loca te d obove ground. The
re!_noinde r of the ground fl oo r has b ee n le ft ope n to
provide useful covered spo ce and pl eason t vista s
thro ugh the building.
·
Th e mo in purpo se o f th e int e ri o r-c or rid o r sch e me a s
p re sen te d h e re is Jo study th e sugg es tion tha t the
li ving room might b e us e d a lso for slee ping. The
recrso ns fo r co nsid e ring this id ea ore discu ssed in the
fo ll owi ng pag es , a lo ng w it h tlw sugg es te d plcinning
so lutions for putting it into c fT c ct. If this idea shou ld
be co nsid ere d fea sibl e · fro m th e po int o f vi.:,w o f
li va bility, the co st sa vin gs wou lJ b e ve ry app re ci a ble,
si nce o ne b e droom wou ld be c li111in ate d from e ac h
opcrr trn e nt. Th e re ductio n in area is show n grophic a lly a t the right.
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G!-:O Ui·JD FLO O f!. PLAI\J, LOBBY
CUILDl1'-!G BLOC K B
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(As pe, this s t u d y )
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CU llJJt !-!C 8LOCIC A
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The lower b lock shows !he size o f
!he b uildi ng c!cs:0:~c d a ccor di ng lo usu,il housing
sta nclmcl s. Th e uppc-: r block shov.,s, cit !h e sci111e sccile,
th e size o f th e b uil ding cl es i9 11C'd fo r this study . Tho
re cluctio n in 1011 91 '1 is tt 7 fee l cind the sc1vi11g in floo r
mcci is 1927 sci ucirc fee t, or C1pproxi11wt c lr 20%.
The recluction in cost wo uld b e som e what less than
20%, since plu 111bi ng , ki!ch c n eciu ip111ent, a nd e le VC1 tors ore no t o/Tcc tc d, but !he sa ving sho uld a111 ou 11I
lo n1_o re . th 0 n. l _?'lo _of t)1 e .cq~t of. t.l!e b~1i !ding, ..· . .

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