Box 19, Folder 13, Document 1

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Too Far '
t superiority a reality has at least
equal terms with the world at
~e. They have argued that Peking
~ta~eJ~J!f/:i16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)~;~i;i~~;';ic;;
sponsor "revolution" abroad.
~h a policy must carry with it al}.
ation of the grandiose responsibi•
, to reshape the world under Chis tutelage .. lt implJes _acceptance
the equality of other nations.
rhe immediate issue, the storm
1ter of the present debate, is the
lidity of the canonized thought of
10, which the dogmalists ins is~ i,
e highest wisdom of humanity.
1e p ragm a tis ts consider the
ought of Mao merely a body of
)rds which is in part useful and in
~ ~~'~'Ot~l:t s143.215.248.55nc:a 1~:1;~0!16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST);
rh ~~;1~~l143.215.248.55 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)f: 1~; /:a~ep? terms
,Vhile iresh diplomatic: efforts
it, the internal struggle mounts.
e dogmaUsts, who control the
ned forces, are now seeking to
ng the apparatus of the p;1rty to
~l. The attempt has consumed
ch more time and effori than
st have appeared likely when
'Y planned the counterat,tack.
Control or Apparatus
fonethcless. it appears that the

matists will reestablish a high

ree or control of the party. They

1 probably be able to reassert eftive control over the apparatus so
t it Is, once again, responsive to
ir wishes. They control too many
.he sou rces of power to fail.
!ut the apparatus will be largely
·erent from what it was before
8 or even 1066. Each purge tends
winnow out the more competent
l more independent cadres. This
atcst purge appears likely to reo v e almost everyone but the
cks, the men the Russians call
pparatchiks " because of their abiy to survive inside the party. The
1inese party will, therefore, be a
Jch less effective instrument than
has been in the past.
Both the strength and the quality
the intra-party opposition lo the
gmatists ha\"e reached an over1elming pitch. lt is un\ikel,v that
t e dogmati!'.t.<; can indefinitely
1intain their dominance against
,t only the people, ·but the party as
~II. A period of ever increasing reession lies immediately ahead, but
e great crisis which turns the Chi'Se regime toward liberalization
nnot be long postponed. It may
me when Mao dies. It may come
Section G-7
~ Although Social Securhy Is an In·
This fact-which has been overs.titution created by Congress a Jnere looked by members of CongrC$S who
30 years ago, Its rights, privileg~s_, have blithely hiked Soc:lal Security
ill!nefit.s and cost are regarded as m· . benefits and taxes because they
violable as our freedoms under the pfQf~ssed concern for the lowly
ancient Bill of Rights. No one except wage earner-will, as taxes increase,
a fanatic would suggest its abolition. work a hardship upon the low paid

\nd the lives and plans or mil\ions and unskilled. ~~or the pressure of

ai·e built upon its assurances. Even economic facts will drive companies
the taX it imposes upon us is accept- to spend more and more to introduce
ed without complaint.
laboi'-saving machinery. Thus, as in
Socia 1 Security is inseparahl&
from tbe structure of American life.

But any institution· or right,
h'o we v er venerable or beloved,
nteds an occasional review and fre<1uent amendments. Such a review
has been carried out and published
by the Tax Foundation_, a priva~,
non·profit and non•parbsan organi1 zation
which was, incidentally,
created in the same year, 1937, when
the Supreme Court validated the
act. (50 Rockefeller Plaza, New York
City 10020. The price or the publica•
tl'on, "Economic Aspects of the Social Security Tax," is $1.50. )
Since many books have dealt with

the bcnefils of Social Security and

with criticisms of its operation. the
Tax Foundation review omits these
Aspects. lt also avoids any serious
Guggestion for reform. It is a factual
account of the history and the various tax impacts which it imposes
upon individuals and employers.
Congress has amended the origin·
al act many times-in 1939, in 1946,
in e\'ery election year in the 1950s
ui.d in 1961, 1962 and 1965. The
name of the system was originally
Old Age and Survivors Insurance,
OAS!. Then OASDl when disability
•was added, and now. with health in·
,urance added, it is OASDHI.

-The Impact of the tax upon indus·
t rial employers varies. This is be-:ause the Social Security tax is le·
?ied upon the lower part o( em~!oyees' wages. Thus. a company
with many workers at a low average
•nnual wage must pay much more
~n Social Security taxes than a com11any with fewer, more skilled work·
trs at higher wages. For example ,
Jle tax as a percentage of total waa:es paid in petroleum products and
pipeline transportation is much lower than that in textile ma nufacturing.
~1n an industry with high average
annual wages, the extra tax liability
can amount to as much as S75 per
employee {employer's share or the
tax alone) and will involve higher
amou nts in later years as the rate increases.
Meantime, the folks at home may
well be left wondering just what is
r~~gn ~: ni,n tai~1~~i:~:th~y~!0;
avhichever side of his political
tiouth might seem most pleasing at
tax cutting Inducement, represent·
ing as it does only the employer's
share, can make a previously unat•
For those who live nearby, the
noises emanating from freeways are
a study in contrasts. During peak
~r:1143.215.248.55 ;~:i~osu~e ~fa:u~t~:;\~:~e~~
Late at _night the stillne~s is almost
J'he inequity, not t? say the_ u~-
~~pra~~Sl:~a:ii~~{ ;~ri~em~~rr:!~~ 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)::·1~. ~~sp~tr=16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)t:~: ,
~mple, a ~mg!e lnd1v1d~a_L or _a wor,kmg marn~ couple retmn~ m 1966,
after having been ta~paymg me'!'~:~ ~;a~~\:J:!~;1 ;, 29 December 2017 (EST)~
to only 21 % of what will be receh·ed
as benefits for the 10 years
1966---Hl7J. Bl!t a married man who
was required to enter the system in
19:i6 and retire~ this year at 6,j will,
if he li~·es JO years, have paid in only
Brlo of what he will get in benefils in
10 years. But a young man of 21 who
stat'ls to work today will, when he
retires after 44 years, have paid in
$12,000 more than he will receive.
Thus, the young are paying for
the old. And before many year!.
these younger people will awake to
this injustice a_nd demand a change.
And since they will be most numerous. Congres~ will be compelled to
overhaul th& whole system.
flation, could have faced the fact
that the inflation was caused largely
by government spending which has
wildly exceeded ineome, plunging
us deeper into debt. Jt has, in effect,
caused the introduction of mcire so--
goods and services with real or production.basc:d money, thus driving
up th e general cost of living.
member of t he United Nations?
Here is a comparison of the find gs:
Leaders rublic
,h ould ad111it China .. fool% :?;'i ~
i hould not


... 4
The yote of the general public
nee the fir.ot measurement on this
sue, in Hl.'5 0, has been consistentlv
1 the negative side, e.specially if it
1eant tha t Nationalist China would
the\· use a portable electrified megal)hone which can be e\·en more
Around 3 a.m. one night recently
she heard a policeman on Hollywood
Freeway calling sepulchrally on
his bullhorn to ~ motorist, "You
have a faulty tailpipe!tt

For the first social event of the SC·
mester, 82 freshmen at Harvey
College, the engineering
school out Claremont way, were
asked to write on cards their personal specifications - age, height,
weight and so on.
The cards were fed lntn a computer which was set to pair these eager
voung men agreea bly with girls at
Scripps and Pitzer colleges.
However, a spy reports, the com•
puter refused to digest their perhaps
stilted statistics and refused to make
dates for them.

The world is so fu ll of mechanical
thi ngs,
R e pairmen should all be as happy os
k f ugs .
That was the honest fact this administration co~ld have faced. Instead it has chosen to invent a fact
of its own. It telts us the cause of InInquiry from A. V. Waugh: "For
flation is our spending, and this years Mr. Occupant· and Mr. Res·
doesn't mean just business spend· ident have had their mail coming tn
ing. The President somi; months ago my address. I have never managed
had the nerve to suggest that house- to catch up with either to make
wives cut do.wn on their family . them stand part o·f my 01·erhead. To-meals. He should have added: so da y ano.ther freeloader, Mr. Housethat Lyndon John$on doesn't have holder. started using my addre~s for
to cut down on · the bureaucratic his sales pitch mail and I asked the
banquet he has been .serving since boss man at my Post Office to pul up
taking office.
a Wanted poster for h im. He said I
would have lo get a picture to go
The Investment tax credit, of with the sign or he couldn't post it.
course, falls into ·his crusade against Should I go over his head and ask J.
business spending. But that are_a Edgar?"
should ring an alarm bell for every
Naw, that won'.t do any good.
American·who works for a living or Have you ever considered putting a
every young American who is on the mousetrap in your mailbox?

verge of having to work for a living.

Do yoi, thin k Comm unist Ch in!l
w uld or should ti ot be admitted a,
laicit sl:~;y, reports Misty Maring,
who Jives near F'ountain Ave. and
St. Andrews, police have stopped
u sing sirens at night, perhaps out of
consideration for sleepers. Instead ,
).f u d d
lll:Y given moment, says the sus-
By getting his left.wing majority
in Congress to cu't out the investment tax credit. Lyndon Johnson
may get some $2 billion extra for his
rg~sti~~ff! credit is a move to
~f~: 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)o~:t i~tt143.215.248.55p~le~~ 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)
be-:!1:::~b~~;~w jobs to our busines.,
szn~ili~s°!h~h~e16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)
Sounds in Night---Bullhorn
Blast1'ng 'St1'llness' of Freeways
the labor of 10 men will cut its old·

Ih,, for
• P'"
' 0' equipmen,
which lasts
10 years
and saves
r.~t~:~!~~=:~:~n:,~;i f1[~\~~.:~~5i:~1:f:~~!,11:irn;1!
testment tax credit. Left.wing advo-,l ates of pro-bureaucracy economy,
~l'most all Democrats In this case,
t<>tcd for it.
•·1t occurrc<l to me 1lia1 if·anrone wanted to invade tl1is countrr,. they'd
do it duriag World Seri ea time!"

Congressional passage or Pres~ent Johnson's late:;;t antibusiness,
• ntiprosperity and antiproductivity
~easure is another example of the
t.angers of a lopsided left-wing ma·
!Ority on Capitol Hiii.

~some firms will find, for ex-
~!:e ta~ecot~~ bJi~!~ :t° 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST);,~;
Bill Drake of Bell recently recalled a memorable moment years
ago around a campfire at Yosemite
ally kill major plans to add new fa.
flation of our economy to stop. The
The head of Armco Steel summed
<1nly ones who gain from inflation it up accurately when he said Mr.
are those government theorists who Johnson's latest antibusiness slap
obviously are looking for ways to sab- will hurt all those companies "trying
otage the market economy. They the hardest to create new job oppor'f,·Quld love to so economically strap tunitles and to make American inth1s nation that they would be able rlustry more competitive with those
-:o demand more collectivist controls OYerseas."
01i us under the gu ise of averting the
Or, as the distinguished financial
disaster which their sort of mis·
~nanagement began in the first place. 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)iu~~! ~~d·~:;i~;o:
The relationship of lnflalJpLt ,J live wiU1i1:1 ' ") means (the adminis1he im•estment tax cr~l;l l i a ,...-..- ;,,,a~ ; p:a ,.i to live off capital.M
feet c;i:se in poinL
And Ui•· payments will be made
~ ~f!
i . ~;,~~'1~~ re;;:
us..r ,i,. a period .._fi\.arming in-
Right now it Is the biggest thing gro performance Is not much tmgoing in American polilics-bigger proved by better libraries or labora•
even than show biz.
tories or even better teachers. The
· But, while lt shows Itself every- main requirement is association
where and keeps recurring, it has no with ,yhites. The report says: •If a
stay ing power. no steadiness at all. minority pupil from a home without
Rather than backlash, it should be much educational strength is pu t
with schoolmates with-strong edu~
called backllicker.
For the time being, no dq),!bt, the tional background, his· achievemen~
flickering is intense. Covert. hostility is likely to increase."
to the Negro, expressed in the form
of denouncing crime and riots as
though someone else favored them,
Thus, as long as education re-..
used to be the exclusive property of mains seg~egated, Negro perfortl:te Goldwateritcs inside the Repub- mance in the schools is likely to 1tay
lican Party. Now it has become the · 1ow. That means ·dropouts, unemofficial -party Jine,Dlared e~·en by ployment, crime and r1ots:--Thus the
former President Eisenhower.
more segregation is practiced, the
worse the basic problem becomes.
Similarly with the problem of lhe
On the Democrai.ic side, anti-Ne· cities. Cars, trucks and planes have
gro sentiment has beat long odds in made it increasingly easy for compa•
and people to locale where they
gubernatorial primaries in Mary·
land and Georgia. Gov. "Pat" Brown please instead of where raw materi•
is running· for re-election in Califor· als and labor are a\'ailable.
A;; a result, towns under 50,000 in
nia as if he were .\1r. D.A. The one
Democrat to take a· strong stand the Industrial heartlands are decay.
against racism, B.ep. Charles Welt- ing. Larger· cities of 01·er- 500,000
the coasl.s are sprawling into
ner of Atlanta, who has quit his con·
test for re:-election rather than sup-port a segregationist candidate for
governor, is about as popular with
his colleagues as Stokeley Carmichael.
Inevitably the sentiment that has
swept the two parties has dominated
the tail end of the congressional session. Anti-Negro feeling ls the main
reason why the civil rights bill was
beaten in the Senate In the vole on
cloture; why appropriations for the
..Gi,·e me your wre1ched. . ...
poverty program have been cut
back; why the demonstration cities
bill is in trouble in the House; why h u g e, overcrowded metropolitan
there has been a reaction against de- spreads burdened by intense compe•
segregation of federal hospitals; and tition for residential space among
why there has been savage bullying different ethnic groups embittered
of the commissioner of education, by congested streets, schools and
Harold Howe II, for what he has hospitals, and bad water and air.
said (not done, but said) about school
Still the mood of the present Is not
The way to solve that problem Is
going to last. Ugly as It may be, it not by fenci ng in Negroes. It is to
tends by its very nature to be fitful, develop a new approach to the con•
to ~how itself strongly in primaries struction, layout and rebuilding of
and to fade for general elections. cities so that urban dwelling can b&
And not by any accident but for made more satisfying for more
good and identifiable reason.
people-the exact program of the
demonstration cities bill. But the
more action is delayed, the more the
The reason ls that hostility to the problem will become acute and the
Negro works to compound, not to more pressure for the demonstration
soh-e, the undouhled problems of cities bill or some variant will grow.
the country.
In sum, racial ugliness has an lnConsider, for example, the case of tr!nsically seasonal character. lnsoeducation. A superb report on equa• far as public energy is directed
lity of education just now issued by against the Negro, the serious probthe office of education challenges lems of the nation only deepen. The
many of the usual assumptions deepening problems serve to recall
about the school system in the na- the nation's attention from the
diversion of race feeling to the unIn particular, it suggests that the derlying issues. And the ln~ting
J;:ey element in student performance question now is whether race. tenis not the school so much as the sions will subside enough to
home, or general cultural back· permit new approaches to national
ground. With respect to what the problems while there Is stlll rOOm to
school can do, the fi nding lg that Ne- maneuver.

most· help actually work against
those in the low income range.
The Tax Foundation' de,scribes a
negative effect of the increase in the
taxable wage base from $4,800 to $6,·
The Latest Johnson Folly
1lic, 'Who's Who'
t for Red China
l Nations. Last year the General
ssei:nbly voted 47 to 47. with 20 ~bentions, on a resolution to brmg
1ina into the United Nations. A
•o--thirds vote is required for any
In recent surveys-one hased on !l
1mple of the nation's adults, and
1e other based on a sample of per•ns listed in "Who's Who," this
iestion was asked:
Social Security Taxes~n Injustice to You~hs
rt passe.
'Outdated Remarks'
Lin Mo-h:m, a former deputy
rector of the party's propaganda
~partment, observed in 1!)61:
Vhen studying the thought of Mao

e•tung, there is no need to take

ry word as gospel. Some of Ch air•

an Mao's remarks are outdatecP
Lin's objections were sugared war by comparison with the vitriol
Jrled at Mao and his theories by

her senior members of the party.

The dominant clique of ,the party
as responded to all difficulties by
nensifying repression. By such tac•
cs the dogmatists have not only
lienated the masses, but have made
issenters of many of their former
omrades. The Chinese party is ex•
,eriencing a revolution against dogatism.
The open expression of disil!usion
gan In 19j8. It intensified during
e laissez faire days of 1961 and
me to climax in 196.'.i-1006. Its
actical result was the refusal of
bstantial groups of officlals in the
ovinces to carry out all the orders
American action in Vietnam also
s played a major role in con\'inc; the realists tha t China cannot
rry the world before her. Any ma.
' U.S. retreat in Vietnam would
dermine their position. On the
1cr hand, serious U.S. offers of ac11modation - diplomatic and eco-
,;oop inion .
The Backflicker--Biggest
Thing Going in Politics.
Al a piibUc urvice, The Timu pr~sentl on thi1 page colum11i1t, who~e opinlonl
rtfitd tltoH of our cliv,ru naderillip, not neceuari/11 thoa, of TM Time, iUdf.


\~~\~~e :r:d ~i,r;e:.:ir~ · ·
!iced In this latest Johnson fo!ly.
when a group led by a girl with a
guitar sang a song wlth the words,
" If l get to heaven before you do, l'!l
dri\l a hole and pull you through."
He hadn't heard it before and hasn't
Well, it tu rns out a fot of other
people ha\'e.
lt's a pseudo-spiritual titled , "I
Ain't Gonna Grieve My Lord No
j\[ore," a favorite among Boy Scout,
Girl :::icout, Ca mp i,·1re and Y groups.
They make u p their own ve rses as
they go along. There are endless variations including these:
"I f l get to heaven before you rln
I'll plug that hole and the heck with
you ." Also, "If you get to heaven be·
fore I <lo, just drill a hole and pull
me through.M
"You can't get to hcaYen on roller
skates, because )'ou'll roll right by
them pearly gates. "
"You can't get to h_eavcn in a rock·
ing chair. you haYe to climb to get
up there.• tOr, "If you do you'll slide
by the golden stair.~ Or, "Because
the Lord don't want no lazy folk
there. ")
"Oh, you can't get to heaven in_ a
Cad illac, the four.wheel brake& will
h old you back."
lf there's no campfire handy, Rita
Chavez slates the song's marvelous
for keeping children busy on Jong
auto trips.

Had your irony today? Copy edi.
hr Terry Green said it to a colltague: ~Isn't it great after all th~se
\,eeks of page 1 stories about Viet·
nam and riots to get back to normal?" And he pointed lo the head·
lines in another paper proclaiming
"Valley Wife Swap Ring" and "Dope
Ca.rgo Seized on Lobster Boat." ·

IThe Puzzling Move of Russia 1
cially abusive of Soviet leaders ·in recent weeks? Or do the Soviets have
intelligence reports that new escala-'
tion steps are in the offing on both
sides which might cause the Vietnam war to spread-and the Russi. A scene In the Perry Mason show ~t:h~~o143.215.248.55rd wi!e~o:!1: !:t~e~:f; ans see the airlines agreement as a
paci fying gesture?

i~~!i~!at~rc~r:eb143.215.248.55 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST) ~W'~~u! important talks.

Mr. Johnson isn't likely lo ·learn
commercial with the introductory
Out of Moscow we hear Russian
words, "Sleep warm" •.• A man \'Oices announcing a huge new pro-- much about Soviet intentions from
Gromyko. The President surely re.
who had arranged for his wife to ~:~ a~d sis:~e;ti~~ s;;t ~~:t16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)= members the Thursday artemoon in
pick him up at his office a nd go from can •aggressors• should have no "ii· October, 1962, when Gromyko called
~~!~~etoof t~in~~riS~e o143.215.248.55e~o hi~n; lusions" that Russia will ffleave the on the late President Kennedy just
prior u:, returning lo Moscow.
the preciou s tickets and he had the .. Vietnamese people in trouble."
Mr. Kennedy liste:ned to Gromyko
thought,_ "\\lha~· if she had an acBut out.of \Vai;hington almost. Si·
make threats about Berlin and
0143.215.248.55=t~e~~!\o143.215.248.55!~d;o~ 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)l~~= watched him _shrug off all questions
the long·stalled . agreement that about Soviet aggrcssi\'e intentions
permit direc~ airline service in Cuba, Mr". Kennedy alreaily wa1
Answers to News Quiz would
in possession or evJdence the
between New York and .l\Ioscow.
Russian.s were installing offensive
missiles' in Cuba.
(Questions en Pag~ :i)
Mr. Johnson .can only' wonder"·
Jf the latter announcement really what
1- ln the DeMilitarize9 Z_one bemoves the ·RussiaM are mak-·
reflects the current altitude of So- ing and planning .in Vietnam as
tween North and South Yietn~m.
viet leaders, it is both surprising and
2-Harold Howe II.
Monday's talks with Gromyko take
important. For it would indicate a
4 - Foreign Secretary George· significant reversal in the Soviet
trend toward a more hostile attitude
Brown of Britain.
toward the United States.
One thing Is The Pres5---Thc GOP.
President Johnson has said to the ident will get a chance to •touch
6-New Zealand, Australia, the
Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Soviets in 50 different ways these Gromyko a bW-a phrase the Pres-last
sometimes uses to describe a
South Korea.
nam ought not stop the worli.s two delicate verbal la~hing.
7-F'resh water and ele<:tricity.
most powerful nations • from f'lnding
He will surely try to imp~s upon
8---President -Johnson.
9-lndonesian Gen. Abdul Nasu· new ways of dealing with one anoth· Gromyko his determination to aee
the Vietnam struggle through to an
Through prl\'ate channels he ha, honorable finish . And he will warn
10-Sen. Wayne Morse.
'indicated U.S. willingness to con· that the Russians are taking a !ruing
elude the airline agreement and the and dangerous gamble if they think
pact that would permit the opening U.S. opinion wi,JI force h im to.withof consulates outside Moscow and draw. Mr. Johnson will chide GroWashington. Mr. Johnson let It be myko for Russia's failure to keep the
known that he might be amenable to promises Khrushchev made to Prea-a summit conference with the Soviet ident Kennedy in Vienna about joint
rulers and that he wanted to go on actions to maintain peace in South•
exploring possibilities for greater east Asia. He will tell the beetletrade between the United Slates and browed foreign minister that n othing is more vita,! to the survival of
the Soviet Union.
The Russians always responded mankind than the maintenance of
with the cold argument that the sane relations between the two great
United States could "not expect to nuclear powers.
Gromyko himself will utter. a
carry on normal relations with one
socialist country while bombing and hush warning or two about Vietnam and some bold words about Sokilling the people of another.•
To implement this policy, Soviet viet determination to help Hanoi t?
officials reduced contact with offici- Yictory. And, if some miracle of d1•
al Americans to a bare minimum plomacy has occurred, he will say
and urged the Communist countries that the airline agreement and o';her
i;: an e
relations with 1.he United
of Eastern Europe to do the same.
Why the sudden movement on th& States ran now go forward.
But l rather doubt that he'll 111
~~ airline ,agreement? I~ it a Russian
way o( thumbing their noses at· the enotigh · to permit Mr. Johnaoa. W
C~r!OOII n Ollllhf'lf pe- identify •the real Soviet Union.•

•wm the real Soviet Union stand
That could well be the line with
which President Johnson greets SoYiet Foreign Minister Andrei Gro--


c~_... ............
________________......:.------·---~--------~·- ··-----·----,.,
The View From the Bottom of the Barrel
At summer's end, racial disturbances brolte out Jn
San Francisco and Atlanta, two bellwether citiea
Kemingly attuned to the changing times. The out•
breaks were minor compared to the scope of lut sum•
mer'• riots in other cities, but the reverberatione were
felt across the country. Why San Frmcieco? Why;
'.Atlanta? For some answers, Opinion offen the ueeu,,
ments of Ray Rogers and Jack Nelson, Times staff
writers who were there.
The southeasterly view of the San Franelsoo penfnsula from Hunters
Point is breathtaking. But for its Negro inhabitants it is a view from
the bottom of a barrel.
Hunters Point is the 123-acre sue
of a naval shipyard operatlon which
Includes 2,000 two-story dilapidated
apartmen t houses built during
World War II for migrant shipyard
workers. Now, under the auspices of
the Califomia Housing Authority,
20,000 Negroea and a handful of
whites are boaaed there.
Poverty on this hillside Is stlfilng.
Families, with as many aa 15 per•
sons, huddle In cramped apart-Perspective: News in Review
The young men and women who
Jive there blot-out their oppressive
circumstances with liquor, aex and
joyriding in stolen cars.
s1 mbol of BWtop
Symbolically, on Hilltop, the apex
of Hunters Point, all that remains of
faces. And they didn't have to kill
a large shopping center which ser• that boy. No air. But they are cop•
viced the area is a J1qµor store. It and they think they can do anything
does a heavy business from early they want to us and we won't do
morning until late at night. Residents say the rest of the mercl\. = ~~;'t them days i9
ants were driven oot by the YoUng
One of h1a companions said with
men who reacted violently to their quiet determJrurtton:
•Man. we may have to do It all
And these same young men. over again, you knO"II', because I
about 200 in all - reacted vio- don't think they gonna act right. All
lently again two weeb ago when they had so far ia a llWe taste. We
16 . year . old Mathews Johnson J r. got the atuff to really lay it on them,
was fatally shot by a white police-- and we would have laid If on them
man while fleeing from a stolen car. if they had come up on the Hill. We
They left their hlll and converged were ready for them.•
on 3rd SL-a main thoroughfare
Thls partlcular young man Is a
six blocks away - and amuhed and member of a normally law-abiding
burned white business establish· family that bas lived on the Point
ments for two daya.
for several years. One of hfs brothers
One young man, who wore a black 1a a well known professional sports
bandkerclllef tied around hll bead
1.011 anurtt•
The Shiny Image Begins to Fade
sure by civil tights groups and the
f.e de r a l government, and strong
leadership by responsible press, reU.
gious and civic groups, business and
industries with vested interests in
the city's Image.
If a majority of the whites who
fluence and reputation of its moder• voted in Atlanta's city election of
ate capital city-Atlanta.
1961 had had their way, Lester MadBut the victory of a virulent racist dox and not the racially moderate
- Lester Maddox-in a Democratic Ivan Allen Jr. would have been
primary runoff for governor exposes elected mayor. A large Negro bloc
to the country a fact most Georgians vote gave Allen his victory margin.
already knew: The great majority of Last month Maddox polled 56% of
the state's whites are just as rigid as the white vote In Fulton County
Alabamans and Mississippians in (Atlanta) in the runoff with former
their oppoeiUon to the civil rights Gov. Ellis Arnall, a liberal on race.
(Although with heavy Negro supmovemenL
Moreover, Atlanta's moderate ac- port Arnall carried the county, 80,·
commodation with the movement 278 to 43,295.)
has been achieved only through a
Congressman Charles L. Wellner,
rare combination of long-lime pollti• who baa contributed .,-eatly to the
cal participation by Negroes; pres- Atlanta Image, needed the Negro
For 8 years most of Georgia has
managed to maintain a tenuous-if
aometimes spotty-image of racial
moderation, due largely to the in-
vote to defeat segregationist opponents in 1962 and in 1964. And it
took the Negro vote for him to get
the Democratic nomination for an.
other term last month-a nomination he surrendered Monday rather
than "compromise with hate• by
complying with a party oath to sup.
port Maddox as a party nominee.
If Georgia's image has been misleading to the nation, it also has
tranquilized some of its moderate
politicians into believing the stateand most of the South for that matter-had "turned the comer" on the
race issue. Juffl last year Gov. Carl
E. Sanders told a press coTlference at
a Southern Governora' Conference
that race waa: pasee in 80\lthem poll•
And Congl'elBIDQ Weltaer told


~,.f! ~
ter Maddox admits that Negroes
have the right to vote:• Wellner
called Maddox's action in closing his
Pick rick restaurant rather than
serve Negroes "a great service to the
people . of the South" because It
showed the ultimate result of bitter•
end resistance. ·The people discov.
ered that there ls something to this
talk about the law of the land, after
all," said Wellner. "They looked at
Lester and said, 'well, If ole Lester
can't stop it, I can't either.••
Atlanta's image of moderation,
praised nationally but ridiculed In
t be Georgia hinterlands, was a
strong factor favoring Maddox In
problems-U. publJc aca:,,,
ochoolp ond ocher g,ovmuneat
PleaM Tana te P ... Z. C.I. t


wu with
and I'd
It all over
again. What did the, ffW do fer ua
but take our momy and apl& 1a. OW'
=rve~ ~ ~ ! .:n~
tblnp hYe not been the NJne for
him since. He spends hts daya hang•
got ~"1fng
and com1ng: be said las&
91 don't want.
to live like thll,. but I know they
o!n' going to do onytlilng me but
whip my head U I just look like-I
want to pt out of line. But I know
=~sea~ fo:!'i:t': m':"~ !:
can stand and that's IL A man can't.
live like we do up hen! and accept lt.
day after day and be happy,•
DefenN la Vloleace
Most of the young on Hunters
Point, the bulk of whom are unemployed, are not unlike theae young
men. They have Jived by their wita!° ;!1:!i 0::

!= f!

have more than their parenta had.
and they will not be put off.
Adult Negroea at Hunteni Point.
may or may not agree with what the
young have done, but they would
not Interfere.
While funeral services were talr·
lng place at the Evergreen Baptist.
Church on 3rd St. for young Math-ews Johnson, several hundred teen.
age Negroe8 stood quleUy outside •
the church, waiting and watching.
The silence was eerie and plain,,
clothes poltcemen, black and white.
were Mgy as they moved among the
voiu°:~re:i~ ~ls~the~tic:1;:
i~:~~; ;!~t,:.,~:i· maintaining calm during the funer,.

'-===-=-..:....--==--..:..::==----------------------------- ~
t h ~c:w:·:: ;
people in and out of the church.
THI WEST-Mayor Jofin F. SJielli end San Francisco, a city with a
view whicJ, ccn be breathtaking or
r A Canadian Viewpoint-Vietnam Is Your War, Not Ours
America finds It difficult to understand her allies.
Her soldiers are dying in Vietnam
to defend the free world from Communist aggressiqn while Canadians
alleviate their balance of payments
by 11e1Ung wheat to Peking.
America by various treaties Is
committed to defend Canada and
other allies U they are attacked, yet
these allies, with the exception of
those nearest the war scene, offer in
return no physical support and only
JnUted moral support on Vietnam.
It is surprising that the U.S. public Is as tolerant of the allied positions as it has been.
Yet while the allies understand
the anguished feelings of America,
their protector, there is a perspective which the United States must
try to understand. It involves a political prlnclple which the Americans
themselves have long held dear: the
relationship between taxation and
representation, between the obligation to carry out a policy and the responsibility for making policy.
The dilemma ls Inescapable and
cannot be solved by any simple poli•
John \V. Holmes L! director of the
Canadian Institute of International
Affairs and in 1950-51 he was acting
permanent representative of Canada
ta the Uni,ed Nations. His periodic
column of comment, written exclusively for Th, Times, will present
the Canadian viewpoint oJi hem-ispheric and global ffl4tte1's.
tical principle, such as the pooling of
sovereignty. The best that the United States and Its allies can do ls recognize the dilemma and each oth•
ers' perspectives.
For Canada, Britain and other
close friends or the United States,
the approach to Vietnam is bound to
be at variance; the allies had little to
do with unilateral decisions by which
~~c 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)a:tta~sia~.;~: f;t143.215.248.55I~
argue that U.S. policy is totally
wrong, and the allies' positions are
totally right. It is not even to argue
that thoee decisions should have
been multilateral. But it is a fact
that the Vietnam involvement was
U.S. policy, not allied policy.
or course, there had been aome
consultation and 1ome sharing or
views, but the allies accepted rather
than concurred in U.S. policy. They
had no alternative.
For the most part, I do not think
that the friendly western countries
w o u l d be disposed to question
Washington's right to decide; after
all , America's own vast resources are
being used to carry out that policy.
The allies are disposed though to
ask for the right to offer advice.
Most of them recognize that they
cannot easily escape from an attl·
tude of • my protector ally, right or
The fact remains that It is harder
to die in a war which is not one's
making. In a real sense, it is not a
war of America's making either; she
went to help, as she saw it, a weak
people struggling against internal
and external aggression.
Most thoughtful people In allied
countries understand how and why
the United States was drawn into
the war. But that does not mean that
a majority of them think.a that 1M
United States was wise In Its re.
sponse. Like the vocal minority in
the United States, some of them re.
gard America as the aggressor. This
opinion is not so important as the
opinion of those who feel themselves
engaged on the U.S. side, but who
fee l that Washington has embroiled
itstlf in a mess for which they are
loath to accept responsibility.
Although some western nations
have accepted the trend of U.S. policy In recent years, it is not a direotion they favor. By concurring In
the Geneva agreements of 1954, Britain and France accepted the principle that the three nations of Southeast Asia-Laos, Cambodia and Viet,.
nam-must be encouraged to live In
neutrality. They were not naive
enough to belie\',e that the Commu.
nlsts would respect that neutraHty,
but they did see the possibility- the
only one-that a kind of equilibrium, a vacuum between the pressures of Communist and American
power, could be created. It was the
best prospect.
The Uniter\ States, while promising to respect the Geneva accords,
withheld Its moral support which
alone could have given the accords a
chance of suocess. There is no value
now in recrimlnatlons or arguments
as to which path was correct. The
United States went off in its own
dlrecUon, and what is happening
now items from that decision,
Obviously, disaster might have
followed the other choice. We can't
tell. Because America refused to try
It, however, the British, French and
Canadians find lt difficult to feel re9POnslble for the U.S. course.
The easy answer to this dilemma
ts that great decisions should be
made jointly. The question Is: How?
Those who would say that a council
of NATO rolnistera can do it ignore
the reality of internat.loaal politics.
The United States is too committed
to worldwide policies to be tied to a
strategy made in the Atlantic area,
and the Congress is a more stubborn 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST):e0\a~~etda143.215.248.55 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)\1e143.215.248.55tft
is questionable whether the United
States wants to acquire additional
military help In Vietnam at a cost of
acknowledging an allied voice in
Until some solution can be worked
out through the United Nations, the
United States will have to do lta own
fighting. It may not be fair, but Is Is
not fair either to expeot alliea to
fight and have no voice.
There are many advantages in beIng a super power, but they; have
their price.
A Negro youth In a leather coat
said: •They ain't going to kill any
more of our young men lite that. We
ain't going to have that.•
Attitude el Adults
And so the adulta realise their
young are reacting to conditions
which have been prevalent at Hun.
ters Point for too long. And they do
not regard them as exlremlsta.
A 42-year-old conatruction worker
said: •we gotta make these people
respect us. I mean them people that
own the stores around here, moetly,
but also the people downtown.•
Too many residents In the low Income housing development on Hunters Point do not believe they will
ever be able to accumulate enough
wealth to leave their bleak hillside.
Apartment rents range from $55
to $17~month, -and rise as the Jamily's maximum income rises. A fa•
mlly earning $600-a-month would
pay $135-a-month, and this would
not include their utilities.
Owen Brown, a 55-year-old disabl·
ed construction worker who has
lived on the Point for five years.
said: ·When you sign the lease ii,
says this It suppo_sed to be tempora·
ry bouling. 'n1ey tell you that while
you're living here you"re supposed
to save your money for a down pay•
ment on a home. How In the hell can
Pleue T1lrD t. Pare z. Col. I
�2 sec. c-suN .. oc,. •. ,...
Peking Dogmatists
Are Going Too Far :
Seventeen years ago, Mao Tsetung &tood under the peaked eaves
of the Gate of Heavenly Peace in
Peking and declaimed: "Today, the
Chinese people stand erect!"
The Communists' Jong journey toward power had fi nally come to its
goal with the proc1amauon of the
Atlanta's Shiny Image
Is Beginning to Fade
Continued from Fint Pa,:f'
facilities are desegregated, but It has
ghettos and has experienced Negro
riots-Atlanta conjur@d up images
that intensified the fears or whites
living in areas or heavy Negro population.
To say this was a decisive factor
in Maddox's overwhelming victory
(442,055 to 373,004) over Arnall
would be oversimplifying a complex:
political picture. Arnall was far
from an attractive candidate-even
to many moderates. There is an
abundance or evidence that supporters of the Republican gubernatorial
nominee - Congressman Howard
, {Bo) Callaway- voted in large numbers for Maddox, reasoning that a
fanatic would be easier to defeat
than a liberal in the November general election. And there were other
However, Atlanta loomed large in
the minds of rural and small-town
whites who went to the polls to
choose between a well-known liberal
and a better-known segregationist.
Wasn't Atlanta where "black power" advocate Stokely Carmichael
had his headquarters'! Wasn't it
where members of the Student Nonv i o I en t Coordinating Committee
helped touch off Negro rioting in the
last few days before the first primary? Wasn't It the home of a Negro
bloc vote that went to Arnall in the
first primary and it was sure to go to
him in the runoff with Maddox?
Marcbinr Across Georgia!
Couldn't you see masses of
· Negroes-no, black hordes-marching into every little town in Georgia
shouting "BLACK POWER"?
And who would stop them! Certainly not Ellis Arnall, who had
promised to put r-iegroes on the state
But Lester Maddox would slop
them. He had shown his determination when he waved a pistol and
handed out ax handles to a white
crowd in Hl64 to bar Negroes from
his restaurant in Atlanta.
Jim Pinson, a veteran newspaperman in a county (Ware) which went
overwhelming for President Johnson In 1964, but voted for Maddox
over Arnall, summed up the attitude
of the white majority in his area:
"We had some moderation, but it's
out the window now. There already
was resentment over the school de-
well as southern congressmen lo
warn the Negro that his movement
is out of bounds and must be slowed
Such warnings by northern politicians are o[ great political benefit to
the Lester Maddoxes and George
W allaces who have warrled all along
that too much was being done "for"
the Negro. The scorn of the North
was once a check on some of the excesses of white supremacy in the
South, but riots in northern cities
and Dr. King's equa1 housing forays
into Chicago have eased that pressure.
At a time when he has to run to
stay up-when Maddox and other
segregationists are showing
strength at the polls and the civil
rights movement is stalled- the Ne-
Peopleit Republic ~f China In Octoher of 1949. Great tasks remained,
but the greatest task had already
been accomplished. For the first
time In 150 years a unified China
was ruled by a single government.
Mao, at once the generalissimo
and the prophet or the revolution,
laid down an audacious program. He
would expel foreign influence from
China, remake the country's economic and social structures; create a
new Communist man; direct China
toward a new golden age of perfect
harmony, and make that new China
the guiding force of a new Communist era throughout the world.
Muslvo Frustration
Seventeen years later, none of
those great purposes, except the expulsion of foreign influence, has
been attained. Facing massive frus·
tration, the Communist Party of
China, Mao's proudest creation, is
now in a state of disarray which recalls the demoralization within the
shoo-in. Polls showed he was a 2-to-1 bureaucracy before the collapse of
favorite over any of the Democratic an Imperial dynasty.
candidates. But it's a new ball game
It would he foolhardy to predict
now and Callaway, a colorless cam- the collapse of Mao's dynasty, if for
paigner, admits he's in trouble.
no other reason than the total abA Georgia state official, a moder- sence of any organized opposition
ate who won't be quoted by name, ou,tside the Communist Party. But it
belie\'eS the state is in trouble rebe deliberate blindness to iggardless of who wins. And he's pro- would
the evidence of dissension
bably right. He points out that as nore
within the party itself. The present
the gubernatori.i:l nominee Maddox Great Cultural Revolution is the
already has control of the Democra- most sweeping purge in the history
tic Party - whose members man of the party and the most frenzied
most or the state offices, city halls
to 'remold" Chinese society.
and court houses-and has stirred effort
Its ~chief target is the anti-party, anracial feelings to a high pitch.
"Ernie and Carl kept m1 out of ti-socialist, bourgeois black gang in
within the party." according
troulJle, • he said, "but they are rea- power
Defense Minister Lin Piao, Mao's
sonable people who were under ob~- to
protege who is the eHective ruler of
gation to reasonable forces. They China.
~:~;~r~ls~~:1a143.215.248.55 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)I t~n k~1::t\oi:::! What, then. are the Chinese Comor 'em in the head just. like they\·~ munists fighting about?
done in Alabama. And tbe people of
Voluminous Evideac:e
Georgia as a whole would not care.
The evidence has been so voluI'm sorry to say it 0 but lt'I true. We min0us and so vehement that it
tends to obscure the answer. Persoand Mississip- nal
power ls the major prize the
winner will take. But power is not
the ultimate issue.
The issue Is nothing Jess than the
policies which will determine the future of China.
almost as isolated as he ever was
from the mainstream of American
life, that he is still the last hired and
the first fired, that he does not have
free access to the housing market,
that despite a 12-year-old Supreme
Court decision and the 1964 Civil
Rights Act. the overwhelming majority of his schools are all-Negro,
and in most of the South the 196.J
Voting Rights Act has been of little
benefit to him.
Gains • nd Standstill
A brief look at Negro progress
during the eight years of relative
moderate state leadership in Georgia
l'eflects few gains outside Atlanta
and some other urban areas. New
employment opportunities-as policemen, firemen, department stol'e
clerks, telephone operators, airlines
employees and as professional staffers in some ca ses-ha,·e opened in
the larger cities, but rigid exclusions
Hill exist in most places. More than
93 "0 or the state's Negro students
still attend all-~egro schools, many
of them inferior to the white schools.
Negroes don't dare use public accommodations in mo,it areas and in
some counties they are still afraid to
register to \'Ole.
But the gains of the civil rights
n:iovcmcnt in Georgia and the rela~
t1\·e lack of oHicial defiance in the
stale seem significant when compared with the small gains, the violence and turmoil and official resistance in neighboring Alabama.
Georgia has experienced sporadic
t r o u b I e - beatings, bombings,
church burnings-but nothing of
the magnitude of the violence in
Alabama and Mississippi. ltl most
cases, the Georgia state patrol and
local officials have acted with restraint in dealing with civil rights
Widespread corruption In a segregationist administration co ll p I e d
with the moderating influence of At·
lanta interests, helped keep Georgia
off the segregation-at-all-costs road
traveled by Alabama and Mississippi the past eight years.
Corruption as Issue
The corruption. exposed by Atlanta's newspapers, cut short the political career of former Gov. Marvin
Grtf!in, a Wallace-type segregationist. E}lected as governor in 1958 over
a Griffin choice was Ernest Vandiver, who was supported by the Atlanta newspapers and who used the
newspapers' exposes in his election
When Griffin attempted a comeback he was swamped in the 1962
governor's race by a young state
senator - Carl E. Sanders - who
campaigned on the corruption issue,
Both Vandiver and Sanders campaigned to segregationists-neither
could have been elected otherwise-·
but both spoke strongly for law and
order. And both were under obligations to their Atlanta supporters to
practice moderation.
The fear of moderates now Is that
Maddox, if he wins in the general
election, not only will be such a fanatic on race that he will not listen to
reason. but that he will be under no
restraining influences.
He owes his nomination to the
white masses and the only political
debts ~e is compiling are to those segregationist politicians who swung
behind his campaign just befo~. or
Immediately after, the runoff with
ConUnued Crom Flnt Par e
you do that if everytime you get a $:i
increase on your job they raise the
damn rent~ And there ain't no sense
in thinking about trying to beat
them because you got to show them
your w ithholding statement at the
end of the year.•
A white housing authority employee who lives on Hunt.ers Point
said he saw young Negroes walking
along the slopes with rifies, shotguns and Molotov cocktails.
'These People are'
·They never bothered me, but hell
would have broke loose on this hill if
the police had come up here in
force,~ he said. "I know It sure'as I
am sitting here. These people are
mad, and they should be. No man
should have to live the way they
have to up here. But where can they
go? There's some nice places over In
Fillmore, but they want $~amonth for them. I can't pay that
kind of rent."
It ls hazardous lo generalize, but
the post-riot mood at Hunters Point
seemed more angry and more suspicious than in Watts. As white San
Francisco began-a year or even
five years too late-to come directly
to the aid of the Hunters Point
Negroes, the scope of the problem
was shown clearly when Jim Murray, chairman of the Chamber of
Commerce cfrlc affairs committee,
met Sept. 30 with a group of young
Negroes to attempt to understand
the conditions at Hunters Point.
Murray tried to assure the youths
that the Chamber soon would make
hundreds of jobs available to them.
He told them how at a recent meeting of the executive body of the
Chamber several important members pledged their cooperation.
'No $0-Cent J'obs'
One youth interjected: "Why is it
when you people do something for
us you never include us in the meetings? And another thing, we don't
want any 50-cent jobs for the holidays. 'J'he Post Office does that every Christmas, but some of us at this
table have records and that's that.
What are you gonna do about lhat?"
Murray did not waver. He told
them these questions would be i,ven serious consideration by the
"We don't want any jive from you
people. We want some action now so
we can carry It back to our people,•
one Negro replied.
~S:~tl143.215.248.55 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST):~~n~n~nth;11143.215.248.55=
saw them as an example of where
moderation failed. Seeing Stokely
Carmichael hollering 'black power'
on tele\•ision didn't help.•
Georgians know Maddox is not a
.well-educated man, but they see him
u a self-made man who showed great
courage by bucking the federal
,gov:ernment. They say, "He goes to
church and doesn't smoke or drink
and he is a good man and we'd have
done the same things he did if somebody tried to take over our busi-
Impact of Prorre11 on the low and lower
middle rungs of the economic ladder
voted heavily for Maddox, not only
in rural Georgia but in Atlanta and
other cities. They are the ones who
first feel the impact of Negro progress, whose chances at new jobs
may be threatened by equal employment opportunities, whose neighborhoods are more subject to "blockbusting,• and whose schools usuaily
face the largest doses of federally
·-enforced desegregation.
Their frustrations often are as
deep-seated as those of the Negroes
· they fear. What better way to vent
such frustrations than to vole for a
man who has shared the same fears
and who holds the same people reeponsible - President Johnson, the
Supreme Court, the left-wing press
and such ill-defined culprits as "the
The white voter reaction - in
Georgia, Maryland, Arkansas, Loui1lana and other states-has been
simply defined as ~backlash.• While
the term is a means of conveniently
describing negative reaction to demonstrations and rioting. It carries
the unfortunate connotation that
the Negro race ls guilty of transgresslona or excesses, and is therefore
being punished.
The truth, of course, Is that only a
tiny fraction of tl_le nation's Negro
population has been involved in riots and the great majority of those
killed and Injured in the dJsorders
have been Negroes. The only riots to
occur In the South this year were in
Jacksonville and Atlanta where the
disorders were confined to small
areas with no more than several
hundred persons involved; ln both
cities officials acknowledged that
Negroes had just grievances which
were ripe for exploitation by agitators.
But the riots, the cries of "black
pow e r• and the open housing
marches led by Dr. Martin Luther
King Jr. have been used as excuses
not only in Georgia, but in many
parts of the country, by northern aa
Times staff writer Elegant reports
from Hong-Kang.
Arnall. Among them ls James Gray,
who ran a strong fourth in the first
primary, During the first primary
campaigr., an indignant Maddox
charged that two men purporting to
represent Gray offered to buy him
out of the race for $100,000. Since his
nomination Maddox has announced
plans to appoint Gray chairman or
the Georgia Democratic Party.
As for Bo Callaway, he finds himself-as the saying goes-between a
rock and a hard place. Some of his
own supporter;; helped lo put him
there by taking advantage or the
fact that \"Oters are not registered by
party in Georgia and by voting for
)1addox in the Democl'atic primary.
This could rank as one of the biggest
political 1.ilunders in Georgia history.
Callaway. a segregationist. doesn't
know whether to step up his appeal
for the large white supremacy \'ote
or try to appeal to the Negroes, and
moderates who were disgusted with
the Maddox nomination.
Before the resounding Maddox
victory, Callaway waa considered a
Murray read the same statement
he had read to the press moments
before the meeting, but a Negro
"You mean that? I want you to
sign that, so later we don't hear you
· denying you said it. We're familiar
with that scene."
Murray then signed the statement
which said that the Chamber was accelerating a seven-point program, to
pl' jobs and job-training for Negro youths.
The need for urgency was voiced
last week by San Francisco's Mayor John F. Shelley who, when asked
whether he was satisfied with what
had been done to ease tension since
the riot, said: "No, l'm not and never will be. There's too much discussion and not enough action on the
part of a lot or people.•
Unemployment is a dismal reality
among these young men. Most or
them dropped out of school early because it seemed pointless. Some of
them have the ability to handle semi-skilled jobs but most of these
jobs go to the high school graduates
who do not have police records.
One Man's Story
Some of them are even discouraged before they ever get to pro&pective employers. Said one young
"Sometimes I get up early In the
morning feeling good. I know there's
a job out there for me. l leave the
hill early on tbe bus. I pick up a
newspaper and check out the jobs. I
see a couple that sound like I can
handle. I'm feeling real good about
then, you know.
"I'm walking real fast along Market St, and I'm looking at the people.
But I don't see myself. Then I know
what's going to happen. I know I'm
not going to get that job because
they're going to say I don't have
enough experience. So I turn around
and get back on the 3rd St. bus.
"Later I meet the fellows on the
corner and we get ourselves a bottle
ol wine and after awhile I forget all
about what happened that morning.
"I may have dropped out of school
because I knew what was going to
happen. Hell, I seen it happen before
to my father and my older brothers.
I wasn't going to let them mess up
my mind. But I ain't stupid. I know
what's happening. And e\'eryday I
Ne what happens to my friends,
They me~sed over my people for too
long. '!'hey better stop that foolishness and get themselves together
and straighten up because we ain't
ty Aissu~t143.215.248.55i1\ 16:43, 29 December 2017 (EST)i o:e~~!sfi:~
combined with Ill-founded economic
policies at home and the attempt to
bring the world under Chinese sway
by sponsoring guerrilla wars abroad.
Those phenomena are the practical
expressions of Mao's visions. If the
controversy were limited to sweeping protests against Mao and his policies, it would be epoch-making. But
an even greater issue is involved.
The Communists are approaching a
crisis in the process which has been
the essence of China's hislory since
the 18th century-the nation's adjw1tment to the rest of the world.
Because they had de\•eloped a
unique civilization In Isolation from
other nations that might have appeared their equals, the Chinese considered China and the world to be
synonomous. Nations, ln the western sense, did not exist. Outside China's borders were only "barbarians."
Such wa!! the Chinese attitude
when the West first came to China
with Its Bibles, its guns and itSi machinery.
Unlike the Japanese,. the Chinese
have never really abandoned that
attitude or really admitted that
equal nations exist. Mao's vision of a
Communist world under Chinese
tutelage maintain! the traditional
concept of Chinese superiority.
The Communists' failure to make
that superiority a reality has at least :
begun to cohvlnce many "leading
cadres" that Chi,na must learn to live I
on equal terms whh the world at
large. They have argued that Peking ·
must seek rapprochement with Moscow and Washington, white ceaslng
to sponsor "revolution" abroad,
~;rs ~u:f:;:.e l~hrm;~~: ::c~~ta~~
ol the equality of other nations.
The immediate issue. the stonn
center of the present debate, is the
validity of the canonized thought of
Mao, which the dogmatists Insist ia
the highest wisdom or humanity,
The pragmatists consider the
thought of Mao merely a body of
words which is in part useful and in
part passe.
'Outdated Remarks'
Lin M~han, a former deputy
director or the party's propaganda
department, observed in 1961:
•when studying the thought of Mao
Tse-tung, there is no need to take
very word as gospel. Some of Chail""
man Mao's remarks are ou~ated.-"
Lin's objettions were sugared wa•
ter by comparison with the vitriol
hurled at Mao anrl his theories by
other senior members of the party.
The dominant clique of the party
has responded to all difficulties by
intensifying repression. By such tac•
tics the dogmatists have not only
al ienated the masses, but have made
dissenters of many of their former
oomrades. The Chinese party Is experiencing a revolution against dogmatism.
The open expression of disillu~ion
began In 1938. It intensified during
the laissez faire days of 1001 and
came to climax in 196:i -1966. 118
practical result was the refusal of
substantial groups of officials in the
provinces to carry out all the orders
or Peking.
American action in Vietnam also
has played a major role in con\'incing lhe realists that China cannot
carry the world before her. Any ma,
jor U.S. retreat in Vietnam would
undermine their posilion. On the
other hand, serious U.S. orfers or accommodation - diplomatic and economic-would shake the dogmatists'
argument that China cannot, under
any circumstances, come to terms
with the ~imperialist camp."
· Vlhile fresh diplomatic efforl.J
wait. the Internal struggle mount.!!.
The dogmatists. who control the
armed forces, are now seek ing to
bring the apparatus of the part.y to
heel. The attempt has consumed
much more time and effort than
must have appeared likely when
they planned the counterattack.
Control of Apparatut
r-ionetheless. it appears that the
dogmatists will reestablish a high
degree of control of the party. They
will probably be able to reassert ef.
fective control over the apparatus so
that it is, once again, responsive to
their wishes, They control too many
or the sources of power to fail.
But lhe apparatus will be largely
diHerent from what it was before
1938 or even 1986. Each purge tends
to winnow out the more competent
and more Independent cadres. This
greatest purge appears likely to re-m o v e a1most everyone but t he
hacks, the men the Russians call
"apparatchiks• because of their abilily to survive inside the party. The
Chinese party will, therefore, be a
much less effective instrument than
it has been In the past.
Both the strength and the qua]lty
of the intra-party opposition to the
dogmatists have reached an overwhelming pitch. It Is unlikely that
t h e dogmatists can indefinitely
maintai n their dominance against
not only the people. ·but the party u
well. -A period of ever increasing•
pression lies immediat.ely ahead, but
the great crisis which turns the Chi,,
nese regime toward llberaliaatlon
cannot be Jong postponed. It may
come when Mao die&. It may a,me
GALLUP POLL: Public, 'Who's Who'
Disagree on U.N. Seat for Red China
"I'm tn favor of admitting Communist China to the U.N.-the bad
ed Nations. Last year the Gaeral
Assemb\yvoted47to47,wlthltabstentions, on a resolutioll to bring
~!~ ~t:~~h::;ra~~: f!!tlli:~ v~~
~; ~fu~1
!!~h~r{b1! pn~i~~n1!~diiga1143.215.248.55z!~~
A Florida historian commented in
the same vein: "Your deadliest ene-

Jid i!~~\:~nh!~ureJ:~i8e':,.~~ talk to

These are typical views or the
lead ing citizens, a large majority of
whom favor admission of Red China
a sample of names was drawn at;,lf~:;.
the 1966 edition of
This sun·ey of leaders-in fields
from banking to the arts-shows
opin ion to be 2-to-l In favor of admitting Communist China. This Is in
convast to public opinion in general. which is 2-t~l in opposition.
Debate on the admission of China
Is scheduled this mollth in the Unit-
~=~., an~
ch;~~ent surveya-cme 1-llen a
sample of the nation's a«lnand
!~!so~: !w:nMlll-&;.J:;t;
question was asked:
Do 1101& think Commu
should or should. oot H
u member of th,: Urdt114 H
in!~~re is a comparison of

~~';1 ~-~~.: :a
No opinion _, . _.. . . ,. 4
The vote of the ge
since the first measure
is... ue, in 1950, baa been
on the negative side,
meant that Na.Uonalln
lb&e lta seaL
public items show