Box 19, Folder 17, Document 93

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Box 19, Folder 17, Document 93

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~ht Ntnr f grk ~imts.
0 CH S, Publisher 1896-1935
O RV IL E. DR YF OO S , Publisher 1961-1963
ARTH UR H AY S SULZB E RGER_, Chairman of the Board
AR T HUR OC H S S U LZBERG·ER, President and. Publisher
HA RDI N G F . B AN CRO FT, "Vice President and Secretary
FR AN CIS A. Co x,
After t he Treaty
... ~

The historic t reaty between the United States,
Britain and Soviet Russia banning all nuclear
weapons tests in the atmosphere, under water
and in outer space is being hailed throughout
the world as a promising beginning of a new
epoch in E ast-West r elations. After all the bleak
years of cold war and the recurring crises that
found their climax in the near-collision over
Cuba, the world breathes easier t oday and there
is new hope that it can banish the threat of
nuclear holocaust.
But, important as the treaty is for what it
11ays and what it may portend, it · is at best
only a start toward larger goals. President
Kennedy rightly warns that it is not t he millennium and that the r oad ahead is still long and
rocky. As he pointed out, it is a limited treaty
which does not even stop all tests; though it
would stop further lethal fallout. Both real disarmament and the political settlements that
must go hand in hand with it remain far off.
The key to a solution of these problems is
largely in Soviet hands. Premier Khrushchev
agreed t o the t est-ban t reaty be had previoUBly
rejected because, as Under Secretary of State
Harriman says, he "very much wanted one at
thiJI t ime." The Soviet ruler says he wants more
agreements. If so, the West will do its utmost
t o reach t hem. But will Khrushchev? And on
what terms ?
The hard fac t is that Soviet Russia's signat ure on t he t reaty does not mark the end of
·it s drive t oward .a. Communist world t riumph,
though it may 110w pursue that goal by means
short of nuclear war. In faC'I:, both the treaty
and the "nonaggressipn pact " Russia wants may
become weapons in the Soviet "peace" arsenal
- to line up Asia and Africa against the "warmongering" Chinese Communists and to soften
up the West for political settlements t hat would
impair its alliances. As Mr. Khrushchev told the
Chinese: "The struggle for peace, for peaceful
coexistence, is organically bound up with the
revolutionary struggle against imperialism. It
weakens the front of imperialism, isolates its
more aggressive circles from the masses of the
people and helps in the struggle for national
liberation," The West is warned.
Furthermore, the treaty itself can be abrogated if "extraordinary events" jeopardize "the
supreme interests" of any of its signatories. The
Russians insisted on this reservation, over a
narrower definition proposed by the West, as
an obvious safeguard against nuclear armament
by other powers. They · may have Germany in
mind and certainly they are concerned about
Communist China, which boasts that it will soon
break the "white" nuclear monopoly. They may
to very little ? Is it not a game that every country
is playing with every other ? A game that nobody
can win? A game that isn't worth the effort?
Adjusting to Automation
The United Steelworkers of America and the
employers with whom it deals have again demonstrated that collective bargaining can produce
constructive answers to the problems of technological change without tests of economic muscle
or Government coercion. The contracts just
reached by the union and the major aluminum
producers r epresent an imaginative extension of
the progress-sharing principles embodied in the
union's agreements with the steel and can
All the aluminum workers-not just those
with long seniority-will qualify for 10 weeks
of vacation every five years, with 13 weeks' pay
to help them en joy their sabbatical. Fringe benefits will also be liberalized, but there will be
no increase· in direct money wages. The changes
are designed to give the workers a share in the
benefits of increased productivity on a basis that
will expand total employment opportunities and
avoid any increase in aluminum prices.
The new contracts, coupled with those already
signed by the union through its joint Human
Relations Committee in basic steel and its longrange committee in Kaiser Steel, ought to serve
as a spur to the deadlocked negotiators in the
nation's railroads. The guidelines for a sound
agreement have been laid down by two Presidential commissions, created only because of the
atrophy of the bargaining process in this piv~tal
Any formula Congress approves for barring
a rail strike through legislative compulsion will
set a damaging precedent. The month-long truce
agreed to by the railroads provides a last opportunity for the unions t o demonstrate that their
concept of bargaining is not summed up in the
single word "no."
Up t o now they have been gambling on the
proposition t hat the Government will continue
t o retreat in t he face of their obduracy, and that
finally they can extort a settlement that will
saddle the carriers with t housands of unneeded
jobs. The trouble with t his venture in brinkmanship is not only that t he gamble involves
a strike in which the economy would be the
chief victim but that a "victory" for the unions
would jeopardize all job security by' pushing the
railroads closer to bankruptcy.
This is the lesson the disastrous 116-day strike
of 1959 taught both sides in steel. Unfortunately,
there is no sign yet that the railroad unions
have achieved comparable enlightenment.
,...------11_ _;---:
�a/SO mean .l'Tance, OU S II T UUIIUlll l:, H ::! U W ll -:11U \Olt:C1L'
., force u
President Kennedy is trying to persuade Pres1• dent de Gaulle to adhere to the treaty, but
- success is unlikely unless France, an acknowledged nuclear power, is put on a par with Britain
and supplied with the same nuclear information
we now give the British. If we did so, the pur... pose would not be to "cause, encourage or partic-~- ipate in" further French tests, which is forbid= den by the treaty, but to make such tests

unnecessary without hampering France's nuclear

French adherence to the new pact might prove
"~ a preliminary to agreement by France to join
~ ·'fn building a NATO nuclear force and to restore
..... Western solidarity. That is still an essential
~ : safeguard of peace.
-·, .

The Art of Spying

4.&."'JI,"" .. ..... ,.,,.,
... , _ _ J
- ·
On rare occasions the oratorical fog on
Capitol Hill is pierced by a voice resonant with
courage and dignity. Such a voice was heard
when Mayor Ivan Allen Jr. of Atlanta testified
before the Senate Commerce Committee in support of President Kennedy's bill to prohibit
racial discrimination in stores, restaurants and
other public accommodations.
on · the basis of the very substantial accomplishments that his city of a half-million, the
largest in the Southeast, has made in desegregating publicly owned and privately owned facilities, be might have come as a champion of
"states' rights" and of the ability of localities
to banish discrimination without Federal law.
Certainly, be would have had much more warrant to espouse that view than the Barretts, the
Wallaces and the other arch-segregationists
who raise the specter of Federal "usurpation"
as a device for keeping Southern Negroes in
But Mr. Allen was not in Washington to boast.
He was there to warn that even in cities .like
Atlanta the progress that had been made might
be wiped out if Congress turned its back on the
Kennedy proposal and thus gave implied endorsement to the concept that private businesses
were free to discriminate. He left behind this
charge to finish the job started with the Emancipation Proclamation a century ago: "Now the
elimination of segregation, which is slavery's
stepchild, is a challenge to all of us to make
every American free in fact as well as in theory
-and again to establish our nation as the true
champion of the free world."
' Do not implicitly trust anything you read
about spies and spying even if the source is im. peccabiy official. By the accepted rules of the
..:.. game, government statements may be deliber·:. , ately false in order to mislead "the enemy." But,
c of course, they may be true. Naturally, truth is
often very confusing.
The layman can be excused for ruminating in

this fashion as he reads his morning newspaper.

The cast of characters needs a Dickens or a
Dostoievsky (not a historian, of course ) to do
•.- justice to the parade of diplomats, scientists,
journalists, homosexuals, prostitutes and- best
of all- intelligence agents who betray t heir outfits and their fellow spies. Nothing could be
- more devious or fascinating than a double agent.
At least, it is comforting for the layman to
• contemplate the bungling and blindnesses of the
The Fiddlers
" professionals. Devotees of the whodunits surely
The long-legged, rasp-winged insects now come
could do better. Trained by Eric Ambler, Georges into t heir own, and we won't hear the last of
Simenon a nd Ian Fleming, they would never have them till hard frost arrives. They are the leaping
permitted a Bay of Pigs invasion; a successful fiddlers, the grasshoppers, the crickets and the
Christine Keeler; a fantastic 10-year career of katydids.
· ex-Nazi German intelligence officers providing
Grasshoppers are spoken of in the Bible as
the Russians with 15,000 photographs, 20 spools "locusts," and their hordes have contributed in
of tape and many a secret of the West Germans many lands, including our own West, to the long
and NATO. Not that the Russians should boast;
hi11tory of insect devastation and human famine.
· they had Penkovsky.
Walk through any meadow now, or along any
- Even though the real spy cases may be weedv roadside. and vou will see them leaning

stranger than fiction, you don't get the solutions ahe;d of you, hear the rasping rattle of their

as you do in the t hrillers. Nothing could be harsh wings in brief flight. But they do little real

· more fascinating than the stories of the British fiddling. The fiddlers now are the crickets.
journalist H. A. R. Philby, or the Swedish Air
Listen on any hot afti!rnoon or warm evening,
. Force Col. Stig Wennerstrom; but at their most particu larly in the country, and you will hear
· interesting points the volumes are snapped shut the crickets even though you seldom see them.
and put away in secret places where even in- In the afternoon you will hear the black field
telligence chiefs, like characters in a Kafkaesque
crickets, chirping as we say, and often into the
tale, probably cannot find them.
warm evening. But in the evening, from dusk on
'The outsider must be forgiven for believing
through the warm night, the more insistent sound
that any time any government wants to arrest will be the trilling of the pale green tree crickets .
• and/or expel X-number of spies, it digs into its Individually the tree cricket's trill is not so loud,
files and comes up with the requisite quantity.
but because all those in the neighborhood
· When spies are under surveillance they are, synchronize their trills the sound can be as
unbeknownst, spying for the country they are insistent as were the calls of the spring peepers
spying on. The most dangerous spies of all are,
back in April.
to be sure, the ones who are never caught. There
The loudest fiddlers of all are the katydids,
is nothing that the C.I.A., MI-5, K.B.G., Surete
which look like green, hunch-backed grasshopand all the other intelligence and counter-intelpers. Night after night they rasp wing on wing
ligence organizations can do about them.
and make that monotonous call, shrill and seemIs it not possible, in fact, that all this es- ingly endless. But the katydids won't be heard
pionage and counter-espionage ; all these agents for another two weeks or so. Meanwhile the
and double agents, intelligence officers, counter- crickets possess late July, chirping and trilling
intelligence officers, plots and paraphernalia the warm hours away as though summer endured
from infinitesimal microphones to beds, add up forever.

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