Box 9, Folder 23, Document 6

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Box 9, Folder 23, Document 6

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PREF A·C E
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In attemptin17 to anal v~e wl1ere the movement· is go:i ng, cer tain
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questions have arisen as to the P,, t,,re roles nlaved by white
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In or.d·e r to make th1 s iss11e clearer, we have wr j tten
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a .few paragraphs, atemminC? from our observ~ions and experiences ,
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Some of the reasons are as follows:
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The answers to. these · q1.1estions lead us to believe that the form
of white participation, as practiced in the past, is now obsolete.
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which trerve as a pr·e view to a broader st11dy on the subject.
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whites to relate ' to the cultural aspe ct s of
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Black soc 1 etv; att! t11aee that whi tea, conscionsl-v ·or unconscious- · ·'
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ly, brin~ to Blacl-r. com·"luni ties abont themselve s · (wes te rn s uperior- .~
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_;'?: ,.· ·'._.,".. :/' -. ·. i ty) and about Black neon le (paternalism); i n a bili tv t o s ha t ter




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whi ta-sponsored comm11ni t v m~rths of Black - j_nferj or i tv a nd self,
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. ne.liation; ina., i li ty to combat the v i ews ·of t he Bl ack .commnni ty
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the ho s t i l i ty of the _Black, community on the i ssll e of interra cial
the roots of racism which lie within the white community; whites,
though individua~ ••11benal", are symbols of o~pression _to the ·


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Black community -- due to the collective power
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over Black lives.·
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Because of' these rea11J,.,ns, which f'o:rce us to view America thr~ugh
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the eyes · or victims, we advocate a conscio,1e chanr,-e .in the role of
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will be in t •me with the develoning self~ c on s ci ous .
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ness . and :_self-ass~~\ion :o:.. ·_~h~ -~froi..arn.~rican people.
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In conttl,uding. we cstatG ' thet our posjtion ~oes
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&gainst white ~~opl~, but from a conscien-
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tious effprt ~o develop the best methods of solving our national
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Ne'g ro ;i;i so·nJehow incapable of liberating
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A111erican experience.
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In the
books that children read, whites are always "good" ( good symbols
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language is ref~rred to as a "dialect", and Black people in this country
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are "evil" are seen as "savages" in movies , their
a.re supposedly descended from savages.
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Any
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in his mind about Black people, if ·only subconsciously.
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escape them because the whole society has geared his subconscious in
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that direction.
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Miss ~merica coming from Mississippi has a chance to represent
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all of America·, but a Black person from neiflre r Mississippi or New
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York will ev_e r represent Arr.erica. So that white people coming int o the






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-we>rd "black", cannot relate to the "Nitt'y Gritty", canno t r elate t o the
experience that brought such a word into b e ing, cannot relate to
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Mov~rnen~ canno_t relate to the Black experience, cannot relat e t o t he



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chitte.rlings, hog's head cheese, pig feet, ham hocks , and ca nnot

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relate to slavery, because these things are not a part of their experience •
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Black c hur ch unless , of course, this chu r ch has taken on white
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. manife s ta t i ons •
Negroes in t his country hav e never been allowed to organize them-
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As a r esult of this, the ster-
eotype has been r~infX>rced that Blacks cannot organize t h e m s elv es.
T he white psych~logy that Blacks have to be watc h e d, als o reinforces
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t his s t ereotype ,
Blacks, in fact, fee l in t imidated ~y the presence
of whit e s, because of their k nowledge of the p ower that whites have over
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·and.. cha~ge
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w9_u ld not change the complexion_of that meeting unless he was an ,





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.People would immediately start talking about
"brotherhood", "love".; etc.; race would not be discussed.
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If people must express themselves freely, there has to be a climate
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· are not liable to vent the rage that they feel about whites in the presence
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in which they can do this. If Blacks feel intimidated by whites, then they
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organize, i.e., the broad masses of Black people.
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of whites---especially not the Black people whom we are trying to
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A climate has to
The reason that
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whites must be _e xcluded is not that one is anti-white, but because
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the efforts that one is trying to achieve cannot succeed because whites
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effect.
Oft times the intimidating effect is in
direct proportion to the amount of degradation that Black people have
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suffered at the hands of white people.
It must be offered that white people who desire change in this country .-
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should go. where that problem (of racism) is most manifest.
That
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p;-oblem is not in the Black community.
The white people should go
into whi~e communities where the whites have created power f or the
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express of denying Blacks hlllman dignity and self-determination.
Whites who come into the Black community with ideas of change seem
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to want to absolve the power structure of its r~sponsiblity of what it
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is doing, and saying that change can only come through Black unity,
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which is only the worst kind of paternalism.
This is not to say that
whites have not had an important role in the-Movement.
In the case
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of Mississippi, their role was very key in that they helped give Blacks
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the right to organize, but that rcle is now over, and it should be.
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People now have the right to picket, the right to give out l eaflets,
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the right to vote, the right to demonstrate, the right to print• .
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These things which revolv·e around the right to organize have been
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. accomplished mainly because oftthe entrance of white ·people· into
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Mississippi• - i~ :the ·aummer of '6~. i Since these goals have now been
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accomplished, the.ir (whites) role in the Movement has now ended.
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What does it mean if Black people, once having the right to organize,
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are not allowed to organize themseives? It means that Black's ideas
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wnites are the '~b~·ichls" behind the Movement .and Blacks cannot
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function without whites.
This only serves to perpetuate existing a tti t ude s
within the existing society, i.e., Blacks a.re "du~b", "unable to
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Further
(white participation) means in. the eyes of the Black community that
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Shouldn1 t people be able t o
organiz_e . themse,l ves? Blacks should be . given this right.
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about inferiority are being reinforced.
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take care of business", etc.
Whites are iN.na.rt", the "brains" behind
everything.


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How do Bla cks rela te to other Blacks as su ch? ' How do we react
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. ;, . ·to Willie Mays as against Mickey Mantle?
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What is our response to
Mays hitting a home-run against Mantle performing t he same deed?
Is our interest in baseball ordered by our appreciation of t he ar tis try
of the game, or is it ordered by .the participation of Neg roes in
· ,,. · · Baseball? One has to come to the conclusion t hat it is be caus e of
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Black pc3;rticipatiori in baseball.
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. because of Jackie Robinson 1 s efforts with the Dodge r s.
Negro es
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would i n s tinctively champion all- Black t e.:im s if t h ey opposed all-
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white o r p r edom i nate_ly white t e a ms.
The same p rinciple operates
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for the Move ~ e 11t as it does fo r baseb all: a mystique must be
created whereby Negroes can identify with the Movement.
Thus an all-Black project is needed in order for the people

themselves.
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This has to exist from the beginning.
what can be called "coalition politics".
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This relates to
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There is no doubt in our
· minds that sane whites a;i:e just as disgusted with this system as
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But it is meaningless to talk 'about coalition if the r e is no


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one to align ou'rs ·e lves• ·with, because of the lack o! organi:i.a~ion i n
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the white communities.
there can be no ·talk -of "hookingcoupj' unless
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Black people organize Blacks and white people organize whites.
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are going in the same direction- talks about exchange of personnel, ·
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coalition, and other m .eaningful alliances can be discussed.
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whereby we thought that our problems revolved around the right to
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In the beginning of the Move·m ent; ~e had fallen into a trap
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eat at certain lunch counters or the right to vote, dr to organize
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these conditions are met, then perhaps at some later date- and ii we
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communities.
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have seen, however, that the problem is much
The probietn of this country, as we had seeh it, concerned
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old Blacks and old whi~es (and therefore) if decisions were left
. to 't~~ young people, theh solutions would be arrived at.
negates the history of Black people and whites.
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But this
We have dealt
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stringently with the proble ili of "Uncle Tom·", but we have not yet
. 'gotten ~round to .Simon Legree.
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real vil~ian?
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We ·must ask ourslves who is the
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Uncle Tom or Si~on Legree? Everybody knows
Uncle T6m, but who knows Simon Legree?
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So \k.rhat we have now (in SNCC) is
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closed so~iety.
A clique.
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· Black people cannot relate t,.:, SNCC, because of its unrealis tic, non
racial atmosphere; denying their experiences of America as a racist
society.
In contrast, SCLC has a staff that at least maintains a
Black facade.
The front office is virtually all-Black, but nobody
accuses SCLC of being 'racist".
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If we are to procee d towards t r ue liberation, we must cut ourselves
off from white people ••• We must form our own institutions, credit
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unions, co-ops, political parties,· write our ,own histories.
Dne
illustrating·.· example, is the SNOC "Freedom Primer". Blacks
cannot relate to that book psychologi.,,ally~ because white people
wrote it and, therefore it pre~ents a white viewpoint. _
· To proceed f~rther, let us make some comparisons_ be tween the
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Black Movement of the ( early) 1900 1 s and the Movement of the
1960 1 s --- the NAACP with SNCC.
Whites subverted the Niagra
. I
-~
Movement whichr at the outset, was an all-Black Movement.
i
.
The

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t :-: -. .
name of the new organization was also very revealing, in that it il;..
4 .__


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presupposed that Blacks have to be advanced to the level of whites.
We are now aware that the NAACp has grown reactionary, is controlled by the power-structure itself, and stands as one of the •.main
roadblocks to black freedom.
.,.
SNCC, by allowing the whites to remain
i
in the organizati~n, can have its ·efforts subverted in the same manner;

. [
i.e., through having '·them play important roles such as community
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· organizers, etc., · Indigenous leadership cannot be built with whites in
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the positions ·they now hold.
These £acts do not mean that whites cannot help.
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icipate on a voluntary basis.
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They can part-
We can contract work out to them, but


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in no way can they participate on-a policy-making level •
The cha_rge may be made that we are "racists", · but whites who
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. . our own destiny.
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If persons insist on remaining because of their
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longevity, or because they have feelings that we are indebted to them.
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are sensitive to our problems will realize that we must determine
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We, as Black people, must re-cv:aluate our history, our ideas of
I
.,
self, the world, Africa and her contributions to
mankind.
We
must take the credit for our contributions to this society _and to the
·,
• '<'
world.
Credit will be given to white people where it is due, but ·
surely our contributions must .be given credit.
I
These. myths ( of
inferiority and "savager~ ) must be broken by,' Black people, so
.
.
.
'
that no mistake can be. made about who is accomplishing what for
whom.
This is one way to ·break the myths.
'
As to the charge of "Black racism", as against white supremacy:
.
·;
we can say .that the racial makeup of any organization does .not a:nake_
it racist, i.e., , supreme court makeup of all white judges, Black
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churches and Black businesses being all Black.
The naming of the n_ewapaper, "Nitty-Gi-itty", which ae_rvcd to polarize the feel-
' l,
. ings of race, illustrated in a very graphic manner the attitudes that whites have

towards cultural aspects of our society.
•,
The whites were opposed to the name
and Blac-ks were affirmative on the issue.
...
.;
The alternative was the
11
surely such a name could not speak to the needs of grass-roots Black peopl e •
Black people can say to the "Nitty-Gritty": I can see mrself there.
Can .say to
Mays hitting a home run: I see _m yself there. ; Can say t~ the Atlanta Proj ect:
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I see myself there f
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One point I would lik~ to f:'r.'it,:1.::.;:.l s is the failure on the
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American reality in terms of differences.
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to emphasize t~e analysis of the differences bet~een Black and
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We are beginning
white people.
There has been an escap~st attitude on the pa~t of SNCC
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of )143.215.248.55ing
at the problem as if race did not matter.
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This
negates the special history of Black people in this country,


1·.


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.-_mainly the slavery period and the inhumRn forms of segregat- ·
· ion we have been forced to su~fer.
~nether important point
is that most Blacks and whites tend to view ~lacks in the
light of _the my-th e that the power s true ture has ore a ted and
perpetrated in this country.
Black people are considered as
"citizens" along the same lines as white people
in
this count-
ry, when in reality, Black people are a semi-colonialized
people, victims ·o r a domestic colonialism.
..
,.
•.
.,,
Our introduction·
into this country occured during the same time as the partition of Africa and Asia by the European powers, so that
the American ins.t i tut ion of · slav.ery was, too , _ a form of
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Western Colonialism.
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Therefore Black people in this country
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afift in the same way as ao other colonial p~i;:.ples to their
environment and experience, but the myths of America labels


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them citizens which is an unreal attitude.
Also, one of the main blocks in terms of Black self-
/
recognition antl self-identification in this c9untry has been
I
interference f~om the dominant white society.
'.
.
From the 1900's
to the priesent time Afro-Amer-ican writers and thinlcers have
had to contend with the encroachment
.
of white intellectuals
upon 'l:;heil" culture arid . upon ·~;heir thou 6 hts.
t·ot ·o·nly cH:d the
white inte11ectua1s .·encroaoh upon their thought and culture
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to it t-heir -whole American
~
of racism and paternalism so that Black culture
was potrayed as something being base, second-r~te or below
the culture of the United States, which was consi<'lered ."serious"
'
or "real 11 •
music.
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This music which is rooted in the whole experience
of .our people in this country was not even named by Black
...
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One grap_hic example of this is modern Afro_;, American
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·p eople.
Modern Afro-American music
is named
II
jazz", which
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is a term that is derived from white · American society.
It
is w~{te ~iang to~ sexual intercourse; so that otir musid ~hich
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mo.y- be called the maii1stram of our culture ·was l<'.lolced upon
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as being :base and
second~r at a or dirty and containing aen-
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sousness, sexuality a nd other exoticisms.
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This however
says mo~e about the white American psyche than it does about
aspects of Afro - American culture.

One of the c~!ticisms of wh i t e mili t a nts and radicals is
that when we ~iew the masses of white people we view the
ov~rall reali ty of Americ a , we view the racis~, the b i gotry ,
a.nd the dis tortion of pe r s onal i t y, we view .man's inhumanity
t o man; we view in reality 180 million r ac is t s.
white int ol~c tual
and rad i c al
The sepsit i ve
who is figh t ing to bring ·
about change is c onscious . of t his f act, but does no t have
,_:i ...
_; t he courage to admit this.
Whe n. he admi ts this reality,
t he n he must also admit his invol veme nt bec aµse -he is a par.t
/
of the colle c t1ve white Amer ic a.
,,
I t is onl,Y t o t he extent that
he recognizes this that he will be able to change this _reality.
Another concern is how does· the white radical view the Black
Community and .how does he view the_ poor white community in terms
of' organizing.
So far, we have found that most white r-ad-lcals
have sought · to escape· the horrible reality of' America by going
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·into the Black Com~unity and attempting to organize Black
.people while neglecting the o~g~nlzation of their pwn
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. ' , people's racist communities.
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How can one clean up some-
.: _.one el~lly'a~d when one's own yard is untidy?
..
.. i'eel that
SNCd
Again we
and the civil rights movement in general is
. in many aspects similar to the anti-colonial situations in
tbe African and Asian countries. · we have the whites in the
.Movement corresponding . to the white civil servants and mis-
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' sionaries in the colonial countries who have worked with the
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colonlal people for a long period of time and have developed
1· ,
· -a paternalistic attitude toward them.
.
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The reality :or the
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colonial peopli taking over their own lives ana controlling
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their own destiny must he faced.
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Eaving to move aside and
letting this natural process of growth and development ta~:Cing
~
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place must l:>e faced.
These views should not be equated with
outside influence or outside agitation hut should be -view~d ·
as the natural process of growth and . development within a
·movement; so that the move by the Black militants iri iSNCC
in this direction should be viewed as a turn towards s elf-dete rmina t i on.
I t i s very ironic and curiouE how ~·ar e whi t e s in this
c ount_ry c an champion anti - coloni ali sm in othe r countries in
_. Af rica, As i a , a nd Lat in Ame r i c a , but when Black people move

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towards simila r goals of s elf- det e_rmina tion ;1n thi~ country
,,
they are viewed· as· racists a nd anti-white by these same pro1
gressive whites.
In proceeding further, · i~ can be said that
this attitude - de~ives from-the overall point of view of the
white .psyche · as 'it ; concerna the black people~ · This attitude ·· ·stems · 'troni- the EH'~ of the slave ·revolts· ·when every- white ·: man
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Because wh~n Black people ~ot toget her among themselves to work

out the~r problems, it be6ame a threat to white pe~ple, becau~e
.
such meetings were _potentiat slave revolts~
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ed that this attitude or way 'of thinkirtg has 'perpetuated itself·
to this current pe~iod and that it is part of the psyche of
.
~-
.
white people in this country whatever their political per-
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It uan be maintain- .
.
.
.
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suasion might be.
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It is part 6~ the white fear-gui~t com-
-~. . plex -.1·esult-ing from the slave revolts.
There have be'en
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examples of whiteR who stated that they can oeal with black
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fellows on an individual b~sis but become threatened· or
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, . men·a oed by the presence of groups of Blacks..
.
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I t can be main-
te.1.ned that this attitude is held by the majority of progress-
I
ive ~bites in this country.
It is a very grave error to mis t ake Blac!t se1.f'-asse r t :ic::o.


£or


racism or Black supremacy.
Black people in th i s count r y .·
more so than th~ colonial people~ .of the world know wha~ it
,J,
means to be ~ictims of racism, bigotry, and s lave ry.
..•:
Real-

i zing our predictame nt f rom these inhuman a tt itud es i t would
be r idiculous for us to turn around and perpet~ate the same
reacti onary outlook on other people.
We mor e than anyone
else realize the i mportanc e of achie ving the type of society,
. the type of world whereby people can be viewed as human be·ings.
The means of reaching these goals must be, h9wever, from the
.!
point of view of respecting the differences~etween peoples a
I
and cultures and not pretending that everyone· is the s ame and
the refusal to respect differences is one of the reasons that ·
·,1
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t he w9rld is exploding today~
Also expa nding upon t he ni ffer-
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. perpetuating the myth of white ·supremacy.
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"intcgt-atic,n 1!._.0d .pr-ogress then one is really
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One is s:3-ying
that Blacks have nothing to contribute, and should be willing
.
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to assimilate into the mainstream of Great white civilization,
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A through re•examination must be made by hladk people
concerning the ' contributions that we have made in shaping
If this re•examination and re-evalttation is not
this .country.
{ i•l
i.e. the west.
made, and Black people are not given their proper due and
-;..
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respect, then the antagbnisms and contradictions a~e going to
become more and more glaring, more and more intense until a
·::
national explosion may resu~t.
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When people attempt to move from these conclusions it
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would be faulty reasoning to say they are · ordered by racism,
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We all know the ha.voe that this has created through -
The r~ fore any re-evaluation that we must make will, for
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people.
this country.
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· ·. ioned as a type of white nationalism whe n dealing with Black
out the world and particularly among non-white people i n
!
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because, in this country and in the west, Racism has· funct •
. ..
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the mos t part, deal with identifica tion.
Who a r e Black
people; wha t are Black pe ople; what is their relationship
.,
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.
to America and the World?
·.1
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,
It must be repe a t ed that t he whole myth . of "Negro CitizenI
ship"~ perpetuated by the Hhite Power Elite, ,has confused the
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thinking of radical and progressive blacks and whites in this
country.
The broad masses of Black people react to American
Society in the same manner as colonial peoples react to t he
.
v
west in Africa, and Latin American, and have the same r elationship - ·that
or
.
the oolonized towards.· the colonizer.
·,
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an attempt tb resolve an internal crises that it'
now .c onf~ ·~tin~ SNCC, the B1A.ck-nhi ta issue ( which is
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caui;inc: eruptions that e.rr: S'3riously hamp0rinr our strur;p:le
' ·
.
for self- dotorm.ination) MUst now be dealt with.
In an analysis of our history in . this country, we have
·..,.
been forced to come to the conclusion
that 400 years of
.. · oppression and slavery suffered in this country by our Black
forebears parallels in a very r,raphic way tho opprossion and
colonization suffered by the African people.
'lhe questions
can be rightfully asked, v,hat part did tho white colonizers
!
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play .in the liberation· of independent .'\.frican Nations; who
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were the . ar;i-tators for .'\.frican independence? . /mswers . · to those
. , ..
· questions c.o mpel us to believe that our strurGle for .liberat-
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. ion ~nd self- determknation cen o~lr be c~rried out effect- ..
ively by Black people.
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'Ibo necessity o} dealinr, with the question of identity

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is of prime importance in our own strn ~r:le.
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destruction of our links to Afric'a, the cultu ral cut-off of








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The . systematic
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Blacks in this country from Blacks in Africa are not situat-..
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ions that conscious Black people in this country are willing
to accept. , Nor are conscious Black people in this country
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wil~inG to accept an ~ducational system· that teaches all
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· aspec ts of western civilization and dismisses our Afro-
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American contribution with one week of inadequate information.
(Necro History Week) and deals with _nfrica not at all. Black
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people are net willini to align themselves with a western
culture ·that daily emasculates our beauty, our pride and our _
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manhood.. It follows that white people boin~ part of western
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.· civicization in a way .that Black people ~ould never be are
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totally indequate ,to . deal with Black identity which is' key
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to our strur~le for s~lf-deternination.
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\'lhen it _c omes to the question of or:-anizing Black people.,
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we nrust insist that the people wl10 come in cpntact with the
. 11lack masses .,re not white people who, no matter what their
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. liberal leaninr.;s ere, are not equipped to dispel the myths of

western superiority,.


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V/hite people only serve to perpetuate
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.· '. these myths; rather, orranizing must he done by Black people
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·_are able to see the beauty of themselves, are able to see the


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· :. important cultural contributions of 11.fro-.~ mericans, are able
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. to s~e that this country was built upon the blood and backs of
a ~
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. our Black anc'.ls tors.


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·: that our or":aniza tion · ( SNCC) should he BlacJ staffed, Black


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In an attempt to find a .solution to ou~~ilema, we propose
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end Biack financed.
We do not want to fall into a
similar dilema that other Civil Ri.ri:h ts or .r:,aniza tions. have
fallen ..
.
· If we continue ta r3ly·upon ~hi to financinl support we will ·
find ourselves wntviined in the tentacles of the \~1hite power
complex that controls this country.
It . is also important that
a Black or~a~ization '( devoid of cultis~ · ) be projected to our
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people so that it cen be demonstrated that srich orranizations
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are viable.
More and more we see Black people in this country being
used as a. tool of the white liberal establishment.
ii
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Liberal
whit es have not bep.:un to address themselves to the real problems
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of Bleck people .in this co .. ntry; witness th eir bewilderment,
1
fear and anxiety Wh'3n Nationalism_ is mentioned concerning Black
people.
An analysis of th~ir (white liberal) reaction to the ·
word alone (Nationalism) re~eals a very meanin~ful attitude of
whites or any ideolorical persuasion towards ~lacks in this
~- ,. .:

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country •. . · i _t me~ns, t _h at previous so11.• tions to ;Black :problems

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of those whites
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not in the best interest's of
.: dealin(", with t;hooo problems
· : Black peopla in this · country hnve beon made in the interests of ·:
.
..
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'._ those whites dealinr; with those problems and not in the. best
· inter~stof Black people in this coPntry.
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'"/hi tes can only sub-
.. .:. vert our true search and strur:rle for self-determination, self-
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identification, and liberation in this country.
R0_-evaluation
of the white and Black roles nrust NOW take place so that whites
'
no longer designate
roles that Black people play but rather
BlAck people define white people's roles.
. ·•·'
To ionr, have we allowed white people to interprr.tt the
importance and meaniri~ of the cultural aspects of_ .our society,
.
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1 ·: '., . : :'. . .


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have allowed. them to tell us what was p:obd a'bou t our .\ fro-
· -: · ~·ie
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l::,·. : .,· ·. ·. · ,'.: American nrusic·, art and literature.


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we have on the
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of the Black psyche ( except in the oppressor's role)
·.
. . interpret the meaning of the Blues to
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us who are manifestations
of the son,:;s themse1V'3s?
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How can a white person who is not
jazz" sc!'lne?
It nrust also be pointed out that on wha.tever level of con-
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tact that "1lacks and v1hites .come to r,ethor, that meetinG .or•r--,n-
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whites is a reinforcoment of the myth of vrhite supremacy • .Vlhite~
nre · th,:i ones who must try to raise themselves to oµr humanistic
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,
ne are not, after all, the ones wh9 are responsible
.
for a ~enoci da l war in Vietnam; we are not the ones who are
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responsible for Neo-Colonialism in Africa and Latin ~merica;
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This only means that our everyday contac t with
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level of whites.
level.
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frontation in not on the level of the Blacks but always on the
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we are not the ones who held a people in animalistic bonda~e
.
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· over 400 years •
. ,_, we raj ect , t~~ A~eric_an Dz,ean as d_efined : by whi ta people

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a part

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How many Black critics do
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and must work to construct. , .u ~;, 111orican
real1 ty· de.fined
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by A.fro-A:".l'ler.j .~~l:".'.s(I

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  1. http://allenarchive.iac.gatech.edu/originals/ahc_CAR_015_009_023_006.pdf

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