Box 17, Folder 14, Document 45

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The letter follows:
Economic Am ANALYZEnD: U.S. oe
Severs AccouNT For 90 PERceNr, BELL
ree oem en cee ares

tially. :
cognizing the difficulty of estimating
Prstneny He oHSGta et & Econ 6 aan
factor Pe ae payments, it can be
said as a rough approximation that a >%ne-
billion-dollar cut in “economic aid" would
reduce U.S. exports by $900 million and the
deficit in the balance of payments by $100
million. (If the hypothetical cut were as-
sumed to affect what is ordinarily called
foreign aid—and not to affect Public Law
480 and the Export-Import Bank—the pro-

portions would be about $800 million reduc-.

tion in U.S. exports, and $200 million in the
U.S. balance-of-payments deficit.)

The conclusion is clear. Under present
policies, with economic and military assist-
ance to other countries almost entirely tak-
ing the form of U.S, goods and services, al-
most no gain to the balance-of-payments
deficit can be achieved by reducing our
foreign aid programs. Moreover, a foreign
aid cut made on the mistaken assumption
it would have a major impact on our pay-
ments deficit would instead serve chiefly to
reduce U.S.-produced goods and services
purchased for use abroad.

I should also like to point out the positive
gains to the United States from the estab-
lishment of progressive, growing economies
abroad—which is the main purposes of our
economic assistance. U.S. exports to the
Marshall Plan countries more then doubled
from 1963 to 1962.

Our exports to Japan more than tripled
from 1950 to 1962. In many of the countries
of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, where
our economic aid goes today, ald-financed
U.S. exports are finding acceptance and be-
coming famillar to consumers—which will
enhance our normal commercial export mar-
kets in the future as those countries increase
their Incomes and their international pur-

chasing power.
Davi E, Bern,
Administrator, Agency for International


wane 1 pare forces of labor, management,
Government shape the character of ap-

ip training. But the shape of

satisfy any American sensi-

things does not
tive to thé demands of democracy.

Federationist ‘the “official monthly of | the
F I wish to bring ae article to
the attention of my col
EXPANDING hee neta eee NS
(By John F. Henning)

American Negro demands for fair employ-
ment have turned sharply to a precise area
of dispute: apprenticeship

The new emphasis is hardly surprising.
Skilled journeymen are the income elite of
manual labor. They look to a brightening
future. All re ible ns of U.S.
labor force needs cite the continuing call
for skilled labor and the declining propor-
tions of unskilled work.

Back in 1957 the U.S, Department of Labor
issued its now historic projections of the
labor force requirements of the 1960's. The
study estimated that in 1970 America will
need 42 percent more professional and tech-
nical workers than in 1960, 24 percent more
sales and service personnel, 22 percent more
skilled workers, and 18 percent more semi-
skilled. The percentage of the unskilled will
be down,

The prophecy presumes a full employment
economy in 1970. Without economic growth,
both skilled and unskilled will suffer. But
not alike. For example, during the past
5 years, the national unemployment rate
has approximated a disturbingly high 5.5.
percent, but in this period the jobless rate
among the unskilled has been at least twice
that of the skilled. Whatever the course of
the economy, the days of the unskilled appear

Long ago Benjamin Franklin observed that
he who hath a trade hath an estate. The dif-
ficulty is that he who rath a trade usually
hath a white skin.

As in Franklin's time, the one certain road
to journeyman training is the apprenticeship
system. To some the road seems a narrow,
twisted trail, bordered by bigotry and privi-
lege. Whatever its hazards, more than
150,000 young Americans today are found in
registered apprenticeship programs,

The average apprenticeship embraces 4
years of on-the-job training and normally
entails 144 hours of related classroom in-
atruction a year. ’

agement apprenticeship p

bility came to apprentice-
) with the adoption of the Fitzgerald Act

Fitzgerald Act called for Federal and

State Government of labor-man-
Tams. The Gov-

‘ernment role has been noncontrolling in that
Eee ee has been directed

ne :
The Governme

under union-nego-

entitles apprentices in ap-
to employment on Federal
public works prolects and assures approved
of the services of the Labor De-
‘s Bureau of Apprenticeship and
Training or the services of the pertinent
1 . Historically, Federal registra-
5 Igrams has applied alike to State
BNoheoked as well as federally directed pro-

Thirty States manage their own appren-
ticeship agencies. In the remaining 20, the
Federal Government alone ‘sponsors’ and
guides apprenticeship,

Civil rights spokesmen long have held the
idea that Federal registration should be de-
nied any program stained by ethnic dis-
crimination, AFL-CIO President George
Meany agrees. Meany backed a 1961 attempt

- to write such a denial into Federal law.

Meany ance however, that discrimination
in apprenticeship is only part of total job
discrimination. He urged enactment of a
National Fair yment Practices Act with
full powers of enforcement.

But the immediate question is, What can
be realized in the absence of a national FEP

In July 1961, then Secretary of Labor
Arthur Goldberg announced the Department
of Labor would thereafter require the in-
clusion of a specific nondiscrimination state-
ment in all apprenticeship standards of firms
handling Government contracts. He further
declared a similiar provision would be re-
quired in the registration of any new ap-
Reta. program regardless of its re-

tionship to Federal works.

Labor Department action did not die with
the Goldberg pronouncement. The follow-
ing achievements merit attention:

I. Within the past year, the Bureau of Ap-
prenticeship and Training assigned four
minority consultants to the task of opening
opportunities to Negroes and other minority
peoples. Now located in Washington, New
York, Chicago, and San Francisco, they
counsel with employers, Jolnt apprenticeship
committees and unions on a regional basis
to encourage acceptance of qualified minority
applicants. Additionally, they adyise minor-
ity groups on apprenticeship fundamentals
and admission processes.

IL. Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz
on February 27, 1963, announced the appoint-
ment of a National Advisory Committee on
Equal Opportunity in ‘Apprenticeship and
Training. The Committee consists of 15
members; 4 from management, from labor,
5 from minorlty organizations, and 2 from
the public.

The Advisory Committee held its first meet-
ing in Washington on May 14 under the chair-
manship of the Under Secretary of Labor,
The committee developed a flye-polnt action


1. The establishment of apprenticeship in-
formation centers in certain critical cities
throughout the Nation.

2, The fostering of apprenticeship infor-
mation centers through State apprenticeship
councils wherever feasible.

3. The creation of research programs to
measure the present depth of minority par-
ticipation in apprenticeship programs.

4. The implementation of present anti-
discrimination provisions in apprenticeship
programs registered with the U.S. Depart-
ment of Labor,

6. The consideration of preapprenticeship
programs for the training of young workers
not qualified for admission to apprentice-
ship programs.

Ill. The Department of Labor, in coopera-
tion with the District of Columbia Appren-
ticeship Council, the District of Columbia
Commissioners and school authorities, the
U.S. Employment Service, labor and manage-
ment, opened its first Apprenticeship Infor-
mation Center on June 17 in the Nation's

The Information Center, which the De-
partment proposes to extend throughout the
Nation, offers young apprenticeship appli-
cants personal and group counseling, apti-
tude testing, information on educational re-
quirements and related data pertaining to
District apprenticeship programs. It also
offers an orderly system of referral to joint
apprenticeship committees and serves as a
point of contact for unions, employers, and
minority groups.

The values of the Information Center are
intended for all young Americans, whatever
their race, color, creed, or national origin.
But the Center should be of particular value
to Negroes and other minorities from whom
the knowledge of admission procedures and
requirements often has been withheld.

IV. Secretary of Labor Wirtz issued a di-
rective to all jolnt apprenticeship commit-
tees of the District of Columbia June 5, 1963,
on the discrimination crisis in the District
jurisdiction. The Secretary listed the fol-
iowing requirements for programs hoping to
enjoy Federal registration rights:

1, If apprentices are not selected by a
merit system alone, selections must be
made in a manner that demonstrates equal-
ity of opportunity.

2. Waiting lists which reflect previous dis-
criminatory practices must be subjected to
whatever action is necessary to offset such

V. President Kennedy on June 4, 1963, di-
rected the Secretary of Labor to require that
“admission of young workers to apprentice-
ship programs be on a completely nondis-
criminatory basis.”

VI. Following Secretary Wirtz’ order of
June 11, 1963, the Bureau of Apprenticeship
began a 50-city check of Negro apprentice-
ship participation in Federal construction

The varied activities here cited indicate
the commitment of the Kennedy adminis-
tration to equaltiy of opportunity in ap-

The President held a national conference
with 300 labor Officials at the White House
June 13 in which he called for the end of

job discrimination at every level of union
jurisdiction. This was one of a number of
conferences on civil rights held with busi-
neéssmen, educators, clergymen, and lawyers.

However, the President noted that genuine
equality of opportunity could be meaning-
ful only in a full employment economy.

National morality and the times will
permit nothing less than full job equality,
but without full employment this means
sharing job scarcity regardless of race, color,
ereed or, national origin. Job equality must
mean sharing the bounty, not the scarcity
of national life. But apprenticeship at its
fullest would hardly have the capacity to
solve youth unemploymient. ‘The problem is
beyond that,


During the calendar year. 1962, teenage un-
employment averaged 13 percent against an
overall national figure of 5.6 percent. Dur-
ing 1962 the average teenage unemployment
total was 816,000 workers.

Between 1957 and 1962 the total number
of registered apprentices in training aver-
aged 150,000.

Apprentices in training today average only
3 percent of the 5,077,000 teenage workers
in the U.S. labor force. Of the teenage total,
3,017,000 are male. .

The apprenticeship solution assumes even
less promise when pictured against a 50-
percent mortality rate. The consistent na-
tional experience suggests that only one-half
of those now in training will know journey-
man status.

The proportionate place of apprenticeship
must also be seen in the perspective of the
awesome burdens the American economy will
confront in the 1960's.

The U.S. Department of Labor tells that

the economy must provide 34.5 million new
jobs in the 1960's to match the demands of

population growth and technological change.

The labor force will realize a net increase
of 12.5 million through population expan-
sion. This Involven tn incretise of 26 mil-
lion young workers. Death and the retire-
ment of older workers will determine the
12.5 million net figure.

The technological impact will be greater.
The Labor Department estimates the annual
rate of productivity increase will be about
3 percent throughout the 1960's. This means
the output per man-hour will jump about
3 percent each year. The job displacement
statistics become frightening when the 3
percent productivity rate is applied to an
annual average employment figure of 74 mil-
lion workers. For the 1960's this means the
economy must provide 2.2 million new jobs
each year to care for technological progress.
The decade's demand will be 22 million Jobs.

The statistics are germane because ap-
prenticeship, unlike vocational education, al-
ways has been a job-related training sys-
tem. Unless employers determine to hire
apprentices there is no apprenticeship sys-
tem. Further, unions relate the number of
admitted apprentices to the number of em-
ployed journeymen.

Given full employment, apprenticeship
could come to its greatness.

But. at this hour, the immediate crisis
of apprenticeship discrimination plagues the
national conscience and cries for action,

The Kennedy administration reforms must
succeed. There is hope and precedent in
the experience of California.

Four years ago Gov. Edmund G, Brown
named apprenticeship bigotry a special
evil and called for remedies, Adoption
of an FEP law in 1959 helped greatly but
Was not quite enough. The subtleties of
apprenticeship bias often escape FEP en-

California’s plan has won national praise.
It features (1) statewide and local commit-
tees on apprenticeship opportunities for
members of minority groups; (2) local ap-
prentice information centers for making vi-
tal data available to high-school students
and graduates.

The statewide opportunities committee
was founded in 1960. It is comprised, like
the National Advisory Committee, of labor,
Management and minority group represen-
tatives and includes Government spokesmen.

The California committee Iast year devel-
oped two precedent-smashing surveys of the
depth of discrimination.

The initial study approached the ethnic
identity of the more than 20,000 apprentices
receiving training in California. The sec-
ond involved an ethnic sampling of journey-
men who completed their apprentice train-
ing in 1955,

The first survey, based on a one-third re-
turn of questionnaires, revealed the star-
tling evidence that there were 283 American

August 15

Indians participating in California appren-
ticeship programs as against 150 Negroes.
Mexican-Americans numbered 521, Japanese-
Americans 31 and Chinese-Americans 18. °

The findings suggest that Negroes number
just a bit more than 2 percent of Califor-
nia's apprentices. In the Federal census of
1960, Negroes formed 5.8 percent of the total
State population and 4,7 percent of the
State's male labor force.

The State committee data on minority
representation among journeymen certified
in 1955 also are revealing.

A one-fourth return of inquiries pegged

“Negro participation at 1.5 percent.

The journeymen survey indicates the re-
warding nature of skilled employment.
Seventy-two percent of the graduate appren-
tices were earning $7,000 or more a year,
while 52.4 percent were earning over $8,000
per annum. Only 11.2 percent were earning
less than $6,000 per year.

Ninety percent were enjoying full employ-
ment on 4 yearly basis.

Both surveys confirm the skilled labor
problem of the Negro. But the totals do not
necessarily prove discrimination. For ex-
ample, in certain survey areas Negroes had
rarely, 1f ever, applied for apprenticeship Ad-
mission. The failure could represent either
resignation to bias or the absence of training

Traditionally, Negroes have been the par-
ticular victims-of hasty and frequently in-
different counseling in the high school sys-
tems. In California’s soaring school popu-
lation, a senior student is fortunate if he
receives 1 hour of personal counseling in
his final year. This obtains for any student
whatever his race or skin. The national
practice is scarcely different.

Each year thousands of young Americans
emerge from the secondary schools without
any sense of occupational direction. Ade-
quate high school counseling would be of
particular benefit to the children of Negro
families recently removed from the agrarian
South, These young people suffer the same
lack of skilled labor tradition as did most of
the 19th century European immigrants who
poured into America searching for freedom
and opportunity.

But where immigrant Europeans could
seek manual labor in coal and steel and
maritime employment, today’s young Negro
faces a labor market in which there is little
future for the unskilled.

Not only because of discrimination but
also because of lack of skills, Negro unem-
ployment is consistently twice the overall
national average. In the calendar year 1962
the rate of unemployment among Negroes
was 11 percent against a national average
of 5.6 percent. Negroes represent 11 percent
of all American workers but represent 22
percent of all unemployed.

As indicated earlier, economic growth is
the first requisite of full employment in the
1960's, the full employment that will give
job opportunity to all Americans.

Economic growth, however, will not find
employment for the unskilled.

America neéds an active labor market
policy to accompany the fiscal and mone-
tary policies of growth. An active labor
market policy would directly answer the
training needs of the U.S. labor force. The
rate of unemployment among unskilled
workers in the calendar year 1962 was 12
percent against the national average of 5.6

An active labor market policy also would
end racial and ethnic discrimination in em-

But it would do more than that. It would
also achieve these ambitions:

1. An updated labor market information
service for workers and employers.

2. An employment service warning sys-
tem for impending technological changes
and other changes causing serious job dis-


$3, An effective informational service for
career guidance and counseling.

4. An educational system, vocational as
well as academic, which would answer cur-
rent and upcoming manpower needs.

5. An expanded apprenticeship training

6, An improved system of job placement

7. A program for aiding the mobility of

In summary, it is obvious that Negro dis-
crimination in appreni h
and general features. The | suite
cause of his skin. But he suffers also be-
cause he often is an unskilled worker in an
economy which has limited ice for the
unskilled. Finally, he suffers because he is
a worker in a society which has not yet
found the way to full employment.

The issue of employment discrimination
is not peculiar to apprenticeship. It will
be found everywhere, including the bank-
ing, insurance, and newspaper worlds. It
will be found in the professions and the
religions of America. Indeed, discrimina-
tion is often strongest in sectors of non-
union employment. .

American labor must persist in its efforts
to realize full employment and the aboli-
tion of the last measure of job discrimina-
tion. The efforts must reach to the State
councils, local councils, and local unions,

The matter is moral. For more than 100
years labor has served as the social con-
science of the Nation. ' Unpurchased and
unafraid, {t has led the everlasting struggle
to attain a society in which bread, security,
and freedom shall be the right of all Amer-
jeans whatever their racial, religious, or
ethnic identity,

Labor holds priceless credentials of sacri-
fice and struggle. It must use these creden-
tials now as mortal conflict shakes the Na-
tion. The honor and duty of leadership
rest with the trade union movement.

Diplomatic Relations With a Quisling


Thursday, August 15, 1963

. Mr. DERWINSEI. Mr. Speaker, one
of the proofs of retreat of the appease-
ment-minded dreamers of the New
Frontier is their handling of the Soviet-
imposed Eastern European Red govern-

The St. Louis Globe-Democrat, in an
editorial on Monday, August 12, very
concisely discusses our relations with
Hungary, and under unanimous consent,
T insert it into the Recorp at this point:


As was widely predicted, the United States
is seeking to resume full diplomatic relations
with the Hungarian regime. Readers will
recall that diplomatic ties were curtailed
during the 1956 revolution against Soviet

The loss of that revolution yoked the Hun-
garlans with a quisling regime run by the
traitor, Janos Kadar, the liaison man with
the Soviet tank commanders who decimated
his people.

Doubtless, the new American move will be
hailed by those who seek to avoid irritants
in our relations with the Soviets. But what
in the name of diplomacy do we have to
gain by sending an American minister to


exchange views with the special toady of Mr.
Khrushchev in Budapest?

Can anyone Reoeny believe that 7 oe
after the Bu plcvaba thy the regime
ensconced at the } int.
bayonets is now
of the Hungarian paepis?

If this American palliative to the touchy
soviet sensibilties over thelr yret

return to the cold war.


Thursday, August 15, 1963

Speaker, one of the companies actively
engaged in the conquest of space is the
Garrett Corp. of Los Angeles. This
company employs more than 10,000
skilled personnel and produced the im-
portant environmental control system
(ECS) for Project Mercury.

In the Spring issue of New Frontiers,
a Garrett publication, an article dealing
with the aspects of both the Project
Mercury program and the Project Gem-
ini program has caught my interest. I
know many Members of the House are
constantly searching for more informa-
tion on the race to the Moon, and I there-
fore bring this article to the attention
of my colleagues.

The article is as follows;

THE LEGACY oF Progecr Mercury

(By John W. Bold)

He was the last to go. Shepard, Grissom,
Glenn, Carpenter, and Schirra already had
experienced the tense countdown, the surge
of rocketing into space, the exhiliration of
weightlessness and the security of recovery.
But Gordon Cooper's 22-orbit filght was the
longest and most precise.

His was, for 29 hours, a textbook flight.
But in the last few hours the NASA-McDon-
nell team used “all the pages in the book.”
In the last few minutes, an electrical problem
forced the youngest astonaut to carefully
position his spacecraft, fire the retro rockets
and guide his Faith 7 spacecraft down
through the atmosphere—all by hand. He
completed his long 34-hour, 600,000-mile
flight without the aid of automatic equip-

It was a suspenseful epilogue to the 4 year
saga of Project Mercury, Shepard's: flight
was the daring first. Grissom confirmed data
and prepared us for an orbital mission.
Carpenter's took a breathless “month” of
minutes before recovery was accomplished
in the Atlantic. Astronaut Glenn's was a
“real fireball." Schirra flew the first ‘“‘text-
book” flight, All six, each in his way, con-
tributed new data, mew drama, to the stéry
of manned space flight, told in an unprece-
dented frankness by NASA's Manned Space-
craft Center.

But now is the time for retrospection. The
highly successful Project Mercury program
has ended. During this 5-year program, what
have we learned? What new theories have
evolved from this Nation’s first manned space
program? What new engineering concepts
wil help us In future spacecraft development
work? In particular, what have we learned


from Project Mercury that will aid us In
Project Gemini?

An insight into the answers to these ques-
tions can be gained at Garrett-AiResearch,
which produced the vital environmental con-
trol system (ECS) for Project Mercury, under
contract to McDonnell Aircraft Co.
It is now developing a similar system for
Project Gemini, again under a McDonnell
contract. Both programs are under the tech-
nical direction of NASA's Manned Spacecraft

Naturally, the experience of both com-
panies gained in Project Mercury transcends

L Gemini program. “Experience is the
best schoolmaster, and it has taught us a
great deal,” reflects R. C. “Dick Ne Al-
Research’s program manager for the Project.
Gemini environmental control system. “At
an early meeting at McDonnell,” he recalls,
“we were able to sit down and quickly deter-
mine and analyze problem areas. Im-
mediately we foresaw changes in the ECS
which would be necessary because of changes
in the mission profile and what we learned
from Mercury.

“From our point of view,” Nelson believes,
“there's one important thing we've learned
from Mercury. That's about the man. He
has shown that a well trained ‘test pilot,’
who can think and act is more desirable than
the most sophisticated, automatic equipment
yet designed.”

“AS a result,” Nelson continues, “the
Gemini environmental control system will
have less automatic control more manual
operation. By reducing the complexity of
the system we will increase reliability, Since
the Gemini astronauts will have ‘time on
their hands' to think and act during their
2 week mission, less automation is re-
quired.” ;

(Following Gordon Cooper's flight, Walter
C. Williams, associate director for NASA's
Manned Spacecraft Center, told the press that
if a man were not aboard the Faith 7 he
doubted if it could have reentered and been

In Project Gemini, man's requirements
will be basically the same. Thus the func-
tion of the ECS remains unchanged—to pro-
vide two astronauts a safe and comfortable
atmosphere for 2 weeks in space.

The system will provide fresh oxygen, cabin
and suit pressurization, thermal control, wa-
ter management and toxlec gas removal. To
accomplish these functions, the Gemini ECS
can be grouped into the following functions:
the loop, or circuit, for suit cooling and pres-
surization; the cabin loop for cooling and
pressurization; the fresh oxygen supply—
primary secondary, and emergency egress;
the water management loop; the coolant
loop. The egress oxygen supply is part of
the launch abort system, similar to aircraft
type ejection seats. It will be used in Gemini
in lieu of the escape tower system which was
used in Project Mercury.

The learning curve which “lifted off the
pad" with Mercury has dictated some changes
in the Gemini system as compared to Mer-

Nelson lists seven areas in ‘which Mercury
experience has resulted in improvements:

1, Coolant subsystems and thermal regula-

. Pressure regulation.

. Moisture removal.

, Built compressors,

. System geometry and installation.

. Testing,

. Rellability-

In addition, the longer mission profile haa
resulted in new concepts in the following

. Oxygen supplies.

. Heat transfer equipment.

. Power supplies. i
. System servicing, ‘
, Water management.


For oxygen storage, a different source re-
places the high pressure system (7,500
pounds per square inch) used in Mercury.
The new source, a supercritical system, will
serve as the primary source of oxygen. A
high pressure source (5,000 pounds per square
inch) will be secondary. Supercritical stor-
age defles definition in layman's terms. How-
ever, itis oxygen compactely stored in a state
between a gas and a liquid. In orbit the
supercritical storage provides enough oxygen
with ample reserve for two men, for 14 days,
in the Gemini spacecraft—occupying a min-
imum of space and weight. During reentry,
the high pressure source, which also serves
a backup for the supercritical system, will
supply the necessary oxygen, pressurization
and cooling.

In Project Mercury, cooling was totally
dependent on a cabin and suit heat ex-
changer boiling water as the coolant. These
water boilers were ideal for the weight and
short mission of Mercury. In fact, in some
instances, water will continue to be used for
cooling in Gemini. However, the cooling
burden in Project Gemini will fall on six
heat exchangers using a recycling oll-type
coolant instead of water. Heat absorbed
by the coolant will be radiated into space
instead of boiled off as steam as in Mercury.

The constant manual control of the heat
exchangers will also be eliminated, This
operation, similar to adjusting a home air
conditioning system, will be replaced by an
automatic system with manual. override.
This will eliminate excessive temperatures
incurred before the boiling process stabilized
temperatures in the spacecraft—usually be-
fore the end of the first orbit.

Expulsion of the coolant in Mercury was
accomplished in a pressurized tank with a
bladder forcing the water out. The Gemini
system will comprise a closed loop unit in-
cluding four parallel pumps—two in a loop—
for more effective coolant circulation.

During each launch the Mercury lithium
hydroxide canister required special atten-
‘tion, Engineers kept an accurate count on
the time each cannister was used and tested.
This way, launch personnel were assured
sufficient lithium hydroxide was available
for carbon dioxide removal for the entire
length of the mission. In Gemini, lithium
hydroxide will be used again; however, the
amount installed in the re-entry module
will be more than adequate. .

The water separator, which was a pneu-
Matically operated sponge type, will be re-
Placed by a static type separator with no
moving parts. This development is an out-
growth of Garrett's extensive aircraft air
conditioning and pressurization experience.
It eliminates the possibility of high moisture
content (humidity) in the spacecraft, and
with no moving parts, is more reliable.

Suit and- cabin compressors will have
greater capacity (23 and 88 cubic feet per
minute respectively) but will require little
additional power. Conservation of electrical
power has been a design objective through-
out the Gemini program. But it is not an
easy goal.

In Mercury, AlResearch delivered 49 differ-
ent ECS components to McDonnell where
they were assembled. The Gemini system
contains 114. However, as Dick Nelson puts
it, “we are marrying many of the components
here at AlResearch,” so that 84 components
will he integrated into 11 modules. This
marriage, instigated by McDonnell, insures
optimized design and better performance.
The other 30 components will be delivered

The marriage of components into compat-
ible modules enables the subsystem to be
quickly divorced from the spacecraft. Thus,
during the countdown if a malfunction oc-
curs In a module it can be quickly removed
and replaced. In fact the entire Gemini suit
module ECS can be replaced in 40 minutes.
By comparison, in Mereury it required 24


hours to remove the carbon dioxide absorp-
tion canister alone.

What is the status of the Gemini environ-
mental control system? In May, the first
major segment of the Gemini environmental
control system was shipped to McDonnell,
St. Louis for testing. Dick Nelson took per-
sonal charge of the shipment. After tele-
phoning several department heads to insure
proper packaging and shipment, Nelson
swung his 6-foot, 6-inch, 220-pound frame
around and said, “I feel I'm sending my
first child on a trip.” Without a doubt,
every AiResearcher who had nursed the pro-
duction of teh equipment along felt the same

Today, comprehensive manned tests are
being conducted to prove the operational
compatibility of the environmental control
system to the man. These tests are being
conducted in AiResearch, Los Angeles and
soon reliability and qualification tests will
begin in AiResearch’s new lab in Torrance.
This new multimillion-dollar facility is re-
plete with clean rooms and high altitude
chambers (capable of simulating 240,000 feet
altitude). New data acquisition equipment
electronically records more than 300 meas-
urements on each test. This equipment
enables detail-conscious engineers to ana-
lyze test data in hours when previously it
required days, often weeks.

The meticulous task of designing, fabri-
cating and testing the Gemini environmental
control system is a carryover from Project
Mercury. Much of the technology gained
in Project Mercury ECS is directly applicable
to Gemini. As an example, Nelson cites the
Gemini testing program: “We are not trying
to devise new testing procedures,” he said.
“Experience enables us to retain the valid
concepts used in Mercury and add improve-

“The experience we gained in Mercury has
given us confidence in our Gemini work and
in systems for the future," says Nelson.

And what of the future? Our national goal
is to land a man on the moon. Just as ex-
perience gained from Project Mercury is ap-
plied to Gemini, so will Project Gemini data
be applicable to Project Apollo. The Apollo
Spacecraft, with an AiResearch environ-
mental control system aboard, will carry
three men to the moon.

Cost of the Nation's space program rests
heavy on the Federal budget. Today, cost
conscious engineers are optimizing their de-
sign and using their creative ingenuity to
minimize development ‘costs. Certainly, the
carryover experience from Mercury to Gemi-
ni will result in vast savings.

Willard E. Wilks, in his new book ‘The
New Wilderness—What We Enow About
Space" notes that it will require an average
of $7 billion a year to accomplish our na-
tional space goal. “Tt is less than the $7.5
billion Americans spend annually on cigars
and cigarettes,” he wrote.

At first glance the cost of the Nation's
space program seems as high as the apogee
of Gemini itself. However, erudite plan-
ning on the part of the National Aeronau-
tics and Space Administration has kept costs

Already, nine new astronauts are selected
and are gaining from experiences of the ori-
ginal seven. (At a recent Cape Canaveral
press conference, astronaut “Deke” Slayton,
who is coordinator of Astronaut Activity,
quipped to-newsmen that they preferred to
be called the “original” rather than “old”
astronauts.) Of the original astronauts Wai-
ly Schirra was assigned the environmental
control system as his special assignment.
in the new group, John Young, a Navy pilot,
will concentrate on the ECS.

But it took one of the “original” sages
to place the manned space program in proper
perspective. Astronaut John Glenn said,
“But the greatest of all benefits from manned
space flight will undoubtedly come from

August 15

some now-unforeseen discoveries occasioned
by man's ability to assess the new things he
encounters in the unknown.”

For the present little is wnforeseen or un-
Known. The Nation's space program stands
strong, bolstered by legs of experience.

Civil Rights by Bishop Andrew Grutka





Thursday, August 15, 1963

Mr. MADDEN, Mr. Speaker, the fol-
lowing are excerpts from a pastoral letter
by Bishop Andrew G. Grutka of the Gary,
Ind., Catholic diocese. A

Bishop Grutka’s diocese contains the
great Calumet industrial region of Indi-
ana. It is made up of many national-
ities, races, and religions.

This great cosmopolitan region for
over @ quarter of a century has been ac-
tively making a sincere effort to practice
civil rights. Our area is probably more
free from racial agitation than any area
in the Nation. :

Religious leaders like Bishop Grutka,
business leaders, public officials, and all
segments of business have been making
a sincere effort to practice civil rights.

The following is a news item on
Bishop Grutka’s message and also an
editorial from the Gary (Ind.) Post Trib-
une commenting on the message:


A pastoral letter issued today by Bishop
Andrew G. Grutka of the Gary Catholic dio-
cese brands racial prejudice and injustice as
heinous crimes against God and man.

Divided into three parts, the letter follows
the theme of racial Justice and charity, It
explains Christian teaching, areas of concern,
and the roles of the church and the individ-
ual in eliminating racial discrimination, prej-
udice, and segregation.

The bishop wrote that the letter wasn’t
fulfillment of an official duty. ‘It is rather
the expression of a deep and painfully felt
concern for many sorely tried and shamefully
treated members of our community, Negroes
in particular.”

He cited the fact that Negroes are pooling
resources and energies and enduring hard-
ships to get free exercise of human rights and
dignities. He urged “right-thinking persons
and practicing Christians” to lend Negroes a
hand in this effort.

Admitting the message offers no simple or
easy solution for the elimination of prej-
udice, discrimination, or segregation, the
bishop said it hopes for a change in attitude
and that Christians will follow the meaning
of John 13:34: “A new commandment I give
you that you love one another,”

Grutka explains the unity of the human
race by references to the teachings of the
story of creation in the Bible, to statements
by Pope Pius XXII, Fope John XIII and to
action of the bishops of the United States in
1958. The equality of all men, the human
dignity of all men and the honor of all
men are cited In his explanation,

He explains how forelgn immigrants, once
rejected, have been assimilated into our so-
ciety and are not easily recognized as dis-
tinct ethnic groups.

Then, he writes, “The Negro is faced with
similar challenges in housing, employment,

public items show